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anti autism essay Each time you break through the. The Scarlet? barrier of silence and speak to me, I know again the first light of a. Etching? childhood Christmas Day, And I am blessed. so that you can see into my eyes, I know that somewhere in the vary. The Scarlet Ibis Story? essence of you is a child like any other, And I am blessed. your autistic world, I know that you are not like other children and. I know again the darkness of john, Good Friday, Do people realize how lucky they are? Do we as one species realize how vulnerable we are? Do families who's worries revolve around picking Little Joey up from the scarlet full, practice and what they will do for article, family vacation this summer realize that they have been blessed with a normal family? And do families that have an autistic family member realize that they too, have been blessed? I have worked with autistic adults and children for two and a half years and in this time I have pondered the above questions. I realize that I grew up in a family that didn't know how fortunate we were to the scarlet full story, have four happy, healthy children. This realization led me to the topic of what does, this paper: how does having an ibis story, autistic family member affect a family?

In order to understand the serial killers biographies, effects this disability has on a family it is ibis first mandatory to the lord flies represent, understand the characteristics of an the scarlet full story, individual living with autism. This paper will introduce the street fight, history, current theoretical causes and treatments of autism. The Scarlet Full? After doing research to Avoidant Personality Essay, write a concise paper addressing the above topics I realized something was missing; the story, admiration I feel for causes of infidelity, the parents of the scarlet ibis story, autistic children, the emotions behind working and treaty living with autistic children and ibis story the grief of 8 lisbon, realizing these children are autistic. So, also included in this paper are personal statements and the scarlet ibis full story stories of mothers and article treaty fathers of autistic children. Thank you to all of them for sharing their stories, for their stories taught me more than any textbook or journal article could have. The word autism stems from the the scarlet ibis full story, Greek word autos which means self. The Lord Of The Flies Represent? This term was first applied to ibis, schizophrenics by Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist. What Does Of The Flies? Bleuler used this term to address the the scarlet ibis full story, characteristic of of Lorraine Hansberry’s in the Sun Essay, certain schizophrenics who appeared to have their own style of thinking, autistic thinking. Autistic thinking is the the scarlet story, view that the serial killers biographies, universe revolves around oneself and ibis full that the outside world has no effect on the self (Nevid et al., 1994).

It was not until 1943 that another psychiatrist used the word autism. Street? Dr. Ibis? Leo Kanner, a professor at serial killers Johns Hopkins University at the scarlet full the time, applied the word autism to the drum john, a group of children who he observed as having behavioral problems, social problems, communication problems and appeared to be self-absorbed (Edelson, 1995.). It is full story due to does the lord flies, the lack of social interaction that Kanner applied the term autism (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). In the ibis full, fifty three years that autism has been the term of choice for the developmental disorder consisting of avoiding social contact, stereotyped behaviors and of Lorraine Sun Essay slow, or lack of, development of a useful language; much has been discovered. Much more needs to be. The diagnosis of the scarlet ibis story, autism is in the Sun Essay a difficult one to full story, make. Autism, although one of the Essay, largest disabilities to ibis full story, affect children, five in the drum john every ten thousand births, is not constant. It affects individuals in varying ways and in varying degrees. This is something I have noticed a great deal.

I work with some autistic children who can have a complete, logical conversation with me. I have also worked with autistic children who don't seem to know I am three inches from their nose. A diagnosis of autism is story usually made by the child's third birthday but, there are signs from birth that the child is different. Scott? An autistic child is more likely to the scarlet story, resist affection, arching back and not staying still when being held, than is Personality Disorder Essay a child without autism. Autistic children are also usually described as being easy babies to full, take care of.

It is not until the Avoidant, child should be developing language and social skills that parents realize something is different about their child. One-third of autistic children develop normally until age two (Edelson, 1994.). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4th Edition, has changed the the scarlet full story, diagnosis drastically. The DSM-IV is the street fight, first psychologically based text that identifies the varying degrees of the scarlet ibis full, autism. Autism is 8 lisbon treaty now found on ibis Axis I, the axis that deals with pervasive developmental disorders, instead of Axis II, which covers mental retardation and personality disorders. For a diagnosis of what does, autism to be made six symptoms from story, three major areas: social interaction, communication and stereotyped behavior patterns must be present before the age of killers, three. There must be at least two symptoms associated with social interaction and the scarlet one in each of the Summary of Lorraine Hansberry’s, other areas (Edelson,, 1994.). There are a number of the scarlet ibis full, other characteristics associated with autism although they need not be present for a autistic diagnosis.

Features of autism may also include the following: resistance of being touched, ignorance of Personality Essay, heat and cold, no sensation of the scarlet ibis story, pain, fascination with sounds and tastes, giggling or weeping for the drum scott, no apparent reason, absence of emotions or reactions, self-injurious behaviors and self-stimulatory behaviors (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). I observe these associated features of autism on the scarlet ibis full a daily basis. Biographies? An example of an autistic child's ignorance of ibis, heat and killers biographies cold occurred recently when we were at the scarlet story the beach. The water at the beach was very cold to the drum john scott, the touch of my co-workers and ibis full story yet, a young girl who is what the lord flies diagnosed with autism ran straight into the water with no reaction to the coolness of the scarlet story, it. Fight? Another example of these associated features is the numerous children I work with who put everything possible into their mouths and then spit it out or throw it away. Almost all of these children smell the story, object before placing it into Disorder Essay, their mouth. Ibis Story? Self-stimulatory and self-injurious behaviors are the more prevalent of the associated features of john, autism and will be discussed in the scarlet length below. Self-stimulatory behavior is defined as repetitive body movements or repetitive movement of an object. Techniques? Self-stimulatory behaviors can be split into ibis, the five senses.

An individual with a visual self-stimulatory behavior is likely to stare at lights, move fingers in front of his/her eyes and flap his/her hands. I have observed this behavior in the drum scott an adult male living with autism. His hand flapping behavior is full story usually preceding a self-injurious behavior or an act of street documentary, injurious behavior towards another person. The Scarlet Ibis? The fact that his hand flapping precedes such events makes the the drum scott, point that those working with autistic individuals must realize that behaviors vary, for most autistic individuals hand flapping is purely a self-stimulatory behavior and not one that leads to violence. Auditory behaviors include tapping of the ibis full story, ears, snapping fingers and article 8 lisbon treaty making vocal noises (Edelson, 1995.).

I am unclear as to story, why but, the children I work with who are nonverbal are the fight documentary, children more prone to full, make vocal noises. Article Treaty? I have also observed that these noises occur either in a time of excitement or fear. The Scarlet Story? For example, I have three children who have never spoken a word but, each time I take them on the trampoline and jump with them they vocalize high pitched squeals and john others scream. The Scarlet Full Story? I will have to look into Summary in the, the reason for the scarlet ibis full story, this. I do notice that tactile stimulation is highly prevalent. Causes Of Infidelity? Tactile stimulation can include any of the following: rubbing objects with hands, rubbing skin or picking at the skin and scratching (Edelson, 1994.). Scratching is story definitely the the drum john, biggest self-stimulation I have observed.

This behavior is the scarlet ibis a varying one for the drum john, if a child scratches to the point of bleeding, which most do because they like to watch the ibis full, blood come out, it is Essay then considered a self-injurious behavior. The final two areas of self-stimulatory senses are taste, which an example has already been given for, and the scarlet smell, which again has already had an example. There are many theories behind why autistic people perform these behaviors, none of scott, which have been proven through research. One theory states that these behaviors are performed for internal pleasure while another states that the story, behaviors are the only way an what does represent, autistic knows how to the scarlet ibis, calm oneself when overly excited or anxious (Edelson, 1994.). The best way to handle a child that is biographies exhibiting a self-stimulatory behavior is to redirect their attention with a more appropriate form of the scarlet ibis full, stimulation, such as a book or crayons.

As seen in Etching Techniques the above paragraph self-stimulatory behaviors and self-injurious behaviors can overlap. Ibis Full Story? Self-injurious behaviors refer to what does flies represent, those behaviors that an the scarlet ibis full story, individual does to the drum john, him/herself causing a bruise, red mark or open wound. The Scarlet Ibis? The most common forms of such behaviors include head-banging, hand-biting and as noted above scratching to the point of bleeding (Edelson, 1994.). One of the most difficult things for me to Summary of Lorraine A Raisin in the Sun Essay, adjust to at a previous job was the the scarlet ibis story, scars on children's hands from Essay, biting. The Scarlet Full? Due to Hansberry’s A Raisin in the, the lack of response to the scarlet full, pain, autistic individuals will bite their hand out of causes of infidelity, frustration until they calm themselves, regardless of the depth or size of the the scarlet story, bite. Again, theories behind these behaviors range from the drum john scott, that of the scarlet full, internal pleasure to over arousal. Another theory suggests that these behaviors may be the result of sub-clinical seizures, which is an abnormality in EEG patterns (Edelson, 1994.).

The characteristics of autism are universal but, vary from person to the drum john scott, person. Full? Although the characteristics are universal the guidelines for the diagnosis of autism are not universal which is why some countries report higher rates of occurrence whereas other countries, Japan for street fight, example, report lower rates of full, occurrence. Possibly the biggest barrier to joining psychology professionals on Techniques the diagnosis of autism is the cause, or more accurately the lack thereof. The cause of autism remains unknown yet, many theoretical causes exist. Full? Early views on documentary the cause of full, autism focused on the family structure of the of infidelity, child. It was believed that parents of the scarlet story, autistic children must be cold and detached. The term given to such parents, usually the mother, was that of emotional refrigerator or refrigerator mother (Nevid et al., 1994). Of The Represent? There is no evidence to full story, support this theory.

Currently, there are many beliefs as to what may be the Essay Etching, cause of full story, this disability. 8 Lisbon? The general thought in story the psychology field today is Personality that autism may be caused by the scarlet ibis story, a variety of causes, coexisting problems (Edelson, 1995.). There is story some evidence to support the causes of infidelity, claim that autism may be an ibis, effect of Summary of Lorraine Hansberry’s in the, exposure to the scarlet full story, a virus. Scott? The virus at hand is that of the scarlet full story, rubella. Studies have shown that there is an increased risk of Summary Hansberry’s, a child being born with autism if the mother was exposed to rubella during the ibis full, first trimester of documentary, pregnancy.

It has also been proposed that toxins and ibis full story pollution may lead to autism (Edelson, 1995.). This theory has no scientific evidence at article this time. The widest held beliefs about the the scarlet, causes of autism appear to be in the fields of the lord of the represent, genetics and neurology (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Researchers have identified four possible neurological explanations: over the scarlet full story, arousal of the Essay Techniques, reticular system, dysfunction of the limbic system, left hemisphere dysfunction and ibis story perceptual inconstancy associated with brain stem dysfunction (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996). The hypothesis that autism may be due to what does of the flies, over arousal of the reticular system has been set aside due to the results of recent studies that do not allow researchers to claim that there is in the scarlet story fact a relationship between arousal and Avoidant Essay overt behaviors (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). The Scarlet Ibis? A recent theory uses behaviors of animals with hippocampal lesions to street fight, compare with behaviors of the scarlet story, autistic children. The Lord Flies? Animals with lesions possessed the same behavior patterns as children who have autism.

Although this similarity suggests underlying mechanisms, there also appears to ibis story, be behavioral differences which is why this theory is john scott compatible with the the scarlet full story, current knowledge of autism (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). The left hemisphere of the brain deals with language and article 8 lisbon treaty some aspects of the scarlet, cognition. The fact that the areas of language and cognitive thought are affected by Etching, autism has led researchers to story, the theory that the the drum john scott, limbic system of full, those living with autism may have impairments. The only fault with this theory is that because the Avoidant Personality Disorder, onset of autism is at the scarlet ibis a young age the right hemisphere of the brain should compensate for street documentary, what the ibis, left side does not accomplish but, this does not appear to be the case (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Article 8 Lisbon? Finally, the theory that those living with autism have an ibis full story, inability to Avoidant Personality Essay, regulate sensory input, which affects ones view of external reality, is known as perceptual inconstancy. Again, this theory has not been able to ibis full, show the article 8 lisbon treaty, nature of the scarlet ibis, these instabilities (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Although there is no or little evidence for causes of infidelity, the neurological theories concerning the the scarlet ibis full, cause of autism, there is causes some evidence that points to genetic causes. The idea that autism has a genetic basis has been in the scarlet ibis full story existence since 1964 when Dr.

Bernard Rimland discovered that monozygotic twins had a more prevalent showing of Hansberry’s in the Sun Essay, autism than did dizygotic twins. Since 1964 this finding has been confirmed by other researchers. One supporter of the genetics theory is University of the scarlet ibis, California Los Angeles (UCLA). Causes Of Infidelity? In the 1980's UCLA did a study that resulted in the following findings: of eleven families where the father was diagnosed with autism twenty-five children, over the scarlet ibis full story, fifty percent , were also diagnosed with autism (Edelson, 1995.). The general population only has an serial biographies, incidence rate of five autistic children born in story every ten thousand births, thus giving further evidence to the genetics theory. The Drum? The remaining two genetic theories; that of a genetic mutation and a genetic predisposition, I feel can be integrated together. The Scarlet Ibis? The theory of genetic mutation is Personality part of Darwin's theory of evolution, naturally occurring mutations through selection of the scarlet story, partners . Genetic predisposition means simply that there may be a susceptibility to causes, autism in some people (Edelson, 1995.). In combining these two theories it is ibis story my belief that if genetic mutation is due to does the lord, the selection of ibis story, a partner and then a child is produced who has been diagnosed autistic, that there must have been a genetic predisposition to autism for of Lorraine A Raisin in the, the child due to the genes of the parents. Therefore the predisposition is ibis story not in of infidelity the child's genes rather, it is the combining of the parents genes.

An example of this would be the fact that exposure to ibis full, rubella while pregnant may cause autism in fight some children but, all mothers exposed to rubella do not produce children with autism. There must be a missing link as to why some children do, and ibis full some don't, have autism; the article 8 lisbon, genes of the the scarlet ibis, parents and their predisposition to autistic characteristics. Although this is just my theory, it has been shown that there is scott evidence of genetics playing a part in the scarlet ibis the cause of autism. Article 8 Lisbon Treaty? I look forward to the scarlet, the day, if there is one, when the the drum scott, true cause of autism is discovered. Although there is the scarlet no known cause for autism there are numerous treatments that have been shown to of infidelity, help autistic people.

Again, there are varying degrees of story, autism therefore the treatment given to an individual may work for 8 lisbon, him/her but, may not work for the scarlet full story, another. Summary Hansberry’s A Raisin In The Sun Essay? Treatments for autism range from medical findings to parents of autistic children developing their own treatments. Some therapies are: Anti-Yeast Therapy, Dimethylglycine (food substance) Supplements, The Son- Rise Program and Higashi (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Whereas the ibis full story, Anti-Yeast and of Lorraine the Dimethylglycine therapies focus on medical findings and/or vitamins to the scarlet story, help modify the what does flies, behaviors of an autistic individual, the the scarlet ibis full story, Son-Rise Program and Higashi, which means Daily Life Therapy in Japanese, focuses on the roles that the people around an Summary A Raisin in the, autistic person have in the scarlet full modifying behaviors (,A HREF=http://www.rmplc.co.uk/eduweb/sites/autism/autism5.htmlSociety For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). The therapies that are most interesting to me include Mega-Vitamin Theory and Facilitated Communication. Dr. Bernard Rimland researched the street, claims from the scarlet ibis, parents that certain vitamins and foods affected their autistic child's behaviors (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.

Treatments). It was concluded that Vitamin B6 is an effective treatment for forty-five percent of Summary of Lorraine A Raisin Sun Essay, autistic people. The taking of ibis full story, vitamin B6 helps to street fight, improve: speech, sleeping patterns, lessened irritability, attention span and decrease self-stimulatory behaviors (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). This treatment once started takes sixty to ninety days for an observed affect to the scarlet full, be seen. Essay Etching? I know some children who are currently on this from of treatment. I have only story, experienced the full treatment with one child and there has been a noticeable difference in self-stimulatory behaviors and Summary of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin mostly with attention span. This child will now look me in the scarlet ibis full the eye, which in the drum itself is rare for story, autistic children, and listen to what I am saying.

I know that the child is listening because the Summary, actions taken are what I have instructed him to do. I can see why this theory would be a blessing to parents. The type of therapy that I most intrigued by the scarlet ibis full story, is Facilitated Communication. I first heard of this therapy in 1992. Facilitated Communication is a method of helping an serial killers biographies, autistic individual express him/herself by giving physical support to the scarlet ibis full, an arm or fingers, enabling the Avoidant Personality Essay, individual to use a typewriter, picture board or alphabet board. The Scarlet Story? This form of therapy is very controversial because of the causes of infidelity, fact that there is ibis full story a facilitator and that the Essay Etching Techniques, autistic individual does not do this on ibis full story his/her own. When using this form of therapy it has often been typed by the autistic individual that he/she is not retarded or stupid but intelligent (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Through my own research of this treatment method, I have also come across stories where the causes, autistic individual has expressed anger because he/she understands everything happening in daily life yet, can not express thoughts or feelings. There have also been stories of autistic children hiding under their covers at full story night with flashlights reading books and 8 lisbon then typing the book word for word when using facilitated communication. Ibis? This amazes me!

What if these children are just trapped inside themselves but, are cognitively and Essay Techniques emotionally the same as you and the scarlet story I? Although this treatment has not yet withstood the of infidelity, rigors of scientific investigation I do not see the the scarlet, harm in allowing it to be practiced. Article? If it does in fact prove to be a scientifically sound treatment then the full, world of autistic individuals and causes their families will forever be changed. It is the scarlet ibis full story clear that although autism has been a known disability for serial, fifty years it remains a mystery. With so many varying characteristics, no sound cause and no treatment that is universal, there is much more that needs to be learned. Working with autistic children has shown me that there are in fact many different types of autism. Also, working with these children has made me wonder many things: Am I going to the scarlet ibis full, be the mother of a child with a disability, is that why I have ended up in this type of article 8 lisbon treaty, work?

How do the parents deal with having an ibis full story, autistic child? Why, do some parents appear so relaxed and serial biographies comfortable with what life has handed them while others are clearly depressed? How does having an autistic sibling affect brothers and sisters? Wanting answers for these questions I turned to those who could answer them, parents of the scarlet full story, autistic children. Donna Reagan, the of infidelity, mother of an story, autistic child, touched me with her story. David, her son, is street documentary now twenty years old. When asked how she felt finding out the scarlet ibis full her child was autistic Donna responded, Basically, when I found out that my son was autistic, I was hopeful.

Since then I have moved pretty much into Avoidant Personality Essay, heartbreak and despair. I imagine the full story, next step will be acceptance. John? It seems to me that this is ibis full like the article treaty, grieving process and we move from the scarlet full story, one step to another, it just takes longer when the object of your grief is living. Avoidant Personality Essay? Donna has experienced other effects of full story, having an autistic child. David was diagnosed at age four and a half as being severely mentally retarded but, Donna knew this was not the case because of her own experience with this population.

Donna was labeled as being in Summary in the Sun Essay denial. This is an example of the scarlet ibis story, how much more needs to be learned about the Techniques, characteristics of autism and as previously discussed the DSM-IV has taken the the scarlet full story, first step in represent clarifying the varying degrees of the the scarlet story, disability. Donna's husband, a minister, was in what does the lord denial, believing that God would heal their son and full story make him a minister. Her husband had found an old encyclopedia that claimed the cause for autism was refrigerator mothers, as discussed earlier (Reagan, 1996). Etching? This lead to the physical, emotional and mental abuse of Donna. The Scarlet? And the physical abuse of the lord flies, David at the hands of his father. Full? Donna moved her family away from the of infidelity, man that was once her husband.

It is not uncommon for parents of an ibis full, autistic child to divorce, most do with-in the first five years of the child's life. Article? Atop of what was going on with her marriage and the scarlet ibis own life , Donna still had to Essay Techniques, care for the scarlet ibis full, a hyper autistic child. She tells of Disorder Essay, times she found David ready to jump from a bridge into a creek, on ibis the window ledge on their third story apartment and she says there are many other stories she could tell. 8 Lisbon Treaty? David's safety was her biggest concern, with reason. David was eventually placed into a special care facility, Placing him was the most heart-wrenching decision I have ever made. Ibis Story? David has been in placement care for ten years now. His father has seen him once. In two years he will again move to Avoidant Personality, other placement. Donna's biggest worry, who will care for David when she is story gone?

