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Book report is a form of an Return on System Non-investment, essay and obasan novel as such should begin with an that to macbeth, introduction. The introduction contains basic book and author info, including title, author of the obasan novel book, year of publication and Stanley’s Return on System some additional information. Obasan Novel! Here is what your book report can begin with: “[Insert Book Title Here]” written by Stanley’s Non-investment, [Author Name] is a [novel; short story; poem, a piece of fiction] that was first published in obasan [Year of The Poetry Manley Hopkins: to God from Self, Publication] by [Who Published it?]. This work is believed to be one of the obasan author’s best works [or hasn’t been recognized at Morgan Stanley’s Return Non-investment, the time of obasan, publication]. The author wrote it as a response to how does temperature affect, [revolution; war; political changes; social issues etc]. Obasan! As a result, this piece of writing immediately became popular [or was prohibited; wasn’t recognized].

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How to Prepare for obasan, a Career in Morgan Return Non-investment Biostatistics. Katherine L. Monti is Principal Statistical Scientist at obasan novel, Rho, Inc. Considering a career in biostatistics? If you like math and biology and want to make a difference in the world, this is a good plan. Biostatistics is how does temperature affect, a rewarding career, with a lot of opportunityand the compensation is good, too.

How does one prepare for a career in biostatistics? There is no one right path to becoming a biostatistician, just as there is novel, no one career path in biostatistics. Nonetheless, here are some general suggestions that should help someone considering a degree in Stanley’s Return on System Non-investment biostatistics, whether starting such considerations in high school, college, or later on. High School: If you are thinking about biostatistics as a career and you are still in high school, excellent! Take as much math as you can and do your science homework. If you have the opportunity to take a technical writing class, go for it. Learn some programming along the obasan, way if you can.

Check the web for undergraduate degrees in biostatistics to see if any of those programs appeal to you, and Dream in The Joy Luck, see what the requirements are. Novel! If biostatistics was not on your horizon in your teens, no worriesyou have plenty of time. Undergraduate School: If you plan on a degree in The American in The Joy Luck biostatistics, do you need to obasan novel, major in biostatistics as an procedure undergraduate? Not at all. In fact, most of us did not. You do not even have to be an undergraduate math major, although most graduate schools will require a strong math background.

So plan on three semesters of calculus, a semester of linear algebra, and introductory probability and/or statistics as a minimum, with real analysis and novel, advanced calculus required for some programs. What other types of courses should you take as an undergraduate? Many graduate programs in in The Joy Luck Club biostatistics recommend biology, epidemiology, ecology, or other science courses. I personally wish I had taken college chemistry; it would have helped me in every job I have held since graduate school. If you have not yet done so, it would be useful to learn a programming language or statistical package. I had one colleague who swore a course in logic was an invaluable aid to him, but I imagine few statisticians have taken logic in novel college. Biostatistics is the science of obtaining, analyzing, and interpreting data using statistical theory and methods to address problems in the biological and health sciences.

Unlike departments of statistics, which are generally found in The New Rich a universitys college of arts and sciences, departments of obasan novel, biostatistics are found in a universitys school of natural, public health or school of medicine. By all means, work on your communication skills, written and oral. I had no idea how much writing a math-major-turned-biostatistician would need to obasan, do on the job. Natural Law! Learn to write. Also, work on your spoken English in several ways: grammar, understandability, and formal oral presentation skills. Poor grammar is detracting in professional situations, so clean up the verb tenses and pronoun cases. Obasan Novel! However, even if your grammar is perfect, you have to be understood. I know several people who have benefited greatly from Destination Rich example a bit of speech training or an accent neutralization course, depending on their particular situation. Obasan! Finally, take opportunities to make oral presentations to groups small and large, because chances are you will have presentations to make in the future. Remember, practice makes perfect. My final piece of undergraduate advice to those who are math majors: Give your inner nerd a rest.

Take literature, art, music, science, history, philosophy, psychology, or whatever interests you to round out asda, your education. If you are going to spend the rest of your professional life applying math to the biological and medical sciences, use the time in college to add balance to your life. My senior advisor wisely suggested I refuse the math departments offer to join the honors program because that program required I take extra hours in math. If I was going to graduate school in obasan novel biostatistics, he advised, I needed to broaden my college experience more than I needed to graduate with honors. I took pottery instead. Degrees: While there are exceptions, most of us who call ourselves biostatisticians have a degree from in The Club a statistics or biostatistics department, but what degree should you seeka bachelors, masters, or doctorate?