More and more I understand why people with special children pray that they will out live their children. Serial Killers? I have begun to pray that prayer as well. Donna's story was the first I received and it made me eager to the scarlet story, receive more. Disorder? I then received an email from Suzanne, the ibis story, mother of a seven year old autistic girl. Before I tell Suzanne's story I would like to point out the lord of the a common theme I have found among parents of autistic children, those who's children are young appear to ibis story, be hopeful and of infidelity optimistic whereas those who's children are older seem to ibis story, realize that autism is fight a lifelong disability with many hardships. The most common theme I have found though is the scarlet story this; what will happen when I, the parent, am gone. Summary A Raisin? Every parent I spoke with, those that I contacted through email and ibis full those I see each day at does of the represent work with their children, expressed concern about the scarlet ibis story their child's life once they had passed on. Suzanne expresses this very well, as you will see. Suzanne says that the diagnosis of her daughter was not a surprise, because the serial biographies, word had been thrown around so much in full all of the of infidelity, tests that were being done but, she does say that, It is the scarlet ibis story certainly a life sentence. What Does Of The Represent? Suzanne expresses the feeling of the scarlet story, loss that can be felt by parents upon hearing the Personality, diagnosis.

No longer are there hopes for the child to accomplish all that the parents could not accomplish; no medical school, no academic scholar. Due to the scarlet full story, the stress of raising an causes of infidelity, autistic child Suzanne and the scarlet ibis story her husband sought counseling for scott, six months and the scarlet ibis full story have now learned to of the, work through all of the the scarlet full story, emotions and of infidelity responsibilities of having a special child together. Suzanne sounds tired and the scarlet ibis still in a stage of sorrow due to her daughter's diagnosis. Personality Disorder? She explains how the family doesn't go out much, It is the scarlet ibis story very tiring to article, have this kind of ibis, kid. Causes? Her and her husband assume that their daughter will live with them until they are gone and yet, she speaks of the hope that maybe her daughter will be able to buy her own groceries, pay taxes and the scarlet ibis get a job she will enjoy. Essay Etching Techniques? There are plans to the scarlet full story, set up a trust for their daughter to ensure that when they, Suzanne and of infidelity her husband, pass on story she will be taken care of. Street Fight? Suzanne ends by saying, We haven't given up on story her yet but, we are also realistic about treaty what may happen. I would like to point out a couple that I know through work. The Scarlet Ibis Full? Their daughter is Avoidant nine years old and I have taken a liking to the scarlet ibis full story, her. She amazes me each day and Summary of Lorraine A Raisin in the Sun Essay I look forward to what she will teach me next.

There are times when I wonder what she would be like if she were not autistic but, then I realize she wouldn't be the same little girl I have grown so close to. I admire her parents greatly for story, their outlook on her disability. They both appear well adjusted and they treat her just as they do their other children. The mother even says that she is easier to care for than her children without disabilities. What Of The? She, like Suzanne, says that she would like to see her daughter do things on her own when she grows up but, she has no need to the scarlet story, rush that time. As the what of the, mother of an autistic child, she says her daughter is ibis full her best friend, they do everything together.

I know, from working with her daughter that she is not of the highest functioning autistic children but, she is not the serial killers, lowest either. The Scarlet Ibis Full Story? Her daughter understands when spoken to and will say things that are appropriate to the surroundings. Summary Hansberry’s In The Sun Essay? I can not express how wonderful it is to work with this child. And I hope that if I do have a child with a disability that I will have the same outlook as her parents do. Most of the research that has been done concerning autistic families is story how siblings are affected. Serial? In a study done by Royers and Mycke in 1995, it was found that siblings of the scarlet ibis story, autistic children had a fair understanding of the disability and Avoidant this finding was independent of ibis full story, age. What? Also found was the fact that children who have an the scarlet story, autistic sibling rate their relationship with their brother/sister better than two siblings of which neither has a disability. From what I have seen at work, the the drum john scott, siblings of the autistic children take responsibility for their brother/sister and at the same time do not truly understand why their brother/sister can't do such things for him/herself.

I believe that there is ibis full a very unique bond between autistic children and street fight their siblings. Autism is a lifelong, developmental disability. Full? The characteristics of the the drum john, disability; little or lack of speech development, avoiding social contact or awareness and full story routines of john, behaviors are not experienced in ibis the same degree for article 8 lisbon treaty, everyone living with autism. The lack of the scarlet full, a single identified cause for article, autism leaves much to be discovered in the scarlet ibis full the field. Theoretical causes, such as neurological and genetic, may prove to be a link to the drum, the true cause of the ibis, disability. It has been shown that those living with autism may be helped, not cured, with available treatments. Avoidant Personality Disorder Essay? Such treatments include a high dosage of Vitamin B6 in the diet and the Son-Rise Program. A controversial treatment, Facilitated Communication, may allow autistic individuals a chance to communicate with the the scarlet ibis full, rest of the what does the lord of the represent, world without becoming frustrated at the inability to the scarlet ibis, communicate. 8 Lisbon Treaty? Parents of ibis story, autistic children deserve all the causes, support and the scarlet story help they can handle.

By hearing Donna and of Lorraine A Raisin Sun Essay Suzanne's stories I have learned more about autism and the range of emotions that are felt by parents than any textbook could of story, taught. Donna's story of basically having to street fight documentary, start a new life due to having an autistic child and all the the scarlet ibis full, hardships she has gone through in trying to do the best for David. And Suzanne's hopefulness and clear feeling of loss due to having a young autistic child. Essay Etching Techniques? I am thankful for all of the the scarlet ibis full, children that I work with and Avoidant Personality I treasure each day I spend with them and story all they teach me. I hope that their siblings realize how special their autistic brother/sister is.

Doing this paper and john the research involved in it I have come to ibis full story, realize that I am blessed for having known each and every one of the autistic individuals I work with, for they may live in a world all their own but, every so often they let you in and that, that is a blessing.

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If you wish to the scarlet ibis story, request the street documentary removal of your testimonial, you may contact us at [emailprotected] NOTIFICATION OF CHANGES. essay-company.com reserves the right to change these Terms and the scarlet full story Conditions at Etching Techniques, any time and your continued use of the Website will signify your acceptance of any adjustment, improvements and/or alterations to these Terms and Conditions. You are, therefore, advised to re-read these Terms and the scarlet Conditions on a regular basis. This web site is owned and does of the flies represent operated by Viatta Business Ltd. HEXO+ Self-Flying Camera Drone, with a suggested retail price of $1,249.00 USD (Main prize). FreePage (single use) SMS inform (single use) Plagiarism Report (single use) 50$ to your bonus balance which you can use in full story 365 days 100$ to your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days. 2. Promotional Period. The promotion begins on Etching Techniques 7.18.2017, at 9:00 am and ends on ibis story 7.28.2017 at 10:00 pm. Latex Template For A Research Paper. latex template for Essay a research paper.

This Privacy Policy (Policy) describes how information about You is the scarlet full, collected, used and Essay disclosed and ibis full story provides other important privacy information, describes when and how we may change this Policy, and tells You how to contact us with any questions or comments. We collect information about killers biographies, You and the scarlet ibis full story computer(s) You use when You use our Services or otherwise interact with us. Personal Information means information that we directly associate with a specific person or entity (for example: name; addresses; telephone numbers; email address; payment information; device location etc.). Client, User, You and john scott Your refers to you, the person accessing this Website and accepting these Privacy Policy. Any use of the above terminology or other words in the scarlet the singular, plural, capitalization and/or he/she or they, are taken as interchangeable and therefore as referring to same. HOW INFORMATION ABOUT YOU IS COLLECTED.

We collect information about You in Personality three primary ways: Information You Provide. We collect information that You provide to us when You apply for and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us. For example, some of the ways You may provide information to us include: When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information. When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for the scarlet story future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for what does flies represent Services, we may also collect Personal Information and ibis full story other information.

We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of our Services. Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is automatically gathered. In general, this information does not identify You personally. Examples of automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available). For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include: Cookies and similar technologies. A cookie is a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in street fight order, for example, to collect information about Your activities on the Website. Ibis Full Story? The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it. We need to use cookies on the Website to enhance the user experience and avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests.

We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on what the lord flies represent your computer or device) or similar technologies to the scarlet full story, identify Your computer or device and the drum record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and features of our Website are popular, and improve our Website and Your experience. Depending upon Your computer, You may be able to set Your browser(s) to reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of some functionality on the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to the scarlet, monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and killers biographies time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on our Website, and ibis story other analytical information associated with the Website.

Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from flies other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from third-party sources before initiating Your service. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Your transactions and interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance;

To identify and story suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about serial killers biographies, current and future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and property and that of our customers, service providers and ibis full other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to serial killers biographies, contact You about ibis story, our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of interest. We may contact You by john telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. The Scarlet Full Story? This information is used by advertisers to Avoidant Personality, determine which ads may be more relevant to You.

However, we do not share Personal Information outside of the scarlet full story our corporate family for Essay Etching Techniques advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. Full? We may, however, disclose Your information to serial biographies, unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through click-through agreements; when You accept the ibis terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to street fight, third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on the scarlet story our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing).

In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of killers a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about the scarlet ibis, You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of Essay such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in the scarlet ibis order to obtain payment for Personality Disorder our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of the scarlet ibis full others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of Etching physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to the scarlet ibis full, be completely secure.

As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to what flies represent, the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes.

This web site is owned and the scarlet ibis full operated by Avoidant Personality Disorder Essay Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. Full Story? A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on Techniques the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referrals total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to full story, purchase a service.

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So there are situations where its important to know what someone means when they say copywriter. Online, the rise of content marketing and native advertising has blurred the line between copywriters and journalists. The Scarlet Story! In general, journalists write editorial content and are paid by Essay Etching, publishers (even if the content they produce is ibis full about a brand), whereas copywriters write marketing copy about a brand and are paid by the brand#8217;s owner. Native advertising muddies the waters by incorporating paid-for mentions of a brand into editorial content (in effect, journalists acting as copywriters), or presenting paid-for coverage as editorial (copywriters acting as journalists). Why become a freelance copywriter?

If youre reading this, you probably already know a few good reasons, but there may be others you havent thought of. Accessibility . The barriers to fight documentary, entry in copywriting are practically non-existent. You dont need qualifications, specialised equipment or even any software apart from Word . A phone and a computer and you#8217;re good to go. Ibis Story! Flexibility . Even as a free agent, you still have to do what clients say and get the money in. But the freelance life does offer a lot of scope for flexible working, allowing you to balance work, leisure and family the street, way you want. You can work in a coffee shop or your garden, or even become a digital nomad. Finances permitting, you don#8217;t have to take any job you really dont want, and if youve hit your target for the month, you can take off for the beach. Range . The Scarlet Ibis Full! You can work with clients of any size, in does the lord flies, any industry, anywhere in the world, dealing with them via email and Skype. That means you can put your writing skills at the service of non-native speakers who need quality text in the scarlet ibis full, English, which is a huge market. Impact . The copy you write can make a big difference to marketing campaigns and, for smaller clients particularly, may even affect the fate of an entire company. If you help a client nail an idea or message theyve been really struggling with, like a product name or a tagline, theyll be eternally grateful.

Variety . A freelance copywriting career can include a huge range of john, clients, projects and styles. You might be writing about oven chips for a multinational in the morning, deep-sea diving lessons for the scarlet ibis, a sole trader in the afternoon. Youll talk to fight, entrepreneurs, managers and marketers at all levels, each with their own unique communication problem to solve. While some jobs will inevitably interest you more than others, the overall variety means life as a freelance copywriter is never dull. And theres always more to the scarlet ibis story, learn. Creativity . Does The Lord Flies Represent! No matter what the job, the client or the brief, theres always a way to add interest, life and colour through your writing. Finding new and memorable ways to express ideas never gets old, and is one of the the scarlet ibis, most rewarding things about the Personality, freelance copywriters life. What do freelance copywriters work on? They write whatever needs writing! For example, you might be asked to write advertisements (print and broadcast), brochures, leaflets, press releases, product manuals, product packaging, online product descriptions, websites, articles, social-media content, sales letters, emails, telephone scripts, video scripts, interviews, FAQs, how-to guides and more.

There are also some specific skills or disciplines within copywriting. Creating ad concepts means coming up with interesting, memorable ideas for ad campaigns. The Scarlet Ibis Story! The concept may include images, video or design as well as the words themselves. For some ads there may be no words at Summary of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun Essay all, just an ibis full story, idea. Many ad copywriters link up with a designer or art director in a two-person creative team, using their complementary visual and verbal skills to develop ideas in partnership. Business-to-consumer (B2C) copywriting is work on materials aimed at general consumers (as opposed to killers biographies, businesspeople). You need to the scarlet ibis full, be able to get inside peoples heads and understand what makes them tick, so you can make products and Essay Etching Techniques, services sound interesting, attractive and relevant to their lives. You also need to write in different tones of voice for different brands for example, an ad for a chocolate bar sounds different from an ad for a car. Ibis Full Story! (See How to serial killers, define your brands tone of voice.) Business-to-business (B2B) copywriting helps a business sell to other businesses. You need to be able to explain product and service features clearly and full, effectively, and street documentary, communicate the benefits they offer. The Scarlet Ibis! But business buyers are still people, so you also need to convey the personality of the does the lord of the flies, business and ibis full story, make an emotional connection with the biographies, reader. Online copywriting means writing for the scarlet ibis, websites and other digital channels.

It can include companies own corporate websites, as well as articles, white papers and anything produced under the banner of content marketing. You need to be able to hold readers interest in a medium that encourages skim-reading and rapid navigation. You also need to be able to structure content so its easy for visitors to use a site (user experience, or UX) and encourage them to Etching Techniques, take a particular action, such as buying a product (conversion optimisation). Social-media copywriting means creating content for publication at social channels such as Twitter and Facebook. Social content needs to be attention-grabbing, memorable, sharable and the scarlet story, often very short. It often needs to use humour to increase its appeal without causing offence. And it needs to biographies, promote brands or products in a way that people wont find boring, irritating or just risible. SEO copywriting is a specific form of ibis full story, online copywriting aimed at Disorder maximising the visibility of web pages at the scarlet search engines. You need to killers biographies, understand how web pages are coded and ibis full, how search engines analyse their content. Since this changes all the the drum, time, principally as Google updates its algorithm, specialising as an SEO copywriter means staying up to speed with the latest trends.

Some knowledge of SEO is really a requirement for any sort of full, online writing, but you can partner with an SEO consultant or agency to tap into deeper knowledge. Represent! (See SEO in 5 minutes for an intro to SEO, and full, In defence of SEO copywriting for more on why the writers skills are important.) Content marketing is a catch-all term for material that brands produce to inform, guide or entertain customers without directly selling to them. Summary Of Lorraine! The idea is that people read the content, find it valuable and form a positive opinion of the brand that provided it. You need skills in the scarlet story, researching and what does the lord, organising information, making it relevant to readers and gently orienting it towards a brand or product without overt selling. Since content often needs to be found online, and can help to attract visitors to a site, content marketing is the scarlet ibis full story closely linked with SEO. Does The Lord Represent! Technical writing is any type of ibis, writing that requires knowledge of a particular area of Avoidant Personality, science or technology. For example, a technical writer might work on the scarlet story, instruction manuals for custom-built enterprise software. Since gaining technical knowledge takes time, technical writers may specialise in particular areas, and can sometimes charge a premium because their expertise is relatively rare. Technical writers need the the drum john, ability to explain complex subjects clearly and concisely, and structure content for the scarlet ibis full story, readability and street fight, navigability.

Academic writing is similar to technical writing, and is simply working on text that relates to a specialised academic subject, whether in full, the humanities (literature, art history) or the sciences (physics, mathematics). If you have enough knowledge of a particular topic, and the ability to explain its finer points in serial killers biographies, writing, you could turn it into a copywriting specialisation. You could help academics prepare or edit journal articles, or worth with research organisations, journals, book publishers or anyone else who needs well-written academic content. This list is not exhaustive. Ibis! Some copywriters focus on one or more of Avoidant Personality Essay, these areas, and others are generalists who will turn their hand to anything. Some present as generalists, but still point to one or two specialisations. What work you go for depends on your own skills and temperament. People come to copywriting from many different backgrounds (see Tinker, tailor, soldier, copywriter) and knowledge gained in a previous job may suggest a specialisation.

For example, I started out in non-fiction publishing, which made me naturally suited to longform work and B2B clients; broadcast ads for B2C are further from my comfort zone. Or you may find that a specialisation emerges naturally over time from the type of work you get given, particularly if people refer you to their friends or colleagues within a particular sector. Whether you focus on one skill or one type of ibis story, client, remember that marketing yourself as a specialist can be a high-risk, high-return approach. Essay! It makes you more appealing to a certain group of ibis, clients, but completely irrelevant to others. However, if you can make it work, you could well be able to john, charge a premium for ibis, your service. Who can be a freelance copywriter? The short answer is serial killers biographies anyone. The copywriting industry is unregulated, and you dont need any qualifications or certification to work in it. If you call yourself a copywriter, and clients pay you for copywriting, youre a copywriter. However, if you want to succeed as a freelance copywriter, youll need the the scarlet ibis full story, following.

Proven writing ability. Its good to believe in yourself, but if you want to make a living from copywriting, you need other people to agree that youre a good writer. If your writing has been commercially published, widely circulated at what does the lord represent work or just praised by story, someone independent, you may have marketable copywriting skills, or the potential to develop them. Business skills. Essay! Freelance copywriting isnt just writing. Youll need to market and promote yourself, manage your money and set the full story, direction of your freelance business (see Strategy for freelances). This is a big change if youre used to a salaried position, where other people manage your work and your income is stable and predictable. Admin skills.

Youll need to Disorder Essay, manage your workload, projects and full, timescales, keep financial records and stay on john scott, top of correspondence. Again, if you#8217;re used to other people scheduling or prioritising your work, or helping you with admin, this can take some getting used to. (Ive created a simple spreadsheet that you can use to track projects.) Personal qualities. Freelance copywriting is a fantastic job, but it can be lonely and tough at the scarlet ibis full times. Youll need the strength to keep going through missing out on jobs you wanted, receiving negative feedback and clients who pay late or even never (see On not being paid). Youll need self-discipline and self-reliance to the drum scott, meet clients expectations, plus self-confidence to win business, believe in your ability and the scarlet ibis story, charge what youre worth (see How to build freelance confidence).

And youll probably need to like, or at least tolerate, independent solo working (see The joy of working alone.) Not really. Although copywriting courses are available, theres no official qualification that allows you to become a copywriter. If youre going to be writing longform copy, English-language skills are obviously valuable, which you might have gained from an academic course such as an English A-level or degree, or equivalent. But you might just as easily have honed your writing skills in an office job where communication was important anything from customer services or purchasing to marketing or PR. If you decide to serial, take a course, bear in mind that its experience, rather than paper qualifications, that will impress clients most. So evaluate potential courses in terms of the actual skills youll gain, rather than impressive-sounding additions to the scarlet full, your cv.

Do I need to form a limited company? No, you can easily operate as a sole trader. To do this, you simply keep records of everything you spend and fight documentary, earn, and complete a self-assessment tax return showing self-employed income at the end of the tax year (5 April). However, being a sole trader does limit your options in some ways. Ibis Story! As a business, you can offset capital expenditure (equipment you buy for your business, such as computers) against earnings, which usually helps with your tax bill. It can also be helpful, psychologically, to separate you from your business, so you can make decisions in a more rational, detached way.

You can register for Etching, VAT as either a sole trader or a business, and you must do so if your turnover (total sales) is more than ?81,000 in a year (2014 data). Registering for the scarlet ibis, VAT means you can claim back the Summary in the Sun Essay, VAT youve paid on full, purchases which can be significant if you rent an office, or buy a lot of computer equipment. Basically, if the VAT youre likely to reclaim comes to more than the cost of serial, paying an accountant to the scarlet full, sort out the drum john scott, your VAT, its probably worth registering (regardless of your turnover). The Scarlet Full Story! How can I gain freelance copywriting experience? The first few months as a freelance copywriter can feel like a Catch-22: you can#8217;t get work until you have experience, but you can#8217;t build up experience unless people give you some work.

However, there are ways to Etching, build up a portfolio without landing a ton of full, clients on Avoidant Personality Disorder Essay, day one. You can do unpaid work for friends, family or good causes such as charities. This is a great way to build up a portfolio without the hassles that go with gaining paid work. Youll need to story, prevent feature creep and also make sure the client values your work and is committed to working constructively with you, even though theyre not paying. You can do spec work , which means writing things that havent actually been commissioned (very often ad concepts). If you feature this sort of work in your portfolio, make it absolutely clear it was done on spec, or people will assume you really did work for the brand. (You can enter spec work for the Chip Shop Awards.) You can write a blog or get articles published online to showcase your writing skills. This isnt the killers biographies, same as taking on a commercial project, but it still shows people you can write. Story! Blogging about copywriting itself can be a good way to sharpen your thinking and demonstrate your insight to Summary of Lorraine A Raisin, clients (see Seven reasons copywriters should blog). You can take assignments through find a freelancer sites like Elance or content mills like Copify. The rate will probably be very low, making this a good way to build up a portfolio but not so good for the scarlet ibis story, long-term earnings potential.

Having said that, some copywriters do use these platforms to top up during quiet months. (For my personal views on Summary, content mills and the service they offer to clients, see What copywriting clients won#8217;t get from content mills and The real price of full story, cheap content.) How can I find freelance copywriting work? Many copywriters find that having a website provides a good basis for promoting themselves. A site can include information on your services, writing samples, client testimonials and the drum scott, anything else relevant to potential clients. Creating your own website can be expensive, particularly when youre just starting out. The Professional Copywriters Network offers a Pro membership package for ?48pa inc VAT that lets you create a comprehensive online profile and a portfolio with up to 12 samples of your copywriting work. (Disclosure: I am a co-founder of PCN.) Youll probably want to the scarlet ibis full, create profiles at social sites like Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn. Avoidant! These serve a triple purpose: promoting yourself to clients, showcasing your writing skills and full story, networking with other writers. Some freelance copywriters separate their work and what does of the flies, home profiles, but many (including me) dont bother. If you want a mix of informal work-related chat, support and messing about, one account makes sense. If youre used to having colleagues, or just find it difficult to work on story, your own, interaction on social media can be a lifeline.

There are may ways to promote yourself offline too. Etching Techniques! Attending networking events can be a useful way to make contacts just dont expect to come home with a ton of work. The Scarlet Ibis Full! However, even though there may be more sellers than buyers at the event, that doesnt mean you wont meet some interesting people. Think very carefully before joining a paid-for referral scheme such as BNI in my experience, theyre very effective for tradespeople and professionals that everybody needs at some point, such as plumbers and solicitors, but much less so for B2B specialists like copywriters. You may be the go-to copywriter for a large networking group, but they still might not actually be going to you all that often. Dont underestimate the the drum john, power of your existing network. Put the full story, word out among colleagues, friends and family that youre looking for freelance copywriting work. You never know who might be looking for a writer, and Etching, one job is all it takes to start getting word-of-mouth referrals. Story! Cold-calling is something that few copywriters I know have the the drum john, natural temperament for, although most have tried it at story some stage. The problem is that when people need a copywriter, they really need one but when they dont, they really dont.

A better approach might be to craft a really strong sales letter or piece of creative work and send it to potential clients. That way, even if they dont need a copywriter now, they may hang on to your letter and remember you when they do. An alliance with a local marketing, digital or PR agency might be fruitful. Summary Of Lorraine Hansberry’s In The Sun Essay! Agencies often turn to freelances for story, help with writing. The upside is that you dont have to documentary, deal directly with the client, which can save you time and make jobs run more smoothly. Full! The downside is Avoidant Personality Disorder Essay that you dont own the link with the client, and may even be forbidden to contact them directly. As a freelancer, relationships are your most valuable assets.

How does freelance copywriting work, day to day? Clients usually get in touch via email or phone. They will probably want to know what you charge, particularly if theyve never worked with a freelance copywriter before. A ballpark price will either put them at their ease, or show them they cant afford you in my view, either outcome is the scarlet ibis full story better than stringing them along and john, leaving it as late as possible to give a price, although some salespeople do recommend that approach. (See the next section for more on the scarlet ibis full, pricing.) Prospects may also want to discuss their project with you, which is Avoidant Essay fine up to a point, but has the potential to full story, eat up an killers biographies, unlimited amount of your time for no return. The trick is to display the depth of your knowledge without providing too much solid guidance that the client can take away and use for free. Try to talk about whats involved in the project, or whats important to the scarlet story, get right, without saying what you would actually do. If need be, dont be afraid to street fight documentary, say that any further questions would be answered once the project is confirmed politely implying show me the money. Some clients may want to meet up before they commit to using you. Whether you agree depends on your location and how much time you can spare.

Remember that all conversations and meetings have to be paid for, either as a project cost (clients pay per job) or as an the scarlet full, overhead (cost shared between all your clients/projects). Charging for longer meetings shows your time is valuable, but if you really want the job, you may be happy to invest a few hours. If youre working through an agency, its important to clarify who will be paying your invoice them, or the end client. If the client uses purchase orders, thats great, but an email explicitly confirming the scope and price is still legally binding. Some freelance copywriters ask their clients to sign an actual contract or letter of agreement that defines the scope, working process, price, payment terms, transfer of of Lorraine Hansberry’s in the, copyright (see Copyright for copywriters) and so on. Its good practice, but it can be a bit onerous for smaller jobs. Ibis Full Story! An alternative approach is to create a standard set of terms and conditions you can publish them at the drum john your website, or attach them to your estimates and make it clear that the full story, client is agreeing to them by commissioning you. One way or another, you need to the drum, get source information from the client to inform your writing. This could be notes they write specially, existing marketing materials or anything else. Interviewing the client by phone can be very productive, and the scarlet, if you use this method which I do all the time you may find that recording calls is an of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun Essay, invaluable way to capture all the the scarlet, information.

Theres an app for Skype called Call Recorder (Mac), or if you#8217;re on a landline you can buy a device to record your calls, with the other persons persmission (see Recording phone conversations makes for better copywriting). Once the client is happy with the terms, you can start writing. Most copywriters simply work in Microsoft Word , and street, send the client the file for approval via email. For ad concepts, you may find it easier to hand-draw scamps (rough sketches) and scan/cameraphone them, while for online work, creating tables in Word is one way to approximate the layout of a web page. Personally, I find it helpful to explain certain decisions with comments in the document itself. This can help to manage expectations and forestall likely questions, helping the client to stay focused on the bigger picture instead of getting caught up in details. The Scarlet Ibis Story! Copywriting drafts are most often submitted by Avoidant Personality Essay, email.

Sometimes, the job sails through with no amends at all, but more often youll need to the scarlet ibis full story, revise your work before its approved. Aim to agree up front how many rounds of changes are included in Essay Etching, your price (two is usually enough) if things drag on beyond that, at least you have the right to renegotiate, even if you opt not to use it. Once the client has accepted your final draft, you can submit your invoice, either by ibis full, email (as a PDF, probably) or by post. Make sure you ask who to address it to, to serial killers biographies, avoid problems later. And remember to chase it up once its overdue its a horrible job, but invoices very often get missed somehow, so its one you cant afford to skip. Also, if there are any circumstances that might jeopardise your payment, you need to find out about them as soon as you can. The Scarlet Full Story! Freelance copywriting fees depend on your skills and experience and Personality Disorder Essay, the demands of the project. In general, the more experience you have, and the more prestigious the brands youve worked for, the more you can charge. As Ive said, you may also be able to charge more for a specialist service. Story! Factors that might affect the price of Summary of Lorraine Hansberry’s, a project include: How long the work will take How quickly the client wants the text delivered The number of revisions required The quantity and/or nature of feedback (for example, review comments from lots of different people) The value of the content to the clients business The importance or prominence of the story, content, which affects the level of quality required and therefore how much time needs to be put into editing and what does flies represent, rewriting The technical complexity of the subject The sensitivity of the content (for example, editing an internal document on proposed redundancies).

Some freelance copywriters offer discounts for smaller businesses or sole traders, or work at ibis full a discount (or pro bono) for Avoidant Essay, charities they want to full story, help out. Its generally better to charge a flat fee per job rather than an hourly or daily rate. It keeps things clear and simple, and stops you getting drawn into Avoidant Disorder an awkward discussion of how long a job should take. However, you may still want to set a daily rate, for three reasons: You can still use it as a rule of thumb for calculating prices, even if you then present the price to the client as a flat fee. It can help clients make a quick comparison between copywriters, and get a rough idea of how much experience they will get for ibis, their money. You can use it to quote for taxi cab tasks, where youre selling your time rather than delivering something tangible. For example, to attend a meeting at a remote location, you might charge for the time spent at the meeting plus travel time, plus travel expenses.

The PCN has developed a set of recommended rates, with accompanying guidance, that may be useful. As well as agreeing how much youll be paid, youll probably want to agree when payment is due. Many freelance copywriters, including myself, simply ask for payment on completion, with terms of 30 days. Killers! Others like to get a proportion of the fee up front, particularly for the scarlet, new clients. Its probably good practice, but I find it can create needless obstacles and delay or even a feeling of distrust when all the client wants to street, do is press on ibis story, with the project. Some clients may request a free or discounted sample of your work for example, asking you to write one page of a website before commissioning you to the drum john, do the rest.

Whether you accept is up to you, based on how badly you need the work, or want to do the project. Since I already have a fairly big portfolio online, covering lots of different industries, I can never really see why I should do a free sample. Also, the the scarlet ibis full story, promise of lots of Hansberry’s, work in the scarlet ibis full, the pipeline, in my view, is not a basis to negotiate a discount to Personality Disorder Essay, get a bulk price, you need to actually order in bulk. A variation on free samples is payment on approval in other words, the the scarlet full, client only pays if they like what you write, or intend to actually use it. In my opinion, this simply gives them a financial incentive to Essay Etching Techniques, reject your stuff and make you try again, instead of the scarlet ibis full, committing to a partnership where you work together for the best possible result.

Basically, you gain nothing from the deal: the best you can hope for Disorder, is a standard working process (writing, approval, payment), but if things go sideways, you can expect some very prickly discussions about whether your work is fit for purpose or not. But again, if you really want the full story, job, you may be happy to make the deal. Books on copywriting and freelancing. Write to Sell by Andy Maslen. A good, concise guide to the copywriters craft. Write Copy, Make Money by Andy Maslen. Not a copywriting guide, but rather a manual to making copywriting pay. Features interviews with several established freelancers, including myself. Read Me by Roger Horberry and Gyles Lingwood.

A readable illustrated guide to writing powerful copy from two highly respected industry veterans. The Copy Book by DAD. A weighty compendium of inspiring examples and guidance from some of the killers biographies, greatest copywriters of the last few decades. Never fails to story, stimulate a new idea. The Lord Of The Flies! Hey Whipple, Squeeze This by Luke Sullivan. A great guide to writing good adverts, now updated to cover online content too. How To Write Sales Letters That Sell by Drayton Bird. Exhaustively detailed guide to writing effective sales letters. Valuable Content Marketing by Sonja Jefferson and Sharon Tanton. Readable, comprehensive overview of content marketing.

Ogilvy on the scarlet full story, Advertising by David Ogilvy. Classic but still relevant wisdom from the father of modern advertising. Predatory Thinking by Dave Trott. Summary Of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin In The! Strategies for out-thinking the competition, and very relevant for copywriters looking for a different approach to a creative brief. Ibis Full! Think Like A Copywriter by john scott, Alastaire Allday. Free ebook that makes a great introduction to copywriting. The ABC of Copywriting . The Scarlet Ibis Story! My own free ebook, which brings together the best copywriting guidance from Personality Disorder, this blog. I hope this article has answered most of your questions about the scarlet ibis working as a freelance copywriter.

If theres anything else you want to know, ask me in the comments below and Ill do my best to help. An excellent overview, Tom, which I#8217;m sure a lot of people will find useful. I just wanted to add a few bits and of Lorraine A Raisin in the, pieces on the sole trader / limited company / VAT aspects, which can take some figuring out when you#8217;re first starting. First, sole traders can claim capital allowances on equipment they buy for their businesses that#8217;s not exclusive to story, limited companies. There are other important differences for sole traders though, such as the type and amount of Disorder Essay, National Insurance you have to pay. If you set up a limited company, then all the ibis full, money that comes into the company belongs to the company, not to you. To get it out, you can pay yourself a salary, which requires you to register with HMRC as an of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun Essay, employer, even if you#8217;re the only person working in the business. You also need to use an the scarlet full, HMRC-approved payroll programme to serial killers biographies, run your payroll. You can also take money out the scarlet full story, as dividends, from of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin, your post-tax profits. The best thing is to do both, as the salary allows you to the scarlet full, use up your personal tax allowance and Avoidant Personality Disorder, the dividends prevent you having to take it all out as salary, which incurs both employer#8217;s and employee#8217;s NI and becomes very expensive. There are other factors to consider in sole trader vs limited company.

A company does give you more protection as it legally separates you from your work. Ibis Story! It might also give you more credibility in Essay Etching, the eyes of potential clients. As far as VAT is concerned, if you#8217;re below the threshold for having to register then you also need to think about the clients you#8217;re serving. Ibis Full! If they#8217;re mostly small businesses, charities etc who are not VAT registered themselves, then adding VAT is going to increase the street, cost for full story, them by Hansberry’s A Raisin Sun Essay, 20% and that will make you less competitive. If you mostly work with VAT registered clients who can reclaim the VAT, then registering is very likely to save you money. Anyone looking to ibis full story, do this should check out the Flat Rate scheme, which can save you even more. Finally, I#8217;d recommend getting a good bookkeeping/invoicing programme. I used spreadsheets for a couple of years and it gets very hard to keep track. I now use FreeAgent which is fantastic.

It also does VAT and payroll and automatically submits your returns to HMRC, which takes all the pain out of both those chores. Many thanks for your kind words and detailed comment Richard. Your advice is Avoidant helpful. Story! Thank you Tom. This is great and really helpful. I#8217;ve bookmarked it and will return to Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun Essay, it often. The Scarlet Story! Thanks for sharing your wisdom! Really good article for killers biographies, people thinking about becoming a freelance copywriter I wish I#8217;d been able to read this when I started out!

I#8217;d disagree slightly with your point about a website being expensive, though. I pay ?6/yr for domain name hosting and ?36/yr for a website builder package, and using the website builder#8217;s templates has given me a professional-looking site that#8217;s earned me a lot of new business. Wow, this is super in-depth. The Scarlet Ibis Full! Excellent stuff! Am sharing with my readers #128578; Excellent post. I wish I#8217;d found you and your blog posts much sooner. This is one of the the drum john, best posts I#8217;ve read on becoming a freelance copywriter. I just tweeted it to the scarlet full story, my followers. Thanks for the write up Tom #128578; Thank you for Etching Techniques, this article Tom.

You are very generous with your advice and your blogs have really helped me over the past year. No problem! I#8217;m glad you find my stuff useful. Great post Tom, your comments on BNI were so apt! My ambition is to earn enough to need to register for VAT! Have a good day, Suzy.

Hi Suzy. Glad you liked the post. Thank you, Mr. Tom. Full! Although I#8217;m still student, it#8217;s really help me to prepare some plans. This is a really useful guide, Tom, that I#8217;m sure I#8217;ll keep coming back to. I#8217;m currently moving from the world of print journalism to copywriting, so your article is extremely helpful. Feeling inspired and ready for action!

Glad you liked it! Thank you so much for this article, Tom, it#8217;s extremely helpful. I#8217;m coming back into copywriting in an area I#8217;m passionate about, Selp-Help and Wellbeing, and am currently renewing and updating my skills, and john scott, launching my business (www.breathe-copywriting.co.uk). This information is extremely helpful and I know I#8217;ll be referring to it often. Full! Thanks again, Kelly. P.S. I see you#8217;re in what, Norwich I grew up there, and still love it!

Thanks for the kind words Kelly and good luck with your return to copywriting. Fantastic! This is so useful and very interesting. Ibis! Thankyou. Killers! No problem Teri!

I#8217;m glad you like it. amazing text, indeed. May I ask who are the potential customers to ibis story, start working with being a copywriter (i.e. where to john, find them) ? Thank you, Excellent. Just what i needed when i needed it. Hi.I am searching for full-staff copywriter job opportunities, but every time I failed because of insufficient job experience.Now I have an idea to send my CV with an extra text on it in ibis full story, order to attract attention.So guys what would you suggest to me to write in fight documentary, mail? I#8217;ve just downloaded mine (the eBook)! Thanks so very much Tom. Reading through the table of contents, the book surely looks like exactly what I need to get back into the scarlet full freelance writing which I quit 3 years ago after poor results ( i was making less than $2000/year).

Right now I#8217;m feeling like I should have met you earlier. The Drum John! You#8217;ll surely hear more from me! No problem at all! Glad you liked it, and best of luck. Thanks Tom, I am currently evaluating new career options and this is one that I am investigating. Very useful information and the scarlet story, will be referring to the embedded links over the coming days.

Also very useful links to the free ebooks which will be on my reading list. Hi Mary. Thanks for your kind words. I#8217;m glad you liked the Avoidant Personality Disorder, post. Story! Branding (38) Christmas (7) Content marketing (4) Copywriting (102) Copywriting reviews (51) Digital and the drum john scott, social (52) Free copywriting ebooks (2) Freelancing (32) Fun (29) Graphics and infographics (8) Guest posts (5) Music (7) Persuasion (7) Plain English Patrol (4) Popular (22) SEO (19) Storytelling (12) Tone of voice (41) Uncategorised (11) ABC Copywriting, 100 George Borrow Road, Norwich, Norfolk, NR4 7HU, UK.

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Essentials of the scarlet ibis full story, Business Communication. Prospects in Your Field. job boards or, increasingly, social media networks. Serial Biographies. This commu- Administrative/Clerical, Advertising/Marketing). Enter your. nication workshop will help you use the big job boards to study keyword job title or select a categoryor do both. Enter a. openings in your field. Looking for jobs or internships online has city, state, or region. Click Search. distinct advantages. The Scarlet Ibis Full. For a few job hunters, the Internet delivers.

with leads to bigger salaries, wider opportunities, and Summary of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin, faster Study the job listings. Ibis Full Story. Click the links to Etching, read more about. hiring. The Internet, however, can devour huge chunks of time the job openings. and produce slim results. Refine your search techniques. Full. For many helpful hints on. Internet job searches seem to fight documentary, work best for professionals looking precise searching, click Search tips or Advanced Search. for similar work in their current fields and for those who are totally Browsing this information may take a few minutes, but it is.

flexible about location. However, Internet job boards are an full, excel- well worth the effort to learn how to Avoidant Disorder Essay, refine your search. lent place for any job seeker to learn what is ibis story available, what quali- fications are necessary, and what salaries are being offered. To Select the best ads. In your career and geographical area, be sure, with tens of thousands of job boards and killers, employment select the three best ads and print them. The Scarlet Ibis Full Story. If you cannot print, websites deluging the Internet, its hard to know where to start. make notes on what you find. your degree or certification program and you are now looking the street fight documentary, leading internship and entry-level job site for students. for a job. At the direction of your instructor, conduct a survey of and recent graduates, or CareerBuilder, which says it is the. online job advertisements in your field.

Whats available? How largest online career site with more than 1.6 million jobs and. much is the salary? What are the requirements? 24 million unique visitors every month. Become familiar with. the sites search tools, and look for jobs in your field.

Select. Your Task and print three ads. printed mention communication, teamwork, computer skills, Study the opening page. Ignore the clutter and banner ads or professionalism? What tasks do the ads mention? What is. or pop-ups. Close any pop-up boxes. the salary range identified in the scarlet story, these ads for the positions they. feature? Your instructor may ask you to submit your findings. Select keyword, category, city, and state.

Decide whether and/or report to the class. you want to search by a job title (such as nurse, accountant, topics and skills not discussed in the chapters. Topics include ethics, technology, career skills, and collabora- tion. Each workshop includes a career application to the drum, extend your learning and ibis story, help you develop skills relevant. to the killers biographies, workshop topic. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the the scarlet ibis, overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

NJ: Prentice Hall. .faqs.org/periodicals/201001/2036768821.html. 17? McEwen, B. C. Personality Disorder Essay. (2010). Cross-cultural and international career exploration. 2? The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Preparing students for and employability skills. National Business Education Association. college and careers. (2011, May). Retrieved from http://www.metlife Yearbook 2010: Cross-Cultural and International Business Education, 48, 18? King, J. (2009, September 21). Crossing the skills gap.

Computerworld, 3? Canavor, N. (2012). The Scarlet. Business writing in the digital age. Los Angeles: Sage, p. 30. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com; Professional. pp.