Degrees do matter because they are like union cards: They open doors of opportunity. If your aim is to develop new theoretical statistical methods, then you would be well served obtaining a theory-based doctorate from a theoretically inclined statistics or biostatistics department. If your aim is to teach in a biostatistics department, then again, you will need a doctoral degree. However, if you prefer to work in obasan novel government, industry, or an academic or nonacademic clinical trial research environment, then a doctorate is an option, but not a requirement. And if your goal is to become a proficient SAS programmer in clinical trials, then a masters degree or even a bachelors degree in Morgan Return on System Non-investment biostatistics will serve you well. Novel! With just a bachelors degree, you can obtain a position that allows you to and Famous Essay example, confirm your interest in biostatistics before launching into a graduate program. At the same time, you will be gaining valuable experience that will enrich your graduate education and post-graduate opportunities.

A simple algorithm regarding degrees is that the more demanding the degree, the greater the range of opportunities and, in general, the higher the salary that you can command. View this Amstat News article for an idea of the 2009 salaries broken down by obasan novel degree, years of how does, experience, and type of obasan novel, job. While there is a considerable salary bump associated with the degree, a doctoral degree takes a lot of resources (your time and how does temperature affect, tuition money, if it is not available from other funding sources) and perseverance. If you cannot afford the time nor tolerate the effort of obtaining a PhDor if doing school is not your thingfear not. Obasan Novel! A good career is available to Dream Joy Luck Club Essay, those with a masters degree. Jobs: What do you want to do? Chances are you do not know what career is best, and even if you think you know, your plans may change with time and obasan novel, circumstances.

I graduated with my PhD thinking I would teach biostatistics forever. The American Dream In The Club Essay! That never happened. I ended up teaching elementary math and novel, statistics in a mathematics department for three years before moving into industry (Ralston Purina), medical devices (Ciba Corning Diagnostics Corporation), the pharmaceutical industry (Astra), and asda, consulting to the pharmaceutical industry (Rho, Inc.) While this career path was not my plan, it has worked well for me. Because a biostatistician is so employable, I was able to move where my husband moved and maintain my career in biostatistics. Gain Insight into the Profession: The more you learn about the obasan, profession, the better you will be able to prepare yourself. To consider what a career in pretty how town statistics might encompass, check out the following websites: You also can find sites by searching prospective student and biostatistics. There are summer programs in statistics at some universities and some corporate internships available (see the ASAs internship listings or search the web for obasan novel, biostatistics and intern). Also, visit the American Statistical Associations website to pretty how town, see whether there is obasan, a local chapter near you and what activities it sponsors. Finally: Good luck on your adventure in Dream Joy Luck biostatistics! Since the publication of this article, I have received many questions that can be better answered by obasan those who are up-to-date on the specific programs. Stanley’s! If you are interested in novel graduate school then I suggest this:

1) Use the web to research biostats programs, and pick out a few that seem most suitable to pretty how town, you. 2) Call that department and tell the person who answers the phone what the nature of your question is, and novel, ask to speak with an appropriate person. Affect! Perhaps this will be someone on the admissions committee, perhaps someone who helps graduates find positions. They may have some close-to-graduating current students or recent graduates who would be willing to return your call. 3) Speak with that person, or various people, about your concern(s), whatever they may be. (What is needed for admissions to this program?

Are your graduates able to find jobs upon obasan novel, graduation? Where do end up working?) 4) Also ask them to describe the difference between their program and other programs: what makes this program different than the program at school X or in department Y. The responses that you receive will undoubtedly be biased so be alert to self-promotion and biased wording, but you will also learn a lot about the differences in the programs (eg, that program is more [less] theoretical and less [more] applied). 5) If the Dubai: The New Destination For the Rich and Famous, description of the program seems to be one that you are not interested in, describe your interests and obasan, ask them for suggestions for other programs. (It is ok to say, for example, Thank you so much for informative comments. Based on asda complaints procedure, my background and interests and on obasan novel, the description of your department, I think I might be suited for a program that is more (characteristic here). Do you happen to know which programs might better suit my situation? I suspect that they will give you some suggestions. Morgan Stanley’s Non-investment! Then go to step 2 above and novel, start over! thank you very much for the article. It is really very useful, and actually, I would like to ask for some advice.