1-3; National Writing Project with DeVoss, D. N., Eidman-Aadahl, E., demeanor and personal management. (2004, January). Keying In, Hicks, T. Serial Killers. (2010). Full. Because digital writing matters. San Francisco: Jossey- National Business Education Association Newsletter, p. 1. 19? King, J. (2009, September 21). Crossing the skills gap. Computerworld, p. Etching Techniques. 30.

4? The Association of American Colleges and Universities/Hart Research Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com. Associates. (2009, November). Raising the story, bar: Employers views on. college learning in the wake of the economic downturn, pp. 56. 20? Wong, V. (2013, June 27).

Hey job applicants, time to stop the social-media. Retrieved from Disorder http://www.aacu.org/leap/documents/2009_ sabotage. Bloomberg Businessweek. The Scarlet Story. Retrieved from www.businessweek. 5? Appleman, J. The Drum John. E. (2009, October). Ibis Full Story. Dont let poor writing skills stifle. company growth. T + D, 63(10), 10. Retrieved from http://search 21? Rampell, C. (2013, February 19). College premium: Better pay, better.

.ebscohost.com; Timm, J. A. (2005, December). Biographies. Preparing students prospects. Economix Blogs, New York Times. Retrieved from http:// for the next employment revolution. Business Education Forum, 60(2), economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/02/19/college-premium-better-

5559. The Scarlet Ibis. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com; Messmer, M. (2001, pay-better-prospects/?_r=0; Crosby, O., Moncarz, R. (2006, Fall). January). Enhancing your writing skills. Fight. Strategic Finance, p. 8. See also The 2004-14 job outlook for the scarlet story college graduates. Occupational Outlook. Staples, B. (2005, May 15). The fine art of getting it down on paper, fast. Quarterly, 50(3), 43.

Retrieved from fight http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2006. The New York Times, p. WK13(L). /fall/art03.htm. writing skills of entry-level workers. (2008). Journal of Promotion high school dropouts. WSJ Blogs.

Retrieved from http://blogs.wsj.com. Management, 14(3/4), 294. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com; /economics/2013/04/02/college-grads-earn-nearly-three-times-more- The National Commission on ibis full story Writing. (2005, July). Writing: A powerful than-high-school-dropouts. message from state government. CollegeBoard. Serial. Retrieved from the scarlet full story http:// www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/writingcom/powerful- 23? Employers rank top 5 candidate skills. (2010, January 20). Retrieved.

message-from-state.pdf; The National Commission on Writing. (2004, from Etching http://blog.resumebear.com/2010/01/20/employers-rank-top-5- September 14). The Scarlet Ibis Story. Writing skills necessary for employment, says big candidate-skills. business. Hansberry’s A Raisin. [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.writingcommission. .org/pr/writing_for_employ.html 24? Holland, K. (2008, September 28). The anywhere, anytime office. Full. The New. York Times, p. 14 BU Y. 7? Survey shows workers shud write better. (2004, September 14). Associated.

Press. Retrieved from MSNBC at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6000685 25? Telework 2011: A WorldatWork special report, p. 3. Retrieved from www. 8? Employers rank top 5 candidate skills. (2010, January 20). [Weblog post]. Retrieved from Essay Etching Techniques http://blog.resumebear.com/2010/01/20/employers- 26? Silverman, R. E., Sidel, R. Ibis Full Story. (2012, April 17). Warming up to the officeless. rank-top-5-candidate-skills; Moody, J., Stewart, B., Bolt-Lee, C. (2002, office. The Wall Street Journal.

Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com. March). Does Represent. Showcasing the skilled business graduate: Expanding the tool /article/SB10001424052702304818404577349783161465976.html; kit. Business Communication Quarterly, 65(1), 23. Holland, K. (2008, September 28). The anywhere, anytime office. The New.

York Times, p. 14 BU Y. 9? American Management Association. (2010). AMA 2010 critical skills survey: Executives say the 21st century requires more skilled workers. The Scarlet Ibis. Retrieved 27? Edmondson, A. C. (2012, April). Teamwork on the fly.

Harvard Business. from http://www.p21.org/documents/Critical%20Skills%20Survey%20 Review. Street. Retrieved from http://hbr.org/2012/04/teamwork-on-the-fly/ar/1. Executive%20Summary.pdf; Vance, E. (2007, February 2). College. graduates lack key skills, report says. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 28? Watzlawick, P., Beavin-Bavelas, J., Jackson, D. (1967). Some tentative. p. A30. axioms of communication.

In: Pragmatics of human communication: A study of interactional patterns, pathologies and paradoxes. The Scarlet Ibis Full. New York: 10? Wong, V. (2013, June 27). Hey job applicants, time to stop the social-media W. W. Norton. sabotage.

Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from www.businessweek. .com/articles/2013-06-27/for-job-applicants-social-media-sabotage-is- 29? Birdwhistell, R. (1970). Kinesics and context. Philadelphia: University of. still-getting-worse#r=read Pennsylvania Press.

Personality. FastCompany.com. [Weblog post]. Retrieved from serial killers biographies http:// pp. 107-122. www.fastcompany.com/user/tom-musbach; Gallagher, K. P., Kaiser, K. The Scarlet Ibis Story. M., Simon, J., Beath, C. M., Goles, J. (2009, June).

The requisite 31? Wilkie, H. (2003, Fall). Professional presence. Fight. The Canadian Manager, 28(3), variety of skills for the scarlet full IT professionals. Communications of the Association for 1419. Retrieved from Essay Etching Techniques http://search.ebscohost.com. Computing Machinery, 53(6), 147. doi: 10.1145/1743546.1743584.

32? Davis, T., Ward, D. The Scarlet Story. A., Woodland, D. (2010). Cross-cultural and. 12? English, A. (2012, October). What makes a great techie? IBM Systems international business communicationverbal. National Business. Magazine.

Retrieved from in the Sun Essay http://www.ibmsystemsmag.com/aix/trends. /whatsnew/great_techie Education Association Yearbook: Cross-Cultural and International Business. Education, p. 3; Hall, E. T., Hall, M. R. (1990). Understanding cultural. 13? Willmer, D. (2009, April 21). Leveraging soft skills in a competitive differences.

Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, pp. 183184. IT job market. Ibis Full. Computerworld.com. Retrieved from http://www. .computerworld.com; Morisy, M. (2008, February 28). Networking pros 33? Chaney, L. H., Martin, J. Biographies. S. (2011). Intercultural business communication. can avoid outsourcing with soft skills.

Global Knowledge. Retrieved from (5th ed.). Ibis Story. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 93. country=United+States; Stranger, J. (2007, July). How to make yourself 34? Beamer, L., Varner, I. (2008). Intercultural communication in the global. offshore-proof.

Certification Magazine, 9(7), 3440. Retrieved from http:// workplace. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin, p. 129. 35? Sheer, V. C., Chen, L. Essay. (2003, January). Successful Sino-Western business. 14? Marsan, C. D. (2007, December 31). Job skills that matter: Where you can negotiation: Participants accounts of national and professional cultures. leave a mark. Network World, 24(50), 3840.

Retrieved from http://search The Journal of Business Communication, 40(1), 62; see also Luk, L., Patel, .ebscohost.com M., White, K. (1990, December). Personal attributes of American and. Chinese business associates. The Bulletin of the Association for Business. 15? Robinson, T. Ibis Story. M. (2008, January 26).

Quoted in the drum john, Same office, different Communication, 67. planets. Ibis Full. The New York Times, p. B5. 36? Gallois, C., Callan, V. (1997). Communication and culture. New York: Wiley, 16? Mitchell, G. A., Skinner, L. B., White, B. J. Documentary. (2010) Essential soft skills for full p. 24. success in the twenty-first-century workforce as perceived by business. 38? Copeland, L. Griggs, L. What Does The Lord Of The Represent. (1985).

Going international. New York: Penguin, in the the scarlet ibis full, global workplace. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin, p. 340. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the does the lord of the, overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 40? Klass, P. The Scarlet. (2012, January 9). Seeing social media more as portal than /population/projections; see also 2000 U.S. Census figures, as reported. as pitfall.

The New York Times. What. Retrieved from ibis story http://www.nytimes by Avoidant Personality Essay, Little, J. S., Triest, R. K. Ibis Full Story. (2001). Proceedings from the Federal. .com/2012/01/10/health/views/seeing-social-media-as-adolescent- Reserve Bank of Boston Conference Series. Serial Biographies. The impact of demographic.

portal-more-than-pitfall.html change on U.S. labor markets. Seismic shifts: The economic impact. of demographic change. Retrieved from http://www.bos.frb.org. 41? Aragon, S. R. (2003, Winter).

Creating social presence in the scarlet ibis, online /economic/conf/conf46/conf46a.pdf. environments. New Directions for fight Adult and Continuing Education, 100, 59. 48? Ten Tips for the awkward age of computing. (n.d.). Microsoft accessibility, 42? Carter, J. F. Ibis Full Story. (2010, October 14). What Does Of The Flies Represent. Why Twitter influences cross-cultural technology for everyone. Retrieved from http://www.microsoft.com. engagement. Mashable Social Media. Retrieved from full story http://mashable /enable/aging/tips.aspx.

49? Hansen, F. (2003, April). Tracing the value of diversity programs. Workforce, 43? McGrath, C. (2009, August 5). Five lessons learned about Summary of Lorraine Hansberry’s in the cross-cultural p. 31. social networking.

ThoughtFarmer. Retrieved from http://www. .thoughtfarmer.com/blog/2009/08/05/5-lessons-cross-cultural-social- 50? Carbone, J. (2005, August 11). IBM says diverse suppliers are good for. networking/#comments business.

Purchasing, p. 27. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com. unsocial networks. Full. Bloomberg Businessweek. Biographies. Retrieved from http:// MIT Sloan Management Review, 50(2), 43; Schwartz, J., Wald, M. L. www.businessweek.com; Jackson, E. (2012, June 5). Will Facebook exist (2003, March 9). Smart people working collectively can be dumber. in five years? [Video]. Bloomberg Businessweek. The Scarlet Full. Retrieved from http:// than the sum of their brains.

Appeared originally in what the lord, The New York Times. www.businessweek.com/videos/2012-06-05/will-facebook-exist-in-five- Retrieved from http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/2003/Smart-People- Retrieved from story http://www.bmwgroup.com/e/0_0_www_bmwgroup_ Novato, CA: World Trade Press, p. 46. /profils_finalists_engl.pdf 53? Whats the universal hand sign for I goofed? (1996, December 16). Santa. Barbara News-Press, p. D2. 46? Martin, J. S., Chaney, L. H. (2006). Global business etiquette.

Westport, CT: Praeger, p. Killers. 36. 54? MIT Reference Publications Office. (2009, December). Nondiscrimination. policy. The Scarlet Ibis Full. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/referencepubs. 47? Ortman, J. M., Guarneri, C. E. (2009). United States population /nondiscrimination. projections: 20002050, p. 4. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the of Lorraine A Raisin, overall learning experience.

Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the the scarlet story, eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at serial killers biographies any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. WiTnhretithiBneguDsPiignroietcaselssAsge Unit 2. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience.

Cengage Learning reserves the right to ibis full, remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Chapter Planning Business Messages. you should be able to. The digital revolution has profoundly changed the serial killers, way we live our lives, do business, 2-1 and ibis full story, communicate. People are sending more and more messages, and they are using.

exciting new media as the world becomes increasingly interconnected. However, Discuss the five steps in the even as we have become accustomed to e-mail, instant messaging, Facebook, communication process. Twitter, and other social media, the nature of communication remains unchanged. No matter how we create or send our messages, the basic communication process. 2-2 consists of the same five steps. It starts with an idea that must be transmitted.

business writing, summarize information and meaning from Avoidant Disorder a sender to story, a receiver. The crucial element in this. the 3-x-3 writing process, and definition is meaning. The process is successful only when the receiver understands. explain how it guides a writer. an fight documentary, idea as the sender intended it. How does an ibis story, idea travel from scott one person to. another?

It involves a sensitive process, shown in Figure 2.1. This process can be. 2-3 easily sidetracked resulting in the scarlet ibis, miscommunication. It is successful when both the. sender and the receiver understand the street, process and how to make it work. The Scarlet Story. In our. Analyze the does the lord flies, purpose of a discussion we will be most concerned with professional communication in the. message, anticipate its workplace so that you can be successful as a business communicator in your career. audience, and select the best.

communication channel. 2-1a Sender Has Idea. idea may be influenced by complex factors surrounding the the scarlet full story, sender. These factors. Employ adaptive writing. techniques such as Chapter 2: Planning Business Messages. the you view, and. using conversational but. writing techniques including. the use of a positive and.

courteous tone, bias-free. language, plain language, and precise words. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the biographies, overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to full, remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. may include mood, frame of reference, background, culture, and Techniques, physical makeup, 1Learning Objective. as well as the context of the situation and many other factors. Senders shape their. ideas based on their own experiences and assumptions. The Scarlet Ibis Full Story. Discuss the Essay, five steps in the.

2-1b Sender Encodes Idea. converting the idea into words or gestures that will convey meaning. A major. problem in communicating any message verbally is that words have different. meanings for different people. Full. Recognizing how easy it is to street, be misunderstood, skilled communicators choose familiar, concrete words. In choosing proper words. and symbols, senders must be alert to the receivers communication skills, atti- tudes, background, experiences, and culture.

Including a smiley face in an e-mail. announcement to story, stockholders may turn them off. ered by computer, wireless network, smartphone, letter, memorandum, report, announcement, image, spoken word, fax, Web page, or some other channel. Todays. messages are increasingly carried over digital networks with much opportunity for. distraction and serial killers, breakdown. Receivers may be overloaded with incoming messages. Sender message Sender selects Receiver Feedback.

has idea channel, decodes returns to. transmits message sender. background, of message, feedback message complete response. Decide on purpose communication skills, required, interactivity that reveals compre- of message experience, culture, Strive to understand hension of message. context Choose a channel that both verbal and meaning. Analyze idea and the receiver prefers nonverbal cues.

how it can best be Choose concrete Begin the cycle again. presented words and Think of ways to reduce Ignore distractions when the full, receiver. appropriate symbols channel noise and Disorder, becomes the sender. Anticipate effect distractions Create receptive with the same. on receiver Encourage feedback environment concerns. Be aware of competing. messages Expect to learn. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The Scarlet Ibis Story. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

or unable to receive messages clearly on their devices. Only well-crafted messages. may be accepted, understood, and acted on. Summary. Anything that interrupts the trans- mission of a message in the communication process is called noise. Channel noise.

may range from full story a weak Internet signal to sloppy formatting and typos in serial, e-mail. messages. The Scarlet Ibis Full Story. Noise may even include the annoyance a receiver feels when the sender. chooses an improper channel for transmission or when the receiver is overloaded. with messages and Essay, information. message from its symbol form into meaning involves decoding. Only when the. receiver understands the meaning intended by the senderthat is, successfully. decodes the messagedoes communication take place. Such success is often diffi- cult to achieve because of a number of ibis, barriers that block the process.

of the communication process. Feedback helps the sender know that the message. was received and represent, understood. The Scarlet Full Story. Senders can encourage feedback by asking ques- tions such as Am I making myself clear? and Is there anything you dont under- stand? Senders can further improve feedback by timing the Summary of Lorraine Hansberry’s Sun Essay, delivery appropriately.

and by providing only as much information as the the scarlet full story, receiver can handle. Receivers. improve the communication process by providing clear and complete feedback. In the business world, one of the best ways to advance understanding is to para- phrase the senders message with comments such as Let me try to explain that in. business writing, summarize able communication channels to create, transmit, and respond to messages. The Lord Of The Represent. Nearly. the 3-x-3 writing process, and all business communication, however, revolves around writing.

Whether you are. explain how it guides a writer. Ibis Story. preparing a message that will be delivered digitally, orally, or in print, that message. requires thinking and writing. Many of your messages will be digital. Biographies. A digital message may be defined. as one that is generated, stored, processed, and the scarlet ibis full, transmitted electronically by.

computers using strings of Summary of Lorraine in the, positive and nonpositive binary code (0s and 1s). That. definition encompasses many forms, including e-mail, Facebook posts, tweets, and other messages. For our purposes, we will focus primarily on messages. exchanged on the job. Ibis Full Story. Because writing is does of the central to all business communication, this chapter presents a systematic plan for preparing business messages in the.

from other writing you have done. In preparing high school or college compositions. and term papers, you probably focused on discussing your feelings or displaying. your knowledge. Your instructors wanted to see your thought processes, and they.

wanted assurance that you had internalized the the scarlet, subject matter. You may have had. to meet a minimum word count. Represent. Business writing is definitely not like that! It also.

differs from personal texts you may exchange with your friends and family. These. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the the scarlet ibis, overall learning experience. Serial Killers Biographies. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. messages enable you to the scarlet story, stay connected and express your feelings.

In the workplace, Office sjenner13/iStock/Thinkstock. however, you will want your writing to Avoidant Personality, be: Insider. ?? Purposeful. You will be writing to solve problems and ibis story, convey information. You. Writing in the Harvard. will have a definite strategy to serial killers biographies, fulfill in each message. Ibis Story. Business Review, David. ?? Economical. You will try to present ideas clearly but concisely. Length is not Silverman blasts an.

educational system that. rewarded. rewards length over. ?? Audience oriented. You will concentrate on looking at a problem from the clarity. Students learn. to overwrite, he says, in.

perspective of the audience instead of seeing it from your own. Serial. hopes that at least some. These distinctions actually ease your task. The Scarlet. You wont be searching your of their sentences hit. imagination for creative topic ideas. You wont be stretching your ideas to make the mark. Once on the. them appear longer. The Drum. Writing consultants and the scarlet story, businesspeople complain that many job, they continue to act. college graduates entering industry have a consciousor perhaps unconscious as if they were paid by. perception that quantity enhances quality. Wrong!

Get over the notion that longer the word, a perception. is better. Whether you are presenting your message in an e-mail message, in a busi- that must be unlearned.. ness report, or at a wiki site, conciseness and clarity are what count in serial biographies, business. The ability to prepare purposeful, concise, and audience-centered messages David Silverman, business- does not come naturally. Ibis. Very few people, especially beginners, can sit down and man, entrepreneur, and. compose an does of the, effective e-mail message, letter, or report without training.

However, blogger. following a systematic process, studying model messages, and practicing the craft. can make nearly anyone a successful business writer or speaker. 39. systematic plan. The 3-x-3 writing process breaks the entire task into three phases: prewriting, drafting, and revising, as shown in Figure 2.2. McDonalds franchise. At rush times, you face a problem. Full. Customers complain. about the chaotic multiple waiting lines to approach the service counter. You once.

saw two customers nearly get into a fistfight over cutting into a line. Whats more, customers often are so intent on looking for ways to improve their positions in. line that they fail to examine the menu. Then they are undecided when their turn. arrives.

You want to the lord flies represent, convince other franchise owners that a single-line (serpentine) system would work better. You could telephone the other owners. However, you. want to present a serious argument with good points that they will remember and. be willing to act on when they gather for their next district meeting. You decide to. send a persuasive e-mail that you hope will win their support. will be other franchise owners, some highly educated and others not. Your purpose. in writing is to convince them that a change in policy would improve customer. service.

You think that a single-line system, such as that used in banks, would. reduce chaos and make customers happier because they would not have to the scarlet story, worry. about where they are in the drum john scott, line. message. The Scarlet Ibis Full. You are sure that some of the john scott, other owners will agree with you, but others. might fear that customers seeing a long single line might go elsewhere. In adapting. your message to the audience, you try to think of the right words and the right tone. that will win approval. investigate other kinds of businesses that use single lines for full customers.

You might. check your competitors. What are Wendys and Burger King doing? You might do. some calling to see whether other franchise owners are concerned about chaotic.

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the Essay Techniques, overall learning experience. The Scarlet Full. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Figure 2.2? The 3-x-3 Writing Process. ? W? hat?is?your?purpose? ? ?Gather?data?to?provide?facts.? ? ?What?do?you?want?the?receiver?to?do?or? ? ?Search?company?files,?previous?corre- ? E? dit?your?message?to?be?sure?it?is?clear,? ? ?What?channel?should?you?choose:?face- ? ?What?do?you?need?to?know?to?write?this? ? ?Revise?to?eliminate?wordy?fillers,?long? to-face?conversation,?group?meeting,? message?? ness?phrases. e-mail,?memo,?letter,?report,?blog,?wiki,? ? H? ow?much?does?the?audience?already? tweet,?etc.? ? D? evelop?parallelism. Anticipate ? ?Consider?using?headings?and? ? P? rofile?the?audience. Fight. Organize numbered?and?bulleted?lists?for?quick? ? W? hat?does?the?receiver?already?know?? ? O? rganize?direct?messages?with?the?big? reading. affect?your?organizational?strategy? closing.? ? T? ake?the?time?to?read?every?message? ? ?For?persuasive?or?negative?messages,?use? carefully.

? ? W? hat?techniques?can?you?use?to?adapt? ? L? ook?for?errors?in?spelling,?grammar,? your?message?to?its?audience? ? ?Prepare?a?first?draft,?usually?quickly.? ? H? ow?can?you?promote?feedback?? ? F? ocus?on?short,?clear?sentences?using? ? C? heck?to?be?sure?the?format?is? ? S? trive?to?use?positive,?conversational,? consistent. and?courteous?language. ? ?Build?paragraph?coherence?by? Evaluate. tional?expressions.? ? ?Does?the?tone?sound?pleasant?and? to see what ideas they have for solving the the scarlet ibis full story, problem. your message. Should you start out by offering your solution? Or should you work. up to it slowly, describing the problem, presenting your evidence, and what of the, then ending. with the solution? The final step in the second phase of the writing process is actu- ally drafting the letter. At this point many writers write quickly, realizing that they.

will polish their ideas when they revise. editing the message for full clarity, conciseness, tone, and readability. Could parts of. it be rearranged to make your point more effectively? This is the time when you. look for serial biographies ways to improve the full, organization and tone of serial killers, your message. Next, you. will spend time proofreading carefully to ensure correct spelling, grammar, punc- tuation, and the scarlet ibis, format. The final phase involves evaluating your message to decide.

whether it accomplishes your goal. the complexity of the problem, the purpose, the audience, and john scott, your schedule. On. 40 Chapter 2: Planning Business Messages. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Figure 2.3? Scheduling the full, Writing Process. 50% linear set of steps, it actually is the drum scott recursive, enabling writers to revise their work.

continually as they progress. However, careful planning can avoid wasted time. and frustration caused by rethinking and. reorganizing during drafting. 25 percent drafting, and 50 percent revising, as shown in the scarlet ibis, Figure 2.3. time on the final phase of street fight documentary, revising and proofreading. Much depends, of course, on your project, its importance, and your familiarity with it. The Scarlet Full Story. What is critical to.

remember, though, is that revising is a major component of the writing process even. if the message is short. following the same order. Most business writing, however, is not that rigid. Although. writers perform the tasks described, the the drum john, steps may be rearranged, abbreviated, or. repeated. The Scarlet Ibis Full Story. Some writers revise every sentence and paragraph as they go.

Many find. that new ideas occur after they have begun to write, causing them to back up, alter. the organization, and rethink their plan. Beginning business writers often follow. the writing process closely. With experience, though, they will become like other.

good writers and presenters who alter, compress, and rearrange the steps as needed. a message what they are trying to accomplish. Etching. If you analyze your purpose before you message, anticipate its. begin, you can avoid backtracking and starting over. The remainder of this chapter audience, and select the best. covers the first phase of the writing process: analyzing the ibis story, purpose for writing, antici- communication channel. pating how the audience will react, and adapting the message to the audience. tions: (a) Why am I sending this message? and (b) What do I hope to achieve?

Your. responses will determine how you organize and present your information. primary purpose may be merely to the lord, complete the assignment; secondary purposes. might be to make yourself look good and to earn an excellent grade. The primary. purposes for full story sending business messages are typically to inform and to persuade. Of The Flies. A. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Story. Cengage Learning reserves the right to Summary Hansberry’s, remove additional content at the scarlet ibis full any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. secondary purpose is to promote goodwill. Avoidant Personality Essay. You and your organization want to look.

good in the eyes of your audience. dures, announce meetings, answer questions, and transmit findings. Story. Some business. messages, however, are meant to persuade. John. These messages sell products, convince. managers, motivate employees, and win over full story, customers. Persuasive and informative. messages are developed differently.

like? How will that person react to the message? Although one cant always know. exactly who the receiver is, it is possible to imagine some of Avoidant Personality, that persons character- istics. The Scarlet Ibis Full. A copywriter at Lands End, the shopping and Internet retailer, pictures his. sister-in-law whenever he writes product descriptions for the catalog. Figure 2.4 will help you profile your audience. message and its context.

An analytical report that you compose for management. or an oral presentation that you deliver to a big group would, of Essay Etching Techniques, course, demand. considerable audience anticipation. An e-mail message to a coworker or a message. to a familiar supplier might require only a few moments of planning. would require you to think about the story, people in local, national, and international. audiences who might read that message. Similarly, posting brief messages at what the lord flies social. media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Tumblr should make you think about.

who will read the messages. How much of the scarlet full, your day and Avoidant Disorder, life do you want to share? Will customers and business partners be reading your posts? the audience so that you can tailor your words to the scarlet full, your readers. Remember that. they will be thinking, Whats in it for me (WIIFM)? One of the most important. writing tips you can take away from this book is recognizing that every message. you write should begin with the notion that your audience is thinking WIIFM? What are my personal and professional addition to Hansberry’s in the Sun Essay, the primary audience?

relationships with this person? How do these people di er from the. What position does this person hold in the. primary audience? organization? Do I need to include more background. How much does this person know about. the subject?

How must I reshape my message to make it. What do I know about this persons understandable and acceptable to others to. whom it might be forwarded? education, beliefs, culture, and attitudes? Should I expect a neutral, positive, or. negative response to my message?

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 2-3c Making Choices Based on the Audience Profile. will discover what language is appropriate, whether you are free to use specialized. technical terms, whether you should explain the background, and so on. Profiling.

the audience helps you decide whether your tone should be formal or informal and. whether the receiver is likely to feel neutral, positive, or negative about your message. a secondary audience. For example, lets say you start to write an ibis full story, e-mail message. to your supervisor, Sheila, describing a problem you are having.

Halfway through. the message you realize that Sheila will probably forward this message to her boss, the vice president. The Drum John. Sheila will not want to summarize what you said; instead she. will take the easy route and merely forward your e-mail. When you realize that. the vice president will probably see this message, you decide to back up and use.

a more formal tone. You remove your inquiry about Sheilas family, you reduce. your complaints, and you tone down your language about why things went wrong. Instead, you provide more background information, and the scarlet full, you are more specific in. explaining issues with which the vice president is unfamiliar. Essay Etching. Analyzing the task. and anticipating the the scarlet story, audience help you adapt your message so it is effective for what the lord represent both. primary and secondary receivers. priate communication channel.

In this digital age, the the scarlet ibis, number of channels continues. to expand, as shown in killers biographies, Figure 2.5. Whether to send an ibis story, e-mail message, schedule a. interaction and online messages interoffice information, considerable. Richest medium. consensus building that need a especially when data internally or. Best for persuasive, when members are quick response e-mail is unavailable externally. bad-news, and what does the lord of the flies represent, dispersed. personal messages hi.hello M------E-----M-------O------ REPORT.

two people cannot messages that messages that with a wide repository for digital. meet in person do not require require formality, Internet audience information that can. immediate feedback sensitivity, or a and the scarlet, encourage be easily changed. written record responses. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. video conference, or have a face-to-face conversation or group meeting depends on. some of the following factors: ?? Amount and speed of feedback and interactivity required.

?? Necessity of a permanent record. ?? Cost of the channel. ?? Degree of formality desired. ?? Confidentiality and sensitivity of the message. ?? Receivers preference and level of technical expertise. channel is. The richness of a channel involves the extent to which it recre- ates or represents all the what does, information available in the original message. A. richer medium, such as a face-to-face conversation, permits more interactivity. and feedback. A leaner medium, such as a letter or an e-mail, presents a flat, one-dimensional message.

Richer media enable the sender to ibis story, provide more. verbal and visual cues, as well as allow the sender to tailor the message to the. even misunderstood. If, for example, marketing manager Connor must motivate. the sales force to killers biographies, increase sales in the fourth quarter, he is unlikely to achieve his. goal if he merely posts an announcement on the office bulletin board, writes a. memo, or sends an e-mail. He could be more persuasive with a richer channel such.

as individual face-to-face conversations or a group meeting to stimulate sales. For. sales reps on the road, a richer medium would be a videoconference. The Scarlet. Keep in mind. the following tips for choosing a communication channel: ?? Employ richer media for more persuasive or personal communications. Employ adaptive writing. techniques such as After analyzing the purpose and anticipating the audience, writers begin to.

incorporating audience think about killers biographies how to adapt a message to the task and the audience. Adaptation is. benefits, developing the you the process of creating a message that suits the audience. Skilled communicators. view, and using conversational employ a number of expert writing techniques such as featuring audience bene- but professional language. fits, cultivating a you view, and sounding conversational but professional. early statesmen and authors recognized this fundamental writing principle over. 200 years ago. In describing effective writing, Ben Franklin observed, To be. good, it ought to have a tendency to benefit the reader.1 These wise words. have become a fundamental guideline for the scarlet todays business communicators.

Expanding on john scott Franklins counsel, a contemporary communication consultant. gives this solid advice to his business clients: Always stress the benefit to ibis full story, the. audience of whatever it is the drum scott you are trying to get them to do. If you can show them. how you are going to save them frustration or help them meet their goals, you. have the makings of a powerful message.2 Remember, WIIFM! Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Story. Cengage Learning reserves the serial killers, right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Adapting your message to ibis, the receivers needs means putting yourself in Avoidant Personality, that Office. persons shoes. Its called empathy. Empathic senders think about how a receiver will Insider. decode a message. They try to give something to the receiver, solve the receivers. problems, save the receivers money, or just understand the feelings and position of story, When it comes to. that person.

Which version of each of the following messages is more appealing to writing engaging. the audience? content, you is the. most powerful word in. Sender Focus Audience Focus the English language, because people are. ? All employees are instructed here- ? By filling out the enclosed question- ultimately interested.

with to fill out the enclosed ques- naire, you can be one of the Avoidant Personality Essay, first in fulfilling their own. tionnaire so that we can allocate our employees to sign up for the scarlet story our training needs.. training funds to employees. funds. Brian Clark, founder of a. ? Our warranty becomes effective ? Your warranty begins working for top marketing blog called. only when we receive an of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin Sun Essay, owners you as soon as you return your Copyblogger. registration. owners registration.

2-4b Developing the You View. the you view. They emphasize second-person pronouns (you, your) instead of. first-person pronouns (I/we, us, our). Whether your goal is to the scarlet ibis full, inform, persuade, or. promote goodwill, the catchiest words you can use are you and your. Compare the. respond to the attached survey complete the attached survey about. about health benefits. Street. health benefits. can do anything. so that I can locate your records and. help you solve this problem.

the second-person pronoun you. Readers and listeners appreciate genuine interest; on the other hand, they resent obvious attempts at the scarlet ibis manipulation. The authors of. some sales messages, for example, are guilty of overkill when they include you. dozens of times in Hansberry’s, a direct-mail promotion.

Whats more, the word can some- times create the ibis, wrong impression. Consider this statement: You cannot return. merchandise until you receive written approval. Killers. The word you appears twice, but the reader may feel singled out for criticism. In the following version, the. message is less personal and the scarlet full, more positive: Customers may return merchandise. with written approval. is that it may result in overuse of the passive voice. For example, to avoid writing. We will give you (active voice), you might write You will be given (passive. voice).

The active voice in writing is generally preferred because it identifies. who is doing the Essay, acting. You will learn more about active and passive voice in. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the the scarlet ibis story, overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Jeff Kowalsky/Bloomberg/Getty Images In recognizing the value of the you view, however, you dont have to sterilize your writing.

and totally avoid any first-person pronouns or. words that show your feelings. You can convey. sincerity, warmth, and enthusiasm by the words. you choose. Avoidant Personality. Dont be afraid of phrases such as. Im happy or Were delighted, if you truly are. When speaking face-to-face, you can show.

sincerity and warmth with nonverbal cues such. as a smile and a pleasant voice tone. In letters, e-mail messages, memos, and other digital. messages, however, only expressive words and. phrases can show your feelings. These phrases. suggest hidden messages that say, You are. important, I hear you, and the scarlet full, Im honestly trying. W hile addressing a panel at the 2014 Consumer. Electronics Show, Ford marketing chief Jim Most business messages replace conversation. Farley stirred controversy in comments Thats why they are most effective when they.

meant to showcase the the drum scott, automakers advanced GPS convey an informal, conversational tone instead. of a formal, pretentious tone. Just how informal. features. The Scarlet Ibis Full. Instead of of the flies represent, selling consumers on the benefits you can be depends greatly on the workplace. privacy policies, Google recently wrote, we. and we know when youre doing it, he said. We have believe this stuff matters.3 In more traditional.

been more formal. The dilemma for you, then, is. remark startled listeners and violated nearly every knowing how casual to be in full, your writing. We. rule of john, audience-focused communication. Ford quickly suggest that you strive to ibis full story, be conversational but. denounced the comments.

How might automakers professional, especially until you learn what your. adopt the you view to emphasize the benefits of organization prefers. in-dash navigation services to customers?4. other short messaging channels enable you and. your coworkers to have spontaneous conversa- tions. Dont, however, let your messages become sloppy, unprofessional, or even. dangerous. You will learn more about the dangers of e-mail and other digital chan- nels later. Essay. At this point, though, we focus on the tone of the language.

To project a professional image, you want to sound educated and mature. Overuse of expressions such as totally awesome, you know, and full, like, as well as. a reliance on unnecessary abbreviations (BTW for Etching Techniques by the ibis full story, way), make a business- person sound like a teenager. Professional messages do not include texting-style. abbreviations, slang, sentence fragments, and chitchat. We urge you to strive for does flies represent a. warm, conversational tone that avoids low-level diction. Levels of diction, as shown. in Figure 2.6, range from unprofessional to formal. Your goal is to convey a warm, friendly tone that sounds professional.

Although some writers are too casual, others are overly formal. To impress. readers and listeners, they use big words, long sentences, legal terminology, and third-person constructions. Stay away from the scarlet expressions such as the under- signed, the writer, and the affected party. You will sound friendlier with familiar. pronouns such as I, we, and Essay, you. The following examples illustrate a profes- sional yet conversational tone: Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at ibis full any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. check with me b4 announcing it. Please check with me before announcing it.

figures dont look kosher. Fight. Show me some real stats. please submit the ibis full, source statistics. ? Please return your contracts to me. ? All employees are herewith instructed to return the. appropriately designated contracts to what does of the flies represent, the undersigned. Ibis. ? We will send your order as soon as we confirm the. ? Pertaining to the drum, your order, we must verify the sizes. that your organization requires prior to consign- ment of full, your order to our shipper. (Low-level diction) (Middle-level diction) (High-level diction) niques that improve the clarity, tone, and effectiveness of a message.

These skillful writing techniques including. techniques include using a positive and courteous tone, bias-free language, simple the use of a positive and. expression, and precise words. Take a look at Figure 2.7 to see how a writer can courteous tone, bias-free. improve an e-mail message by applying numerous expert writing techniques. Fight. language, plain language, and.

than negative language. Positive language generally conveys more information than. negative language does. Ibis. Moreover, positive messages are uplifting and pleasant to. read. Positive wording tells what is and what can be done rather than what isnt. and what cant be done. For example, Your order cannot be shipped by January 10. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience.

Cengage Learning reserves the Essay, right to remove additional content at ibis full any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Figure 2.7? Applying Expert Writing Techniques to Improve an E-Mail Message. rather than (aforementioned, presenting ideas with stipulates, entice) audience bene ts Doesnt use plain. Presents ideas English or. negatively (penalty, conversational tone. must not drive, (pertaining to, will not be limited, will herewith, facilitating, not be forced) and above-referenced) assumes driver will be.

view and audience. Phrases option in. bulleted list with. highlighting bene ts. (day off, less driving. stress, lower gas bill) and familiar words. supply store adjacent to an ice cream parlor in Portland, Maine, posted a sign on. its door that reads: Please enjoy your ice cream before you enjoy our store. That. sounds much more positive and inviting than No food allowed!5.

48 Chapter 2: Planning Business Messages. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the Etching, right to the scarlet ibis story, remove additional content at documentary any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Using positive language also involves avoiding negative words that create ill Office. will. Some words appear to full, blame or accuse your audience.

For example, opening Insider. a letter to a customer with You claim that suggests that you dont believe the. customer. Other loaded words that can get you in trouble are complaint, criticism, Negative tone can. defective, failed, mistake, and neglected. Also avoid phrases such as you appar- hurt your company.

ently are unaware of or you did not provide or you misunderstood or you dont in many ways. Serial Biographies. It can. understand. Often you may be unaware of the effect of these words. Notice in the scarlet ibis full story, the lose customers, it can. following examples how you can revise the Hansberry’s in the Sun Essay, negative tone to create a more positive generate lawsuits and, impression. if inflammatory rhetoric. is found in a discover- Negative Positive able e-mail or log notes, a few words might. ? This plan definitely cannot succeed ? This plan definitely can succeed if we cost your company a. if we dont obtain management obtain management approval. whopping settlement and. approval. punitive damages in full story, a. ? We look forward to completing your bad-faith lawsuit..

? You failed to include your credit card order as soon as we receive your. number, so we cant mail your order. A Raisin In The. credit card number. Gary Blake, National. Underwriter Life Health- ? Your letter of May 2 claims that you ? Your May 2 letter describes a Financial Services. returned a defective headset. headset you returned. ? Employees cannot park in Lot H until ? Employees may park in Lot H starting. April 1. April 1. avoiding words that sound demanding or preachy.

Expressions such as you should, you must, and ibis full story, you have to cause people to instinctively react with Oh, yeah? One. remedy is to turn these demands into rhetorical questions that begin with Will you. please. . . What Of The Flies Represent. . The Scarlet Ibis. Giving reasons for a request also softens the tone. temper or being sarcastic will seldom accomplish your goals as a business commu- nicator: to inform, to persuade, and to create goodwill. Documentary. When you are irritated, frustrated, or infuriated, keep cool and try to the scarlet full story, defuse the Essay Techniques, situation. The Scarlet Full Story. In dealing with.

customers in telephone conversations, use polite phrases such as these: I would be. happy to assist you with that, Thank you for being so patient, and It was a pleasure. speaking with you. ? Cant you people get anything right? This is. ? Please credit my account for $340. My latest statement. the second time Ive written! shows that the error noted in my letter of May 15 has not. yet been corrected.

? Stewart, you must complete all performance. reviews by Friday. ? Stewart, will you please complete all performance. reviews by Friday. ? Am I the only one who can read the operating. manual? ? Lets review the operating manual together so that you. can get your documents to print correctly next time. Chapter 2: Planning Business Messages.

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to Essay, remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 2-5c Employing Bias-Free Language. free. Few writers set out to be offensive. Sometimes, though, we all say things that. we never thought could be hurtful. The real problem is that we dont think about. the words that stereotype groups of people, such as the ibis full story, boys in scott, the mail room or the. girls in the front office.

Be cautious about ibis full expressions that might be biased in serial biographies, terms. of gender, race, ethnicity, age, and the scarlet ibis story, disability. for words involving man or woman, by street, using plural nouns and pronouns, or by. changing to a gender-free word (person or representative). Avoid the the scarlet full story, his or her. option whenever possible. Its wordy and conspicuous. With a little effort, you can. usually find a construction that is graceful, grammatical, and Avoidant Disorder, unself-conscious. subjective (such as spry old codger).

To avoid disability bias, do not refer to an. individuals disability unless it is full story relevant. Fight Documentary. When necessary, use terms that do not. stigmatize people with disabilities. The following examples give you a quick look. at a few problem expressions and full, possible replacements. The real key to bias-free.

communication, though, lies in your awareness and commitment. Be on the lookout. to be sure that your messages do not exclude, stereotype, or offend people. ? female doctor, woman attorney, cleaning woman ? doctor, attorney, cleaner. ? waiter/waitress, authoress, stewardess ? server, author, flight attendant. ? mankind, man-hour, man-made ? humanity, working hours, artificial. ? office girls ? office workers. ? the doctor . . . he ? doctors . The Lord Of The Flies Represent. . . they.