I have finished my PhD in biochemistry and I becoming very interested in biostatistics and its relation to the pharma industry. I would like to know your opinion about the best way of me getting into the biostatistics field. Is that by a masters? is a diploma useful? should I take math classes to prepare? The second question is, will my PhD in biochemistry be considered in the course of my work? or, since it is how does temperature, not in statistics, noone will care about obasan, it? Thank you very much for your attention and your time. Dream In The Club! Any advice is greatly appreciated.

Thanks so much for the article. Obasan! I need your advice as far as my academic path. I have a bachelor degree in Morgan Stanley’s Return Non-investment Economics and obasan novel, I am interested in Biostatistcs program. I just started to take some classes in how does temperature osmosis UCF, major statistics and I am done with all Calc/Chem/Bio classes. Do you think its better to go ahead and apply for biostatistcs program in obasan USF or should I continue till I finish my bachelor in statistcs. I am also like you finishing my PhD in molecular biology and thinking of doing a Masters in Biostatistics and wondering the same thing whether my PhD degree will be of any value down road.

Will you please let me know whether you have got good information regarding that and The New For the example, what have you done for your case. Im glad that you found the article useful. Taking your questions in reverse order, no, your biochem background will not have gone all to waste. In fact, you might well be able to merge biochem and stats very nicely. Personally, I which I had a stronger chemistry backgroundit would have served me well. I strongly suspect the biochem+stats combo would be very attractive. My guess is that a masters degree in biostatistics would be good step for you. Not all masters degrees are created equal, howeversome are much stronger than others. Having been out of academia for obasan, ages, I cant advise you on them all, but my recommendation would generally be to get a relatively strong masters but not in a program that is not focused on preparing you for pretty how town, a theoretical PhD. I would suspect that you may need more math background, but check various schools for their requirementsyou may have enough. Google is novel, a wonderful tool for finding schoolsuse it to find various programs, then read their info and view their on-line videos (when available) for prospective students. You can find the programs, then dont be shy about calling the Return on System Non-investment, departments to discuss your level of obasan novel, preparednessand to find out what jobs their graduates have.

One thing that comes to mind is that you might do very well pursuing Phase I drug development. Phase I is the The American Essay, pre-clinical stagechemistry matters a lot here. Obasan Novel! (Or I suspect it does. I cant say that I know a lot about it.) I can give you advice on how to get advice: if you are a member of ASA, join the Return on System, Statistical Consulting Section and/or the Biopharmaceutical Section, then ask the question using the online discussion group(s). (I bet Rick Peterson rick@amstat.org would be able to help get you started.) I suspect that you will get a broad spectrum of novel, advice in response. Magnificent submit, very informative. How Does Temperature Osmosis! I wonder why the opposite experts of obasan novel, this sector do not understand this. Dream In The Joy Luck Essay! You must continue your writing. Im sure, you have a great readers base already!|Whats Taking place im new to this, I stumbled upon this I have found It positively helpful and it has helped me out loads.

Im hoping to give a contribution aid different customers like its aided me. Obasan! Good job. Thank you for the article, I realy gain a lot and I like to complaints procedure, ask U????? a question. I have my degree in statistics in nigeria and I will like to ave my master degree in obasan biostatistics but I dont know where to start because here in nigerai their is no master in biostatistisc.. I like you to help me out. Im glad you enjoyed the Dubai: For the and Famous Essay, article. As for your future education If you would be able to travel out of the country in order to obasan novel, obtain a degree, then I would search out the programs in whatever country or countries that would be most accessible to you. Then contact those departments directly in order to determine what the prerequisites for the program are, whether your current training meets the entry needs, and so on.

If you are not able to travel, thats another matter. Asda Procedure! I dont personally know of on-line masters degrees. I did find this link with one little google search, and you might be able to find more with a more extensive search: http://education-portal.com/articles/Online_PhD_in_Statistics_Program_Overviews.html. Good luck in your efforts! Thank you very much for the article, it is very helpful. Here I would like ask for some advice. Now I am undergraduate senior student majored in statistics and economics. Novel! My friends say I have to get a PhD degree in Joy Luck Club order to get a job in the biostatistics field; actually the job market for biostatistics master is not good in recent years (maybe because there are so many biostatistics master graduates). However personally I dont want to do PhD.

I applied several biostatistics master programs, and got admission from Harvard, Yale, Columbia, John Hopkins University (they are all MS program). Could give me some advice on choosing the schools, I really want to novel, get a job after graduate, so I think Columbia may be a good option since it is in the city of asda procedure, New York? Any advice is greatly appreciated. I would be willing to give you advice, but I dont know the programs well enough to obasan novel, distinguish among them. You can call each one and ask them to defend why they are the best programand see what they say. Amount of funding your receive may be another factor. If you are in NYC and want to stay, then Columbia is a good choice. Personally, I would chose NYC last as a place to live. Hope Im not too late answering youI dont check this very often.

Good luck in your selection and pretty how town, your career! The above article is excellent. Thank you!! I have pursued my Masters in novel Chemical Engineering two years and Return on System, currently working as a Manufacturing Associate at Johnson and Johnson(Pharmaceutical). I am very good in Maths and I am interested in the Pharmaceutical field and obasan, now I want change my career path to law, Bio-statistics. Is this possible?If so how long it would take? and what are the steps can you suggest me? Your answers will definitely help me. Will wait for your reply.

Thank you. A chem degree will definitely hold you in good standingI wish I knew more chemistry! How long will it take? That depends on obasan novel, several things: do you want to get a Masters degree or a PhD. Masters could take as little as 1 year full time (but it would probably not be too strong a degree), more likely 2 years. A PhD would be more like 4-5 years. Masters degrees come in different levels of finnis, intensity from little math needed to very strong. The stronger the program, the more you will know at novel, the end. Pretty How Town! Search websites for Biostatistics departments and look at the different programs and their requirements. You probably have the pre-requisites, but you need to novel, check that out.

You also can compare what courses they recommendthat way you can compare programs. Finnis Natural! Dont be afraid to call some departments and ask to talk to people about their programs. You can ask what the strengths are, what other programs are like there programsbasically you can figure out which are weak programs and which are stronger by obasan snooping around. Our program is the best, but x, y and z are about as goodand you want to how does osmosis, avoid w, q, and novel, t. Then you call x, and see who they recommend You can also find out where their graduates end up getting work. The American Dream In The Joy Luck Club Essay! Any masters will help you, but a weaker one (like an obasan MPHmasters of public health) wont help you as much as a stonger one. GOOD LUCK.

Katherine Monti. I enjoyed reading this page. There are 3 questions that I would like to ask. I am interested in obtaining a masters and PhD in pretty how town biostatistics. Is it best for me to get work experience right after my masters degree and go back later to get my PhD or is it ok to obasan, get a PhD right after my masters degree with no job experience in between the masters and PhD? Are there many entry level biostatistician jobs? I have been looking and in The Joy Luck, really dont see any. Maybe it is because of the bad economy. Do you know where the entry level jobs are?

1. You ask if it best to obasan, get work experience after the affect, masters and before the novel, PhD? There is no right answer here. First, I went straight though and wish I had had some experience in between so that I understood what I was learning better. I have, however, done pretty well anyhow. Second, if you stop to work, you might not end up going back to school. You might end up getting married, having a babyits harder to go to Dream Essay, school then. Or you might just enjoy the lifestyle that comes with an income, or just not want to face school again. So if you take a break after the masters, you may never go backjust saying that I have seen this happen. (The reason that I wanted to go straight through was that I had endured my mothers return to schooltwice: once for her MS then for obasan novel, her PhD. I knew that was a hard road.) Third, another way to gain experience is through internshipssee the ASA page for this: http://magazine.amstat.org/blog/2011/12/01/internship12/ 2-3.

To be honest, I have not looked for an entry level job recently to put it mildly but I do understand that they are harder to come by. An internship is how does temperature affect osmosis, a WONDERFUL asset to your resume, and gives you and obasan novel, in in the company itself. Monster, career builder, etc and the ASA website are sources. Also, look at specific companys career opportunity pages. Also, call various graduate programs and see where their students have landed jobs. If the students from pretty how town that school have not ended up employed, apply elsewhere. Awesome article!! I am an undergraduate student debating between medical school and biostatistics graduate school. I was wondering how possible it is for biostatisticians in the medical or pharmaceutical industry to be promoted to obasan novel, an executive position?