? the teacher . . . she ? teachers . . . they. ? executives and their wives ? executives and their spouses. ? foreman, flagman, workman, craftsman ? lead worker, flagger, worker, artisan. ? businessman, salesman ? businessperson, sales representative. ? Each employee had his picture taken. ? Each employee had a picture taken. Each employee had his or her picture taken. ? An Indian accountant was hired. ? An accountant was hired.

? James Lee, an African-American, applied. ? James Lee applied. ? The law applied to old people. ? The law applied to ibis full story, people over sixty-five. ? Sally Kay, 55, was transferred. ? Sally Kay was transferred. ? a sprightly old gentleman ? a man. ? a little old lady ? a woman. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Disability Biased Bias Free. ? afflicted with arthritis, crippled by fight, arthritis ? has arthritis. ? confined to a wheelchair ? uses a wheelchair.

that you think audience members will recognize. Dont, however, avoid a big word. that conveys your idea efficiently and full story, is appropriate for the audience. Your goal is. to shun pompous and pretentious language. Instead, use GO words. The Drum John Scott. If you mean. begin, dont say commence or initiate. If you mean pay, dont write compensate. By.

substituting everyday, familiar words for unfamiliar ones, as shown here, you help. your audience comprehend your ideas quickly. ? commensurate ? equal Insider. ? interrogate ? question. ? materialize ? appear Simple changes can. ? obfuscate ? confuse have profound results. . . . ? remuneration ? pay, salary Plain talk isnt only. ? terminate ? end rewriting.

Its rethinking. your approach and. At the same time, be selective in your use of jargon. The Scarlet Story. Jargon describes technical really personalizing your sjenner13/iStock/Thinkstock. or specialized terms within a field. These terms enable insiders to communicate message to the audience. complex ideas briefly, but to outsiders they mean nothing.

Human resources profes- and to the reader.. sionals, for example, know precisely whats meant by cafeteria plan (a benefits. option program), but most of us would be thinking about lunch. Geologists refer to Janet Shimabukuro, manager, plate tectonics, and physicians discuss metastatic carcinomas. These terms mean Taxpayers Services, little to most of us. Use specialized language only when the audience will under- Department of Revenue, stand it. In addition, dont forget to consider secondary audiences: Will those poten- Washington State. tial receivers understand any technical terms used? 2-5e Using Precise, Vigorous Words. interested. Dont overlook the thesaurus (also available online or on Hansberry’s Sun Essay your computer) for expanding your word choices and the scarlet ibis, vocabulary.

Whenever possible, use precise, specific words, as shown here: ? a change in profits. ? to say ? a 25 percent hike in profits. ? to think about Essay a 10 percent plunge in profits. to allege, assert, assume, judge. to probe, examine, inspect. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Summary of Learning Objectives. 2-1 Discuss the ibis story, five steps in killers biographies, the communication process.

The message travels over full, a channel (such as an e-mail, website, tweet, letter, or smartphone call). Noise (loud sounds, misspelled words, or other distractions) may interfere with the of Lorraine A Raisin in the, transmission. The receiver decodes (interprets) the message and may respond with feedback. 2-2 Recognize the goals of business writing, summarize the the scarlet story, 3-x-3 writing process, and serial biographies, explain how it. The 3-x-3 writing process helps writers create efficient and effective messages. Phase 1 (prewriting): analyze the the scarlet full story, message, anticipate the audience, and consider how to adapt the the drum john, message to ibis full story, the. Phrase 3 (revising): edit, proofread, and evaluate the message. 2-3 Analyze the purpose of a message, anticipate its audience, and select the best communication. Select the appropriate channel to inform, persuade, or convey goodwill. After identifying the purpose, visualize both the primary and secondary audiences. Remember that receivers will usually be thinking, Whats in it for me (WIIFM)?

Select the best channel by Essay Etching, considering (a) the importance of the message, (b) the amount and ibis, speed of feedback. (f) the street fight documentary, confidentiality and sensitivity of the message, and (g) the receivers preference and level of technical. Apply the the scarlet ibis full story, you view without attempting to manipulate. Use conversational but professional language. 2-5 Develop additional expert writing techniques including the use of a positive and courteous tone, bias-free language, plain language, and precise words. (The project will be successful with your support rather than The project wont be successful without your support). Provide reasons for what flies represent a request to the scarlet ibis, soften the tone of the drum scott, a message.

Avoid biased language that excludes, stereotypes, or offends people (lady lawyer, spry old gentleman, confined to a. (analyze instead of the scarlet full story, think about). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to serial killers, remove additional content at full any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 2. List the five steps in Essay Etching, the communication process. The Scarlet Ibis. (Obj. 1) 4. Describe the components in each stage of the what the lord flies represent, 3-x-3 writing process.

Approximately how much time is spent on each stage? 6. The Scarlet Ibis Story. What seven factors should writers consider in selecting an appropriate channel to deliver a message? (Obj. 3) 8. How can a business writer sound conversational but also be professional? (Obj. 4) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to Etching, remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

9. Why is positive wording more effective in business messages than negative wording? (Obj. 5) 12. Why do you think employers prefer messages that are not written like high school and college essays? (Obj. 2)

13. Why should business writers strive to the scarlet ibis, use short, familiar, simple words? Does this dumb down business messages? (Obj. 5) 14. A wise observer once said that bad writing makes smart people look dumb. Do you agree or disagree, and why? (Objs. 15) 15. In a letter to the editor, a teacher criticized an does, article in USA Today on autism because it used the term autistic child rather than. For example, instead of full, identifying someone as a disabled person, one would say, she has a disability.

What does people-first. language mean? Can language change perceptions? (Obj. Essay Etching Techniques. 5) 16. We have prepared the enclosed form that may be used by full, victims to report identity theft to creditors. website to your employees and customers. double-endorsed checks presented by biographies, our customers. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the the scarlet ibis full story, right to what does the lord, remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

21. Our warranty goes into the scarlet ibis full effect only when we have received the products registration card from the purchaser. communicating by e-mail and avoiding printing. 24. Per your recent e-mail, the undersigned takes pride in informing you that we are pleased to be able to Summary in the, participate in the Toys for. before November 1. 30. Employees are not allowed to use instant messaging until a company policy is established.

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The Scarlet Full Story. Cengage Learning reserves the street fight, right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 31. We must withhold authorizing payment of your consultants fees because our CPA claims that your work is incomplete. read can see from the attached documents that Ive tried to explain this to you before. Next time read page 18 carefully so that you will know how to attach this blade.

we find it necessary to impose this new rule so that we can protect your personal information and company records. 36. Every employee must wear his photo identification on the job. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the the scarlet ibis, right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Plain Language and Familiar Words (Obj. 5) 42.

The salary we are offering is commensurate with remuneration for street fight documentary other managers. 47. Government economists (say, hypothesize, predict) that employment will (stabilize, stay the the scarlet ibis, same, even out) next year. of economic growth. new) level of risk and complexity. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to the drum john, remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. been learning. Rewriting is an excellent way to help you build writing skills.

It enables you to focus on ibis revising and not on supplying. a context or generating imaginary facts. Your instructors feedback regarding your strengths and challenges will speed your growth. as a business communicator. Note: Radical Rewrites are provided at www.cengagebrain.com for you to download and revise. Your instructor may show a. Your Task. Analyze the message and list at least five writing faults. Pay special attention to its tone. Your instructor may ask you to.

revise the message so that it reflects some of the expert writing techniques you learned in this chapter. How can you make this mes- sage more courteous, positive, and precise? In addition, think about using familiar words and developing the you view. From: Sybil Montrose smontrose@syracuse.com Subject: Problematic Online Use by Employees. Attached: E-Mail and Internet Policy.

Once again I have the decidedly unpleasant task of reminding all employees that you may NOT utilize company computers or. the Internet other than for work-related business and essential personal messages. Effective immediately a new policy must be. Our guys in street fight, IT tell me that our bandwidth is now seriously compromised by some of you boys and girls who are using company. computers for Facebooking, blogging, shopping, chatting, gaming, and the scarlet ibis full, downloading streaming video.

Yes, we have given you the. right to use e-mail responsibly for essential personal messages. What Does The Lord Of The Flies. That does not, however, include checking your Facebook or other. social accounts during work hours or downloading shows or sharing music. We distributed an e-mail policy a little while ago. We have now found it necessary to amplify and full, extrapolate that policy to include. use of the serial, Internet. If our company fails to control its e-mail and the scarlet ibis, Internet use, you will continue to suffer slow downloads and.

virus intrusions. You may also lose the right to use e-mail altogether. In the past every employee has had the serial biographies, right to send a. personal e-mail occasionally, but he must use that right carefully. We dont want to prohibit the personal use of ibis, e-mail entirely. Dont make me do this! You will be expected to study the attached E-Mail and Internet policy and return the signed form with your agreement to adhere to. this policy.

You must return this form by March 1. No exceptions! Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Of Lorraine In The. Cengage Learning reserves the full, right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. channels shown are available, ranging from face-to-face conversations to instant messages, blogs, and Etching Techniques, wikis. Be prepared to justify. your choices based on the richness of each channel. a. As part of a task force to full story, investigate cell phone marketing, you need to Avoidant Personality Essay, establish a central location where each team member can. b. Youre sitting on the couch in the evening watching TV when you suddenly remember that you were supposed to send Jeremy. some information about a shared project. Should you text him right away before you forget?

c. As an event planner, you have been engaged to research sites for a celebrity golf tournament. What is the the scarlet ibis full, best channel for. conveying your findings to your boss or planning committee? d. You want to persuade your manager to Avoidant Essay, change your work schedule. e. As a sales manager, you want to know which of your sales reps in the field are available immediately for a quick teleconference. f. You need to story, know whether Amanda in the lord represent, Reprographics can produce a rush job for you in two days. g. Your firm must respond to a notice from the Internal Revenue Service announcing that the company owes a penalty because it. underreported its income in the previous fiscal year. write the word that completes the statement correctly and the scarlet ibis story, the number of the john scott, G/M principle illustrated.

When you finish, compare. your responses with those provided near the end of the book. If your responses differ, study carefully the principles in parentheses. _it_s________________1_.0_9_d_ Example? The Employee Development Committee will make (its, their) recommendation soon. ______________________ 1. The manager said that Elena would call. Was it (she, her) who left the message? ______________________ 2. Every member of the mens soccer team must have (his, their) medical exam completed by Monday.

______________________ 3. Even instant messages sent between the CEO and (he, him) were revealed in the court case. ______________________ 4. Full. (Who, Whom) have you hired to killers biographies, create cutting-edge ads for us? ______________________ 5. It looks as if (yours, yours) is the only report that cites electronic sources correctly. ______________________ 6. Mark asked Catherine and (I, me, myself) to ibis full, help him complete his research. ______________________ 7. Street Fight. My friend and (I, me, myself) were interviewed for the same job. ______________________ 8. The Scarlet Ibis Story. To park the of Lorraine A Raisin Sun Essay, car, turn (its, its) wheels to full story, the left. ______________________ 9. Essay. Give the story, budget figures to (whoever, whomever) asked for Hansberry’s in the Sun Essay them. ______________________ 10. Everyone except the interviewer and (I, me, myself) noticed the alarm.

______________________ 11. Ibis. No one knows that case better than (he, him, himself). ______________________ 12. A proposed budget was sent to (we, us) owners before the vote. ______________________ 13. One of the female travelers left (their, her) smartphone on the seat. ______________________ 14. Avoidant Personality Essay. Neither the glamour nor the excitement of the Vegas job had lost (its, its, their) appeal. ______________________ 15. If neither Cory nor I receive confirmation of ibis story, our itinerary, (him and me, him and I, he and I)

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at Essay Etching any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. about beverage sweeteners from a researcher to his boss. However, the the scarlet full, message suffers from proofreading, spelling, grammar, punc- tuation, and killers, other writing faults that require correction. Study the ibis full story, guidelines in the Grammar/Mechanics Handbook. Avoidant Personality Disorder Essay. as well as the. lists of Confusing Words and Frequently Misspelled Words at the end of the book to sharpen your skills. Your Task. Edit the following message (a) by correcting errors in your textbook or on ibis full story a photocopy using proofreading marks from. Appendix A or (b) by downloading the message from www.cengagebrain.com and correcting at the drum john your computer.

Your instructor may. show you a possible solution. From: Aliriza Kasra a.kasra@dino.com Subject: Sending Information on ibis full story Beverage Sweeteners. Orenstein and Summary Hansberry’s in the, I pertaining to sweeteners. As you probaly already know, Coca-Cola co.

and PepsiCo inc. market many drinks using sweeteners that are new to the market. Which it considers a natural sweetener because it is derived from an herb. The initial. launch focused on locations and events oriented to ibis story, teenagers and young adults. According to inside information obtained by Ollie and I, this product was tested on. the shelfs of of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin Sun Essay, grocerys, mass merchants, and conveience stores in 5 citys in Florida. collaboration with Green earth sweetener co.

Its called Pure Via. The ?rst products. that contained the sweetener were 3 ?avors of zero-calorie SoBe Lifewater. It may. also be used in a orange-juice drink with half the calorys and ibis, sugar of orange juice. Another new sweetener is Nectresse, marketed by Splenda.

It comes from the monk. fruit. Which has been cultivated for centurys, and only recently rediscovered as a. source of natural sweetness. for these new sweeteners. The Drum John. FDA approval was an issue because studys conducted in. the early 1990s suggested that their was possible adverse health effects from the use. of stevia-based products. However the herb has been aproved for use in 12 countrys. the market. We cannot submit our full report until October 15. Research and Development.

Of?ce: (927) 443-9920. Cell: (927) 442-2310. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the story, overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Communication Career Skills. Solving, and Essay, Decision Making! check their brains at the door and the scarlet ibis full story, do only as told.

Today, you important. will be expected to the drum john, use your brain and think critically. The Scarlet Ibis Full Story. You will. be solving problems and the drum john scott, making decisions. Much of the scarlet, this book is Choose the Essay Etching Techniques, best alternative and test it. Ibis Full Story. Select an alterna- devoted to helping you solve problems and communicate those tive, and of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin Sun Essay, try it out to see if it meets your expectations. If it.

decisions to management, fellow workers, clients, the govern- does, put your decision it into the scarlet story action. Killers Biographies. If it doesnt, rethink your. ment, and the public. Faced with a problem or an issue, most of alternatives. The freight company decided to give its unhappy. us do a lot of the scarlet ibis, worrying before identifying the issues or making a customers free delivery service to make up for Avoidant Personality Disorder the lost pack- decision. You can convert all that worrying to the scarlet story, directed thinking ages and downtime. Be sure to continue monitoring and. by channeling it into the following procedure: adjusting the solution to ensure its effectiveness over time. recognize that a problem exists.

Some problems are big and lem (discussed on page 39) in which customers and some fran- unmistakable, such as failure of an air-freight delivery service chise owners are unhappy with the multiple lines for service. to get packages to customers on time. Other problems may Customers dont seem to know where to what does of the flies, stand to be the next. be continuing annoyances, such as regularly running out of served. Tempers flare when aggressive customers cut in line, and.

toner for story an office copy machine. The first step in Personality Disorder, reaching a other customers spend so much time protecting their places in. solution is pinpointing the the scarlet ibis full story, problem. Essay Etching Techniques. line that they are not ready to order. As a franchise owner, you. want to solve this problem. Any new procedures, however, must. Gather information. Learn more about the ibis full story, problem situation. be approved by a majority of McDonalds owners in what of the represent, your district. Look for possible causes and solutions. This step may mean You know that McDonalds management feels that the multi- checking files, calling suppliers, or brainstorming with fellow line system accommodates higher volumes of customers more. workers.

For example, the air-freight delivery service would quickly than a single-line system does. Ibis Full. In addition, customers are. investigate the Hansberry’s A Raisin, tracking systems of the the scarlet, commercial airlines turned off when they see a long line. carrying its packages to determine what is Summary Hansberry’s in the Sun Essay going wrong. Evaluate the evidence. Where did the information come. from? Does it represent various points of full, view? What biases Individually or with a team, use the critical-thinking steps. could be expected from each source? How accurate is the Personality Disorder, outlined here.

Begin by clarifying the ibis full, problem. information gathered? Is it fact or opinion? For example, it is. a fact that packages are missing; it is an opinion that they are Where could you gather information? Would it be wise to. merely lost and will turn up eventually. Street Fight. see what your competitors are doing? How do banks handle. customer lines?

Airlines? Consider alternatives and the scarlet full, implications. Draw conclu- sions from the gathered evidence and pose solutions. Sun Essay. Then Evaluate your findings and consider alternatives. What are. weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the scarlet full story, each alternative. the pros and cons of each alternative? What are the costs, benefits, and consequences? What are.

the obstacles, and how can they be handled? Most impor- With your team, choose the best alternative. Present your. tant, what solution best serves your goals and those of your recommendation to your class and killers biographies, give your reasons for. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. endNotes 5? Be positive. The Scarlet. (2009, March). Communication Briefings, p. 5. Adapted from. Brandi, J. Winning at customer retention at of Lorraine Hansberry’s in the http://www. 1? Arnold, V. (1986, August). Benjamin Franklin on writing well.

Personnel .customercarecoach.com. 6? Link, S. (2012, May 2). Use person first language. [Letter to editor]. USA. 2? Bacon, M. (1988, April). The Scarlet Ibis Full. Quoted in serial killers, Business writing: One-on-one speaks Today, p. 6A.

best to the masses. Training, p. Ibis Story. 95. Ford exec apologizes for saying company tracks customers with GPS. The Detroit News. Retrieved from http://www.detroitnews.com. The Detroit News. Retrieved from http://www.detroitnews.com/article/20140109/AUTO0102/301090127.

Financial Services Edition, 106(44), 35. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Organizing and Drafting Chapter. you should be able to. Apply Phase 2 of the 3-x-3. lots of people believe they will never be required to write on the job. The truth is, however, that business, technical, and professional people in Avoidant Personality Disorder Essay, this digital age are background information. exchanging more messages than ever before.

The more quickly you can put your. ideas down and the scarlet ibis story, the more clearly you can explain what needs to of the flies, be said, the the scarlet story, more 3-2. successful and Avoidant Disorder Essay, happy you will be in ibis, your career. Organize information into. three chapters to teaching you a tried-and-true writing process, summarized in.

Figure 3.1 This process guides you through the steps necessary to write rapidly but, 3-3. more important, clearly. Instead of struggling with a writing assignment and not Compose the first draft of. knowing where to begin or what to say, you can use this effective process both in. school and on the job. Sun Essay. a message using a variety.

the importance of using a conversational tone, positive language, plain and cour- teous expression, and familiar words. This chapter addresses the second stage of avoiding sentence fragments, the process, which involves gathering information, organizing it into outlines, and. drafting messages. Story. run-on sentences, and. Improve your writing by. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Office 3-1a G etting Started Requires Researching Background. todays electronic commu- information. We call this process research, a rather formal-sounding term. For our.

nications, one might purposes, however, research simply means collecting information about a certain. think that the value of john scott, topic. This is an important step in the writing process because that information helps. fundamental writing the the scarlet ibis, writer shape the message. Discovering significant information after a message is half. skills has diminished in Summary Sun Essay, completed often means having to start over and reorganize. To avoid frustration and. the workplace. Actually inaccurate messages, writers collect information that answers several questions: the need to write clearly.

and quickly has never ?? What does the receiver need to ibis full story, know about this topic? been more important ?? What is the receiver to documentary, do? than in todays highly ?? How is the receiver to the scarlet full, do it? competitive, technology- ?? When must the receiver do it? driven global economy. ?? What will happen if the receiver doesnt do it? and chief executive officer of in your head or at your fingertips, you must conduct research. This research may. EMC Corporation be informal or formal. reports, and oral presentationsrequire information that you can collect infor- Apply Phase 2 of the 3-x-3 mally. Where can you find information before starting a project?

The following. writing process, which begins techniques are useful in informal research: with formal and informal ?? Search your companys files. Biographies. If you are responding to an inquiry or drafting a. research to story, collect back- ground information. routine message, you often can find background information such as previous. correspondence in your own files or those of the company. You might consult the. company wiki or other digital and manual files. Etching. You might also consult colleagues.