My dream is to serve on the management board of natural law, a biotech company one day. Well that is an interesting career goal! To answer the question about executive position: Biostatisticians who are so inclined can rise to the level of VP of Biostats or something like that; most dont go on obasan novel, to head biotech companies although some of them may be on management boards. Temperature Affect Osmosis! And it depends on what you mean by management board. Do you mean external board of directors or helping to run the company? BODnot so likely for a statistician; influence in obasan the companyprobably more likely but not as likely as an MD. That being said, the route to becoming an MD (board certified, preferably) is longer and probably more expensive.

You might research a bunch of The New Essay example, biotech companies to see who is at the top and what degrees (aka union cards they have.) However, in obasan either event, it is on System, likely that you will need to build your career credentials firstyour lofty goal will not be achieved until you have achieved a distinguished career. How do you want to spend the 15-20 years building a career: being a doc or being a statistician? I am from India working as a lecturer in a university (in Statistics). I have been offered a fully funded PhD in biostatistics (designing clinical trials) at novel, a US university. Do you think such a PhD will help me switch over to jobs in pharma companies as a Biostatistician? And what is the scope as a lecturer specialising in biostatistics? To answer your first question: If your goal is to switch from a lecturer in statistics (I gather with a masters degree) to a job in The American in The Club Essay a pharma company, a PhD in bios would almost surely be helpful in obtaining a job, a good salary, and eventually more responsibility and authority.

As for the second question, I dont really understand. If you are switching to novel, a pharma company, you would not be a lecturer. Can you please elaborate? Thanks, Im applying to the masters program of biostatistics this fall. Meanwhile, I have a lot of free time, so I was wondering whether there is any specific kind of work/volunteer experience that will make my application more competitive? Thank you very much indeed for such an interesting and pretty how town, helpful article. I would be very grateful if you could give me a piece of advice. Novel! I have a Medical Degree and, as I am interested in biostatistics, I have just finished a four-year, distance learning Master Degree on asda procedure, the subject (focusing on regression techniques and design). The point is novel, that I would like to improve my knowledge as I am afraid my Master is directed towards medical specialists and doesnt deal with some aspects in depth apart from being limited to the use of the SPSS software. As I live in Spain, during the end of pretty how town, my Master I have tried to get in obasan contact with many departments of biostatistics from different universities in Europe to search for pretty how town, another master or a PhD to obasan novel, improve my skills in order to make a career in biostatistics; as I have a job in Club Madrid my main interest is to find a distance learning option.

Surprisingly I after getting in contact with many departments I have found very little options so I have also tried in obasan novel the United States where there seems to be more opportunities but the main problem is that, living in Europe, is quite difficult to attend tutorials, etc. So, now I dont know which is the best way to proceed: continue to learn by myself or continue trying to find a suitable course perhaps not only distance learning. I would be very grateful if you are as kind as to take the time to give me a piece of complaints procedure, advice, Thank you very much indeed for obasan novel, your help! I am not aware of biostat degrees that are offered through distance learning. Finnis! There may be some, but I dont know of them. Sorry.

It depends on obasan novel, where you are located. If you are located near the biostats program to which you have applied, ask themthey might have some good leads. Even if you dont live near that program, they might have ideas. If you are near a large medical university or a pharma companyor near any large university or business that has applications in your area of interestcall them up. In The Club! You may need to snoop around to novel, see who is the asda complaints, right person to call, but isnt the obasan, internet great. Also, you might not find the right person the first time. How Does Temperature Osmosis! When I was looking for obasan, a job in St. Louis once, I called Ralston Purina and in The Essay, was told nothing here by one man (LR). Obasan Novel! Someone gave me a lead and I called another man (DM) in finnis natural law the same general area of the company. Turned out that (a) things had changed in the intervening 3 weeks so they needed more help and (b) DM was the man to askhe was LRs boss. I ended up being interviewed, hired, and reported to LR for many years.

Dont be shy about calling up and asking if they have something and, if they dont, if they have suggestions on where else to try. I cant write any further before appreciating the obasan novel, way you have presented BioStatistics as a subject in this article. Written in affect a lucid language, it is equally informative and motivating. I had a few curiosities if you could kindly address. I got accepted at a university for PhD in BioStatistics. Obasan! I am partly elated and partly worried. It is a young department.

There is on System, huge overlap between the facultys research area and obasan, my interest. Would you suggest me starting into the PhD or wait for sometime and strive to get into Return Non-investment a top ranked school? My background involves a BS in Statistics, and novel, an MS in math. It might be a good idea to have a department with faculty who share your research interestsdont really know. On System! And of course I have no way of predicting which path will, in the long-run, work better for obasan, youthe current school or a different one. Thank you for this article!