?? Talk with the ibis full story, boss. Street. Get information from the individual making the assignment. What does that person know about the topic? What slant should you take? What other sources would that person suggest? ?? Interview the target audience. Consider talking with individuals at whom.

the message is aimed. They can provide clarifying information that tells. purpose. What do you want the by searching files and the Internet. The Scarlet Full Story. long lead-ins, redundancies, and. receiver to street fight, do or believe? trite business phrases. Strive for. Organize: Arrange direct messages parallelism, clarity, conciseness, and. Anticipate: What does the audience with the big idea first. For persua- readability. already know? How will it receive this sive or negative messages, use an.

message? indirect, problem-solving strategy. Proofread: Check carefully for errors. in spelling, grammar, punctuation, Adapt: Think about techniques Draft: Prepare the the scarlet full, first draft, using and the lord flies represent, format. to present this message most active-voice sentences, coherent. effectively. Ibis Full Story. Consider how to elicit paragraphs, and Avoidant Personality Disorder, appropriate transi- Evaluate: Will this message achieve. feedback. tional expressions. your purpose? Is the the scarlet, tone pleasant? Did you encourage feedback? Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience.

Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. you what they want to know and how you wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com. should shape your remarks. Suggestions. for conducting more formal interviews are. presented in what does represent, Chapter 10.

?? C onduct an informal survey. Gather. u nscientific but helpful information through. q uestionnaires, telephone surveys, or online. surveys. In preparing a report predicting the. success of a proposed company fitness center, for example, circulate a questionnaire asking. for employee reactions. ?? Brainstorm for the scarlet ibis story ideas. Alone or with others, discuss ideas for in the Sun Essay the writing task at hand, and. record at least a dozen ideas without judging.

them. The Scarlet Story. Small groups are especially fruitful in. brainstorming because people spin ideas off. egy firm, brainstorming may devolve into a kind of. Long reports and complex business problems competitive-idea tennis match. One Jumpster. generally require formal research methods.

Lets starts with the first idea, and the next Jumpster says, say you are part of the management team for the drum scott an. international retailer such as Forever 21 and you Yes, and? which leads to the scarlet, another Yes, and? bounc- Canada. Or, lets assume you must write a term. paper for Essay Techniques a college class. Both tasks require more method, this technique became an effective collabora- data than you have in the scarlet ibis story, your head or at your finger- tips. To conduct formal research, consider the tion procedure and a core element of Avoidant Essay, scrum, a daily. following research options: standing meeting where the the scarlet full story, same yes, and principle is. applied in improv games that prepare the company for. ?? Access electronic sources.

College and public its unique approach to serial killers, brainstorming. For its megaclient. that permit access to a wide array of books, journals, magazines, newspapers, and ibis full, other a Box, which became a phenomenal success. How does. the Yes, and concept improve brainstorming?1. you also could conduct an online Google. search turning up thousands of hits, which.

can be overwhelming. Expect to be deluged with torrents of information, presenting a troubling paradox: research seems to be far more difficult. to conduct in Essay Etching, the digital age than in previous times.2 With so much data. drowning todays researchers, they struggle to sort through it all, trying to. decide what is the scarlet full story current, relevant, and credible. Does The Lord. Help is on the scarlet story the way, however! Youll learn more about serial researching and using electronic sources effectively. is available through manual searching of resources in public and college.

libraries. These traditional paper-based sources include books and the scarlet ibis full, newspaper, magazine, and journal articles. Other sources are encyclopedias, reference. books, handbooks, dictionaries, directories, and almanacs. project, go directly to the source. In helping to launch a new Forever 21 outlet. in Canada, you might travel to possible sites and check them out. If you need. information about how many shoppers pass by a location or visit a shopping.

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Avoidant Essay. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at the scarlet ibis any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. center, you might conduct a traffic count. Fight Documentary. If you need information about. consumers, you could search blogs, Twitter, wikis, and ibis full, Facebook fan pages. Avoidant Personality Disorder. To. learn more about ibis story specific shoppers, you could use questionnaires, interviews, or.

focus groups. The Lord Represent. Formal research often includes scientific sampling methods that. enable investigators to make accurate judgments and valid predictions. ?? Conduct scientific experiments. Another source of story, primary data is fight experimen- tation. Instead of merely asking for the target audiences opinion, scientific.

researchers present choices with controlled variables. Assume, for example, that. the management team at Forever 21 wants to know at ibis full what price and under. what circumstances consumers would purchase jeans from Forever 21 instead. of from Abercrombie Fitch. Fight Documentary. Instead of ibis full story, jeans, lets say that management. wants to Personality Essay, study the time of year and type of weather conditions that motivate. consumers to begin purchasing sweaters, jackets, and cold-weather gear.

The. results of ibis, such experimentation would provide valuable data for managerial. decision making. Because formal research techniques are particularly necessary. for reports, you will study resources and john, techniques more extensively in Unit 4. strategic relationships. includes two processes: grouping and strategizing.

Well-organized messages. group similar items together; ideas follow a sequence that helps the ibis, reader under- stand relationships and accept the writers views. Unorganized messages proceed. free-form, jumping from one thought to another. Such messages fail to scott, emphasize. important points.

Puzzled readers cant see how the pieces fit together, and they. become frustrated and irritated. Ibis Full Story. Many communication experts regard poor orga- nization as the greatest failing of serial biographies, business writers. Two simple techniques can help. you organize data: the scratch list and the outline. message. They then compose the message on a computer directly from the scratch. list. Most writers, though, need to the scarlet ibis full story, organize their ideasespecially if the project is.

complexinto a hierarchy such as an the drum john scott, outline. The Scarlet Story. The beauty of preparing an street fight documentary, outline. is that it gives you a chance to organize your thinking before you get bogged down. in word choice and sentence structure. Figure 3.2 shows an outline format.

the reader to be pleased, mildly interested, or, at worst, neutraluse the direct. strategy. Full. That is, put your main pointthe purpose of what the lord of the flies, your messagein the first. or second sentence. Dianna Booher, renowned writing consultant, pointed out that. typical readers begin any message by thinking, So what am I supposed to do with. this information? In business writing you have to say, Reader, here is my point!3.

As quickly as possible, tell why you are writing. Compare the the scarlet, direct and indirect. strategies in the following e-mail openings. Notice how long it takes to get to the. main idea in the indirect opening. prospective job candidates. For this reason, the Management begin a college internship pilot program. Council has been gathering information about an internship next fall. program for college students. After considerable investigation, we. have voted to street documentary, begin a pilot program starting next fall.

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to the scarlet, remove additional content at serial killers biographies any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Figure 3.2? Format for an Outline. Define the main topic in the title. Divide the main topic into major components or.

Break the components into subpoints. Dont put a single item under a major component; main item above it or reorganize. Strive to the scarlet ibis, make each component exclusive (no. Use details, illustrations, and serial biographies, evidence to support. to the main idea quickly. Ibis. This direct method, also called frontloading, has at biographies least. ?? Saves the readers time. The Scarlet Story. Many of Disorder Essay, todays businesspeople can devote only a few. lose their readers along the way.

?? Sets a proper frame of mind. Ibis Full. Learning the purpose up front helps the reader. put the subsequent details and explanations in perspective. What Does The Lord Flies. Without a clear. opening, the reader may be thinking, Why am I being told this?. ?? Reduces frustration. Readers forced to struggle through excessive verbiage. before reaching the main idea can become frustrated and begin to resent the.

writer. Poorly organized messages create a negative impression of the writer. Typical business messages that follow the direct strategy include routine requests. and responses, orders and acknowledgments, nonsensitive memos, e-mails, infor- mational reports, and informational oral presentations. All these tasks have one. element in common: none has a sensitive subject that will upset the reader. Ibis Full Story. It should.

be noted, however, that some business communicators prefer to use the direct. strategy for nearly all messages. strategy is more appropriate. In this strategy you reveal the main idea only after. you have offered an explanation and evidence. This approach works well with three. kinds of messages: (a) bad news, (b) ideas that require persuasion, and (c) sensitive. news, especially when being transmitted to superiors. The indirect strategy has. ?? Respects the feelings of the audience.

Bad news is always painful, but the. ?? Facilitates a fair hearing. Messages that may upset the reader are more likely to. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. US Air Force Photo/Alamy When Hurricane Sandy slammed the East Coast. of the United States, the scott, superstorm flooded. thousands of ibis full, homes and left citizens displaced, especially in New Jersey and Summary Hansberry’s A Raisin Sun Essay, New York.

In the weeks that. followed, devastated homeowners contacted insur- ance companies for help rebuilding their livesonly to. discover that standard homeowner policies do not cover. flood losses. Sympathetic claims adjusters struggled to. break the ibis, bad news, and heartbroken policyholders. expressed anger and disbelief as their claims were. denied. Its traumatic to the drum scott, lose your house and everything. you own, said one survivor. On top of this, you find out. your insurance is the scarlet ibis story not helping you. How should claims.

administrators organize messages when denying claims. to disaster victims?4. reading or listening. ?? Minimizes a negative reaction. A readers overall reaction to a negative message. is generally improved if the news is delivered gently. Typical business messages that could be developed indirectly include e-mails, memos, and Essay Etching, letters that refuse requests, deny claims, and disapprove credit. Persuasive requests, sales letters, sensitive messages, and full, some reports and Summary, oral. presentations may also benefit from the indirect strategy. The Scarlet Full. You will learn more about.

using the Summary Hansberry’s A Raisin in the, indirect strategy in the scarlet full, Chapters 7 and 8. In summary, business messages may be organized directly (with the main idea. first) or indirectly. How you expect the audience to respond determines which. strategy to use, as illustrated in Figure 3.3. Although these two strategies cover. many communication problems, they should be considered neither universal nor. inviolate. Every business transaction is distinct. Some messages are mixed: part. good news, part bad; part goodwill, part persuasion.

In upcoming chapters you. will practice applying the direct and indirect strategies in the drum john, typical situations. Story. Then, you will have the does, skills and confidence to evaluate communication problems and. vary these strategies depending on full the goals you wish to achieve. If somewhat interested. If neutral ? Good news. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience.

Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 3-3 Composing the First Draft With Effective Sentences 3Learning Objective. youre ready to begin drafting. Of Lorraine In The. Many writers have trouble getting started, especially message using a variety of. if they havent completed the the scarlet, preparatory work. Organizing your ideas and of Lorraine A Raisin in the, working sentence types while avoiding. from an story, outline are very helpful in overcoming writers block. Composition is also sentence fragments, run-on. easier if you have a quiet environment in which to concentrate, if you set aside time sentences, and comma splices. to concentrate, and if you limit interruptions.

that you write quickly (freewriting). Avoidant Personality Essay. Get your thoughts down now and refine them in. later versions. As you take up each idea, imagine that you are talking to the reader. Dont let yourself get bogged down. If you cant think of the right word, insert a. substitute or type find perfect word later. Story. Freewriting works well for some writers, but others prefer to move more slowly and think through their ideas more deliber- ately.

Whether you are a speedy or a deliberate writer, keep in mind that you are. writing the first draft. You will have time later to revise and polish your sentences. monotony and to add spark to your writing, use a variety of Avoidant Personality Essay, sentence types. You. have four sentence types from which to ibis full story, choose: simple, compound, complex, and. such as and, but, or or; (b) a semicolon; or (c) a conjunctive adverb such as however, consequently, and therefore: thought that cannot stand by itself). Dependent clauses are often introduced by. words such as although, since, because, when, and if. When dependent clauses.

precede independent clauses, they always are followed by does the lord represent, a comma: When the entrepreneur saw the opportunity, she responded immediately; Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Office 3-3b Avoiding Three Common Sentence Faults. As you craft your sentences, beware of three common traps: fragments, run-on. If you think an the scarlet, (fused) sentences, and comma-splice sentences. If any of these faults appears in scott, a. a postrophe was one of business message, the writer immediately loses credibility. the 12 disciples of Jesus, you will never work One of the most serious errors a writer can make is punctuating a fragment as. for me. If you think a if it were a complete sentence.

A fragment is ibis full story usually a broken-off part of a complex. semicolon is serial a regular sentence. Fragments often can be identified by the scarlet, the words that introduce themwords. colon with an identity such as although, as, because, even, except, for example, if, instead of, since, such. crisis, I will not hire you. as, that, which, and when. What Does Of The Flies Represent. These words introduce dependent clauses, as italicized in. If you scatter commas the full story, following fragment examples. They should not be punctuated as sentences. Make. into a sentence with all sure such clauses always connect to Hansberry’s A Raisin, independent clauses, as shown in the revisions.

the discrimination of a. shotgun, you might make Fragment Revision. it to the foyer before we. politely escort you from ? Because most transactions require ? Because most transactions require. the building. a permanent record. The Scarlet Full. Good writing a permanent record, good writing. skills are critical. skills are critical. Kyle Wiens, CEO, iFixit, the largest online repair ? The recruiter requested a writing ? The recruiter requested a writing. community sample. John Scott. Even though the candidate sample even though the candidate. seemed to communicate well. seemed to communicate well. two independent clauses must be joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, or, nor, but) or by a semicolon (;) or separated into two sentences.

Without a conjunc- tion or a semicolon, a run-on sentence results. resumes some also use websites as resumes. Some also use websites as. electronic portfolios. electronic portfolios. another sent a link to her Web portfolio. another sent a link to her Web portfolio. together) two independent clauses with a comma. Independent clauses may be. joined with a coordinating conjunction (and, or, nor, but) or a conjunctive adverb. (however, consequently, therefore, and others). Notice that clauses joined by a. coordinating conjunctions require only a comma.

Clauses joined by a conjunctive. adverb require a semicolon and a comma. To rectify a comma splice, try one of. the possible revisions shown here: desktop computers, others computers, but others prefer their tablets. prefer their tablets. ? Some employees prefer their desktop. computers; however, others prefer their. computers; others prefer their tablets. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 3-3c Favoring Short Sentences Office.

Because your goal is to communicate clearly, you should strive for sentences. that average 20 words. Some sentences will be shorter; some will be longer. Story. The On the topic of comma. American Press Institute reports that reader comprehension drops off markedly as splices, one well-known. sentences become longer.5 Therefore, in crafting your sentences, think about the Avoidant Essay, writing coach says, Why. relationship between sentence length and comprehension. do intelligent people. make the error? I think. Sentence Length Comprehension Rate people worry that they. ? 8 words 100% will come across too.

15 words ?90% informally or too plainly. 19 words ?80% if they use [two] short. 28 words ?50% sentences. They believe. Instead of stringing together clauses with and, but, and however, break some sentences, especially. of those complex sentences into separate segments.

Business readers want to grasp two of them in a row, ideas immediately. They can do that best when thoughts are separated into short cant be professional. But. sentences. On the other hand, too many monotonous short sentences will sound two short, crisp, clear. grammar schoolish and may bore or even annoy the reader. Strive for a balance sentences in a row are. between longer sentences and shorter ones. Your grammar-checker and full story, spell- professional and punchy.. checker can show you readability statistics that flag long sentences and give you an.

average sentence length. Lynn Gaertner Johnson, business writing trainer, writing techniques. In this section we focus on emphasizing and de-emphasizing. ideas and biographies, using active and passive voice strategically. them loudly or by repeating them slowly. The Scarlet. You could even pound the table if you emphasizing important ideas, want to show real emphasis! Another way you could signal the street fight, relative importance employing the active and.

of an idea is by raising your eyebrows or by the scarlet ibis, shaking your head or whispering in a passive voice effectively, using. low voice. What Flies. But when you write, you must rely on other means to tell your readers parallelism, and preventing. which ideas are more important than others. Emphasis in writing can be achieved dangling and misplaced. primarily in two ways: mechanically and stylistically. modifiers. Italics and boldface Using italics or boldface conveys special meaning.

Font changes Selecting a large, small, or different font draws interest. All caps Printing words in ALL CAPS is like shouting them. Dashes Dashesused sparinglycan be effective. Tabulation Listing items vertically makes them stand out: 2.? Second item. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience.

Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Other means of the scarlet ibis, achieving mechanical emphasis include the arrangement of space, color, lines, boxes, columns, titles, headings, and subheadings. Todays software. and color printers provide a wonderful array of capabilities for setting off ideas. More tips on achieving emphasis are coming in Chapter 4, in which we cover docu- writer chooses words carefully and constructs sentences skillfully to emphasize. main ideas and de-emphasize minor or negative ideas. Here are four suggestions for. emphasizing ideas stylistically: picture ideas clearly. changed. how job hunters search for of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun Essay positions. as possible.

5 p.m. Full Story. tomorrow, May 3. but also focus on networking. most important, focus on networking. customer service and low prices. John Scott. primary reason for shopping here is the. surrounding words when they appear first or last in a sentence. Observe how the. concept of productivity can be emphasized by its position in the sentence: effective in increasing productivity increased when profit-sharing plans. when they are linked to individual are linked to individual performance. performance rather than to group rather than to group performance. making it share the ibis full, stage with other words and clauses. Instead, put it in a simple.

sentence or in an independent clause. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the documentary, right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Main Idea Lost Main Idea Clear. this program, we had many candidates and expect program. The Scarlet Story. (Simple sentence) to expand the program in the future. The Drum. (The main idea.

is lost in a dependent clause.) Use general words. ? Our records indicate that you were recently fired. ? Our records indicate that your employment status. has recently changed. that contains something positive.?In sentences with dependent clauses, the main. emphasis is always on the independent clause. a special plan that will allow you to fill your imme- can fill your immediate needs on a cash basis with. diate needs on a cash basis. our special plan. voice sentences, the subject receives the action.

Active-voice sentences are more. direct because they reveal the performer immediately. They are easier to under- stand and usually shorter. Most business writing should be in the active voice. However, passive voice is useful to (a) emphasize an ibis full, action rather than a person, (b) de-emphasize negative news, and (c) conceal the doer of an action. written so that their parts are balanced, or parallel, are easy to read and understand. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the in the Sun Essay, overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the ibis story, right to what does the lord of the, remove additional content at ibis story any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

To achieve parallel construction, use similar structures to express similar ideas. For. example, the words computing, coding, recording, and of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the, storing are parallel because. the words all end in -ing. To express the full, list as computing, coding, recording, and. storage is disturbing because the last item is the drum scott not what the the scarlet, reader expects.

Try to. match nouns with nouns, verbs with verbs, and the drum john scott, clauses with clauses. Avoid mixing. active-voice verbs with passive-voice verbs. Your goal is to the scarlet, keep the of the represent, wording. balanced in expressing similar ideas.

? The policy affected all vendors, ? The policy affected all vendors, Good writers dont let suppliers, and those involved with suppliers, and consultants. (Matches. their modifiers dangle in consulting. nouns.) public. Always suspect. an -ing word of dangling ? Our primary goals are to increase ? Our primary goals are to increase. if its near the full story, front of productivity, reduce costs, and the productivity, reduce costs, and improve.

a sentence; consider improvement of product quality. product quality. Essay Techniques. (Matches verbs.) it guilty until proved. innocent. ? We are scheduled to meet in ? We are scheduled to the scarlet full, meet in Atlanta. Atlanta on the drum john scott January 5, we are on January 5, in Montreal on March 15, Patricia T. OConner, author, meeting in Montreal on the 15th of ibis full story, and in Chicago on June 3. Street Fight Documentary. (Matches. Woe Is I: The Grammarphobes March, and in Chicago on June 3. Ibis Full. phrases.) Guide to Better English in. Plain English ? Shelby audits all accounts ? Shelby audits all accounts lettered A. lettered A through L; accounts through L; Andrew audits accounts. 74 lettered M through Z are lettered M through Z. (Matches. audited by Andrew. clauses.)

1.?We want to increase product use. 1.?Increase product use. 2.?Introduce complementary 2.?Introduce complementary products. products. 3.?Enhance our corporate image. 3.?Our corporate image will be (Matches verbs in Avoidant Personality Disorder Essay, listed items.) fier dangles when the the scarlet ibis full, word or phrase it describes is missing from biographies its sentencefor. example, After working overtime, the report was finally finished. The Scarlet Ibis Full Story. This sentence. says that the report was working overtime. Revised, the sentence contains a logical. subject: After working overtime, we finally finished the the drum scott, report.

to be clearfor example, Firefighters rescued a dog from a burning car that had a. broken leg. Obviously, the car did not have a broken leg. The solution is to position. the modifier closer to the scarlet ibis full, the word(s) it describes or limits: Firefighters rescued a dog. with a broken leg from a burning car.

immediately with the words they logically describe or modify. Try this trick for. detecting and remedying many dangling modifiers. Essay Etching Techniques. Ask the question Who? or. What? after any introductory phrase. The words immediately following should tell.

the reader who or what is performing the action. Try the Who? test on the first. three danglers here: Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Dangling or Misplaced Modifier Clear Modification. completed. the project. sent by ibis full, May 1. figures by May 1. excellent computer skills in the morning. Serial. with excellent computer skills. our spring open house. you to our spring open house. OR: our spring open house.

main idea. The Scarlet Ibis Full Story. The sentences in their paragraphs cohere, or stick together, by using p aragraphs that incorporate. transitional expressions. (a) topic sentences, (b) support. sentences, and (c) transitional. 3-5a Crafting Topic Sentences expressions to build coherence. expressed in a topic sentence, which may appear at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of the paragraph. Business writers generally place the topic sentence. first in the paragraph. John Scott. It tells readers what to expect and helps them understand the. paragraphs central thought immediately.

hardest things for beginning writers to remember is that all support sentences in. the paragraph must relate to the topic sentence. Any other topics should be treated. separately. Ibis Story. Support sentences provide specific details, explanations, and evidence.

The following example starts with a topic sentence about flexible work scheduling. and is followed by three support sentences that explain how flexible scheduling. could work. Transitional expressions are italicized: to manage family responsibilities. Feeling less stress, employees are able to. focus their attention better at work; therefore, they become more relaxed. and more productive. cally to the lord of the flies, the next. Ibis Full. Well-written paragraphs take the reader through a number of. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience.

Cengage Learning reserves the serial killers biographies, right to remove additional content at the scarlet ibis any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Figure 3.4? Transitional Expressions to street documentary, Build Coherence. Strengthen or Order and Effect. for example actually as opposed to. additionally after for instance accordingly but at the same time.

accordingly before I mean as a result however by contrast. again earlier in other words consequently in fact conversely. also finally put another way for this reason instead on the contrary. beside first that is hence rather on story the other hand. indeed meanwhile this means so still previously. likewise next thus therefore yet similarly. moreover now thus. lost. Fight. Several techniques allow the reader to follow the writers ideas: ?? Repeat a key idea by using the same expression or a similar one: Employees.

?? Use pronouns to refer to previous nouns: All new employees receive a two- ?? Show connections with transitional expressions: Hospitality is the scarlet ibis full story our busi- however, as a result, and meanwhile. For a complete list, see Figure 3.4.) value of short paragraphs. Does Of The Represent. Paragraphs with eight or fewer printed lines look inviting. and readable. Ibis. Long, solid chunks of Avoidant, print appear formidable. If a topic cant be covered. in eight or fewer printed lines (not sentences), consider breaking it into smaller segments. Collect information by answering questions about what the receiver needs to know and full, what the receiver is to do. Conduct informal research for routine tasks by Summary of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun Essay, looking in the scarlet ibis full story, the companys digital and other files, talking with the boss, interviewing the target audience, organizing informal surveys, and brainstorming for ideas. primary sources, and the drum john scott, organizing scientific experiments. For simple messages, make a quick scratch list of story, topics; for more complex messages, create an outline.

To prepare an outline, divide the main topic into three to five major components. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Break the components into subpoints consisting of Essay Etching Techniques, details, illustrations, and evidence. Organize the information using the direct strategy (with the main idea first) when audiences will be pleased, mildly. interested, or neutral. unwilling, displeased, or hostile. Employ a variety of the scarlet story, sentence types including simple (one independent clause), complex (one independent and one. Avoid fragments (broken-off parts of street documentary, sentences), run-on sentences (two clauses fused improperly), and comma splices.

Remember that sentences are most effective when they are short (20 or fewer words). e ffectively, using parallelism, and preventing dangling and misplaced modifiers. Emphasize an idea stylistically by using vivid words, labeling it, making it the sentence subject, placing it first or last, and. removing competing ideas. Use the passive voice (the student was hired) to de-emphasize negative news, to emphasize an action rather than the doer, Avoid dangling modifiers (sitting at my computer, the words would not come) and misplaced modifiers (I have the report you. Always include a topic sentence that states the main idea of the ibis full story, paragraph.

Develop support sentences to illustrate, explain, or strengthen the topic sentence. Build coherence by what does the lord, repeating a key idea, using pronouns to the scarlet ibis full story, refer to Essay Etching, previous nouns, and showing connections with transi- tional expressions (however, therefore, consequently). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 3. Why do writers need to outline complex projects before beginning? (Obj. 2)

4. What business messages are better organized directly, and which are better organized indirectly? (Obj. 2) 5. What are the the scarlet ibis story, four sentence types? Provide an Summary of Lorraine A Raisin Sun Essay, original example of each. (Obj. 3) 7. The Scarlet. How is a sentence fragment different from a comma splice? (Obj. 3)

8. What is the difference between active-voice and passive-voice sentences? Give an of Lorraine Hansberry’s in the Sun Essay, original example of ibis story, each. When should busi- 10. Name three techniques for building paragraph coherence. (Obj. 5) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the street documentary, right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 12. The Scarlet Story. Molly, a twenty-three-year-old college graduate with a 3.5 GPA, was hired as an Summary Hansberry’s Sun Essay, administrative assistant.

She was a fast learner. I just dont think this job is ibis story a good fit. Commas, semicolons, spelling, typosthose kinds of things just arent all that important. to me. They just dont matter.6 For what kind of job is Molly qualified? (Objs. 15) 13.

Why is audience analysis so important in the selection of the direct or indirect organization strategy for a business. 14. Etching. How are speakers different from writers in the way they emphasize ideas? (Obj. 4) 15. Now that you have studied the active and passive voice, what do you think when someone in government or business says, Mistakes were made? Is it unethical to use the passive voice to avoid specifics? a.?Simple sentence c.?Complex. b.?Compound sentence d.?Compound-complex. 17. If you travel abroad on the scarlet ibis full business, you may bring gifts for business partners.

18. Fight Documentary. In Latin America a knife is not a proper gift; it signifies cutting off a relationship. 19. When Arabs, Middle Easterners, and Latin Americans talk, they often stand close to the scarlet ibis, each other. 20. Unless they are old friends, Europeans do not address each other by first names; consequently, 21. In the Philippines men wear a long embroidered shirt called a barong, and street fight documentary, women wear a dress called. 22.

Because 90 percent of ibis full, all business transactions involve written messages. Good writing skills are critical. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the what does the lord of the flies, overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 25. Thirsty consumers may think that variable pricing is unfair they may also refuse to the scarlet ibis full story, use the machine. 28. Serial Killers. Which is more emphatic? b. Our dress code reflects common sense and good taste. 29.

Which is more emphatic? a. A budget increase would certainly improve hiring. b. A budget increase of $70,000 would enable us to hire two new people. 30. Ibis Full Story. Which is more emphatic? a. The committee was powerless to act. b. Does The Lord Represent. The committee was unable to take action. 31. Which de-emphasizes the refusal?

a. Although our resources are committed to other projects this year, we hope to story, be able to contribute to your worthy cause. b. The Drum. We cant contribute to your charity this year. 32. Which sentence places more emphasis on story the date? a. The deadline is November 30 for health benefit changes. b. November 30 is the deadline for health benefit changes. 33. Which is street fight documentary less emphatic?

a. One divisions profits decreased last quarter. b. The Scarlet Story. Profits in beauty care products dropped 15 percent last quarter. 34. Which sentence de-emphasizes the credit refusal? a. We are unable to grant you credit at this time, but we welcome your cash business and encourage you to reapply in the. b. Although credit cannot be granted at this time, we welcome your cash business and Summary of Lorraine A Raisin in the Sun Essay, encourage you to the scarlet story, reapply in the. 35. Which sentence gives more emphasis to leadership? b. Jason has many admirable qualities, including leadership skill, good judgment, and patience. 36.

Which is what the lord of the represent more emphatic? a. We notified three departments: (1) Marketing, (2) Accounting, and (3) Distribution. b. We notified three departments: Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The Scarlet Ibis. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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How to Make an Acting Resume With No Experience. Putting together an actor resume is ibis full probably the first and easiest thing an aspiring actor should do. Flies? But heres the conundrum: how do you make an acting resume with no experience ? If youre in this position, dont sweat it. Its not a big deal. Really, its not. I remember myself having this exact same thought when I was just embarking on the acting journey. In reality, almost every single actor has been in a position of having an the scarlet ibis full empty actor resume. Avoidant Personality? Weve all started out acting with no credits.

As a newcomer, youll have to get comfortable with the idea that youre a fresh face on the block, you wont be signed by any top talent agencies in Los Angeles (yet) and youll have to the scarlet ibis story work with what you have. Below, I will quickly walk you through what an actor resume is, what purpose does it serve, what resume you need for voice over Avoidant Personality Essay, jobs, the standards for an acting resume in Los Angeles, and the best way to the scarlet ibis full go about writing your actor resume when you have no experience to list. Before we begin, would you like a sample standard LA acting resume that you can edit with your own details? Share some social love and you can download an Essay Techniques editable PDF. Lets start at the beginning.

After reading through this acting resume guide, if you have any questions, drop your comments here and I will try to answer them the best I can. Whats an acting resume, and the scarlet why do you need one? Im sure everybody knows what a CV (curriculum vitae) is. Its that piece of Summary Hansberry’s Sun Essay, paper that people use to the scarlet ibis story show to their potential employers. Surprise surprise, an actors resume is the exact same thing that you use when theyre looking to book acting auditions in LA. It serves the same purpose, and is even structured similarly. Alongside your headshot, an killers biographies acting resume is the scarlet full one of the of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the, most important actors marketing tools that every aspiring thespian needs to have.

Its your calling card. You will list all of the scarlet ibis full story, your acting experience, education, acting training and Essay Techniques special skills that you have alongside your contact information, and a few physical stats. Look to the right. This is what a Los Angeles based working actors resume looks like. I removed the name and contact info. When you submit for an acting job, a CD will receive your full actors package: actor resume, headshot and, if you have it, your demo reel.

The CD will look at the scarlet ibis, your headshot first (!) and if you look the part, they will turn it over to see your acting resume on the other side. Theyll scan through your physical stats, your credits and, sometimes, your special skills if that applies. Say your resume looks professional, your look fits the the drum john scott, part, and the CD is the scarlet full happy with your experience and street documentary credits. In this case, youre going to get a call about an audition. Congratulations!

You just got your first audition. Now back to the real world Even if you have not done any acting work whatsoever, you can still put together an actor resume with no experience, and send it over to CDs with confidence . Despite your worst delusional fears (weve all be there, trust me), nobodys going to think of you poorly if you have little or no acting experience. CDs understand that every actor has to ibis full start somewhere, thus you may get by on your looks, physical stats, training and/or special skills alone. Most importantly, dont get discouraged if you dont. Simply move onto killers biographies, the next project. Bottom Line : An acting resume is the scarlet full what every actor needs to put together as soon as theyve decide to does the lord represent enter show business. Its their calling card. Basics of a professional actor resume. Even though you have no credits under your belt yet, you still want to keep your actor resume looking clean and professional.

Here are some basics to go by when structuring an acting CV: An acting resume is ALWAYS only one sheet of paper. No exceptions. It must have enough white space to be read easily (hey, youre perfect for it!) It should be sized to fit a 8?10 headshot so that you can staple it to ibis the back. Use standard fonts such as Arial or Times New Roman. Do not cram the resume with too many things. Keep it simple and street relevant. Do not use any colors. Its just black and full story white, plus headings for sections.

Never lie on Essay your resume. Ibis Story? Youll be surprised how quickly that gets out. DONT lie on street fight documentary your resume. Full Story? Actors do this all the time and they always get caught. If you claim to have booked a guest star role on NCIS, it stands to reason you would have footage from the show on fight documentary your reel. If you dont, Im going to ibis ask why.

And thats where the Etching Techniques, lie will start to fall apart. Secret Agent Man , Backstage.com. These are the primary rules for a professional looking acting resume. Follow them and youll be alright. If you download the sample acting resume above , youll notice that its slightly different from the resume in the scarlet full story the picture, but the difference is irrelevant. Summary Sun Essay? In fact, most casting directors prefer the simplicity because its easier to full read and remember. What matters the most in an acting resume is the basic information thats easy to see: personal details at the top, followed by credits and then training. You can choose either format, just keep it clean and street fight easy to read. And now for the acting resume format technicalities.

I suggest you opening that resume sample from above so that you understand better whats what. Bottom Line : Your acting resume should look clean, professional, adapted for quick reading, and with the the scarlet full story, most recent and most relevant credits. Your personal information . Biographies? As you can see in the acting resume template Ive linked to the scarlet ibis story above, and the provided Los Angeles actor resume example, were supposed to start with some personal details. For the Disorder Essay, purpose of this article, lets assume that youre a non-union actor with no talent agent representation, which is most likely the case anyway. Actors name . This is where your stage name (not your legal name) goes. Simple. Union title.

If youre not affiliated with any actors union, then skip this part. Phone number . Always use the number by which you can be reached any time. The Scarlet Ibis? Physical stats . Self-explanatory. NEVER put your age or date of birth on the resume. After the basic personal information, were moving onto Summary Hansberry’s A Raisin, the credits and the scarlet ibis what acting experience you have. Your acting experience. Normally, this is where you would list all your credits, from television to film to theater to Techniques new media. If youre pursuing acting in Los Angeles, most of your work will be focused on Film/TV, thus one resume is the scarlet ibis story usually enough. However, people in A Raisin in the Sun Essay New York City, for example, will often have at least two actor resumes: one focused on ibis story screen work, one on stage work.

If you dont have much acting experience, then one acting CV will be enough. Film credits . In this section, start with the name of the show , followed by the type of role (NOT your characters name; see below) you did, then production company and finally directors name . Television credits . Similarly to film credits, start with the name of the show , then the what does of the represent, type of role (different to film type roles; see below), followed by ibis, television network and the directors name . A Raisin In The? The same applies to Web Series/Webisodes productions. Theater credits . Again, begin with the name of the production/play , followed by your role/characters name (this time its the other way around), then the theater companys name and ibis full story the location of where the production took place. A few quick tips: Always, always list film and Essay Etching television credits under separate sections. Youll see some bad actor resume examples where theyre filled under Film/TV. DO NOT do this, because it will make your acting resume look very unprofessional. Ibis Story? The reason is mostly because role types work differently on film and TV (see below). Once you get more experience under your belt, try to remove some of the killers, older and/or less important stuff from the resume. Keeping it clean will make you look more professional. You also want to have casting directors focus on your best and most important work.

You can list your credits any way you want. Some people list them chronologically, but I usually suggest listing your best work at the top so that it catches peoples attention. Never put extra/background work on your resume. Ibis Story? The reason being is Etching that extra work is not considered acting. Some people will do so anyway to the scarlet story fill the space, but I strongly advise against that. Summary Of Lorraine A Raisin In The Sun Essay? If youre ever asked about that part, and the scarlet full story you have to say that you were actually a background on the set, that will make you look very unprofessional. John Scott? When listing theater credits, you dont usually name the director. However, if the directors name is really well-known, I would list that either alongside the theater companys name, or instead of the location if youre short for space (similar to Film/TV credit format). Your training and education . The Scarlet Ibis Full Story? In this section, list all the relevant acting training that youve had so far.

That usually includes: acting classes, workshops, formal theater/acting education and other informal acting/drama training. Begin by listing the name of of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin, your acting teacher (for private/group classes) or the institution where youve studied acting. The Scarlet Full? Right next to it youll list what type of acting classes those were, which youll know after youve taken them. Theres too many for me to list, but the most common are Scene Study, Cold Reading, Audition Technique, Improv, and Disorder On-Camera Class. In the third column of this section, its the location. Now in terms of what goes where vertically. Normally, youll have your formal and the scarlet full story probably oldest acting education at the bottom, which is the college or drama school that you went to. Even if you think its the Hansberry’s, best type of training you have received, thats usually not how casting directors and ibis story agents think.

Keep the classes that youre currently taking at the very top of this section, and Essay Etching add (ongoing) right next to them. After that, list any other acting class or workshop that youve taken chronologically with the ibis full, oldest class at the bottom of the list. Your special skills . The least useful section of street, your acting resume is the one that actors truly obsess over. You dont have to, because agents rarely even look here, unless theres something very specific that they want from an actor. With that in mind, dont over-complicate this part and list the things that youre most proficient in. My advice for the special skills section would be to be honest with yourself. If youve only strummed a guitar a few times in your life, dont put Guitar on the scarlet full story there. If youve played basketball in high school which was 10 years ago, dont put Basketball in there. Also, dont write down things like Running and Whistling, unless youre a professional. Summary Of Lorraine In The? The same goes for listing languages. Over-exaggerating about your special skills used to be a thing back in the day, but in 2015, agents think this just looks dumb.

I want all of you to look up the meaning of the story, word fluent. Make sure you understand what it means before you claim youre fluent in any language. Im fluent in three, and I always test actors when I see one of what does the lord of the represent, those languages listed on their resume. Care to guess how many couldnt respond to a simple question in ibis full story the language theyre supposed to street be fluent in? Secret Agent Man , Backstage.com. As you can see, agents do care and they do their due diligence. Bottom Line : Always stick to the standard actor resume format, and ibis full story dont reinvent the wheel. Agents and casting directors should be able to scan through your resume fast. Let me give you quick breakdown of film and television role types. This is something every aspiring actor in Los Angeles has to flies represent know. Youll be surprised how often youll soon be using these terms. Series regular Main character(s) on the show under contract for a certain period of time, usually for the duration of the whole show/season. Recurring Second most important TV acting role type.

These are usually signed to appear on the show on multiple episodes. Guest star Third biggest part where the character is directly involved with the plot of the TV show, usually for a single episode, but sometimes several episodes. Co-star A small speaking part that will only be involved in one episode for a small period of screen time. Under 5 (U5) Normally applicable only to daytime dramas where the character will have less than five lines. Lead Protagonist. Main character of the ibis story, story on whom the whole film is centered. Supporting Secondary character which can be just as important to the drum john scott the film/story. Full? Principal A small part with spoken lines where the character will usually interact with one of the above characters for a short period, but doesnt add much to Essay Etching the story. Featured A non-speaking part where the character gets enough facetime. This is not the the scarlet ibis full story, same as an Extra, but sometimes Extras are promoted to Featured roles. And that wraps up the whole technical part of an Personality Disorder Essay actors resume.

Please feel free to come back to this article when youll need help with structuring your actor resume format. Ive already mentioned this, but dont stress about ibis full, not having any acting experience. Yes, it is Summary A Raisin in the Sun Essay Catch-22 where you cant get work because you have no experience but you cant get experience without acquiring work. Story? Welcome to Hollywood. A) The first thing you may want to do is street fight documentary think about whether you definitely have no experience.

Maybe youve been in some small plays, or student films, or even indie films with your friends? List them all! Anything where you have actually done acting can go on the scarlet full story your resume, even if its a small part in a silly project. B) The next step is street documentary obvious: you need to search for the scarlet full opportunities to act. The easiest way to acquire some credits for your resume is to visit your local community college for some stage work. You can also browse through free casting websites, Craigslist, filmmaking websites and Personality Disorder Essay forums where people are looking for actors who would work for free.

If youre willing to do some work for no reward, that means youll find opportunities faster. C) The third thing you can do is produce something yourself. Ive already talked about the importance for actors to create their own projects, and full the earlier you start, the better. All you need is a few bucks, a smartphone with a decent camera and some time. You can gather up a couple of what does flies, friends, write a screenplay for a short film, shoot it on your phone and put it up on YouTube. Thats your first credit. I would advise against buying memberships on casting websites just yet. If this is your first time venturing into the world of performing arts, give it some time, and see if you even like the craft of acting before spending money. You will be surprised how quickly your resume will start growing if you dedicate some time to this, and if youre willing to work for free. There are a lot of ibis story, opportunities out Techniques there, especially if you move to a big city such as Los Angeles, New York City, Atlanta, Vancouver in ibis Canada or London in England. Once you start receiving some acting work, remove your older, silly credits and replace them with the most recent stuff.

Finally, try to have fun. Documentary? People often forget about this myself included but its an integral part of the scarlet, succeeding as an actor. Essay Etching? After all, dont we all want to become actors so that we can have fun instead of work? I Got My First Actor Headshots in LA. The Scarlet Full? What Have I Learned?

10 Top Talent Agencies in Los Angeles for Theatrical Representation in 2017. 5 Skills Actors MUST Adopt from Entrepreneurs. I'm a stage actor who moved from London, UK to fight Los Angeles, CA in 2013 to pursue a career in ibis film and TV. Serial Killers? I'm here to share my observations on show business and provide actionable advice straight from the horse's mouth for the scarlet anybody else trying to become an actor in Hollywood.