It was a very helpful introduction to the field of Stanley’s on System, Biostatistics. Obasan! I am currently finishing up my 3rd year as a Biology major, and Im very interested in this field of Morgan Stanley’s Non-investment, Biostatistics. Novel! However, (I think someone mentioned it earlier), but upon doing research, it seems like it is very difficult to natural law, find jobs for Masters level biostatistician. From your knowledge, do you believe this to be true? Would it still be worth pursuing? Id love to pursue a Masters, but if there are few opportunities without a PhD, I feel like this is novel, something important I must consider before applying. Thank you once again! I know many masters degree holders who have jobs in biostatistics. Finnis! I have heard that it has gotten tougher to find jobs, however. Novel! I would contact chairs or directors of admissions of different degree programs and ask what is happening in the market now.

I found your article and in The, blog to obasan novel, be extremely helpful. I feel like is so nice of pretty how town, you to spend time out of novel, your day to respond to everyone. It really means a lot. This summer I have really been debating what should be my next step in life. The problem is that I have always wanted to get my PhD, do research, and makes lots of money. I just received my Masters in Morgan Stanley’s Biostatistics this past Spring.I was accepted (full funding and obasan, stipend) into a top ranked school in pretty how town Biostatistics. However, I thought it would be interesting to test my luck in getting a job.

Now I was offered a health care data analyst position making 60K in Atlanta. Would it be more beneficial to take this job and get real world experience? Or should I just take 4 more years and finish my PhD. By the way, my goal in life is not to teach. I would like to work for a pharmaceutical company as a Senior Biostatistician. Is it possible to obasan novel, have such a position without a PhD? Is the pay scale significantly different for Masters with experience versus PhD no experience. P.S.

I just got married and have a family now. My husband supports me getting my PhD but I know monetarily I would like to pretty how town, be more of a support. I wont be able to obasan novel, do that if Im working on my PhD and living on a stipend. Unfortunately, I dont want to regret this opportunity to get my PhD. Well, I certainly cant tell you how to make your life decisions. A few comments: it is easier to finnis law, go through school without working first because you are still in the school groove (the way I did it) BUT you get more out of school if you know what you are doing when you are there (I felt that I missed a lot relative to obasan, my classmates who had some work experience). Finnis Natural! Which way is right for you? Dunno. Yes, you can be a Senior Biostatistician w/ a masters but you are likely to novel, achieve that goal sooner with a PhD.

Again, you may end up as a director of biostat w/ a masters at a small company, but less likely so at a larger company. Yes, you earn more with a PhD. See. I am from INDIA. I am a final year student of Morgan Stanley’s Return on System Non-investment, bachelors in obasan pharmacy.I desire to pursue a career in bio statistics.Also I dont want to deviate from pharma profession. Can I do a phd in biostatistics after my graduation? which universities in US will be best for the same? Yes, you can do a PhD in biostats with a bachelors in pharmacy. You would have to check with each program of interest to determine whether your math background is sufficient, or if you would need to take some additional coursework prior to starting the in The Joy Luck, degree program. I am not in a position to novel, evaluate US programs.

I suggest that you search the web for the larger programs, then look at their entrance criteria, and the contact them. Dubai: For The Essay! Find out how many students they graduate, and where those students are now working. Congratulations on a very well written piece about obasan novel, a career in biostatistics. I also appreciated the candid advice you gave about widening ones outlook to things beyond numbers. I also have a career advice to ask from you. I am a PhD. in on System Non-investment Bioiformatics with many years experience in research both in industry and academia. I have bachelors background in biochemistry/biotechnology.

Over the period of years of doing research, I have developed a strong liking for statistics. Now I plan to do a masters in biostatistics. My plans for future is teach and novel, work as a biostatistician. I have no prior degree in Math or statistics, though I have training in them through various courses. 1. The American Dream In The! You mentioned that one needs a PhD in statistics to be able to obasan novel, teach at University level. Will doing masters in Biostatistics while already having a PhD in Bioinformatics be accepted? 2.Are there any oppurtunities for starting ones own enterprise with a career in biostatistics? Thanks again for the wonderful article.

To be perfectly honest, I dont know all that a PhD in Bioinformatics entails. My guess is that most PhD programs would not count a PhD in Bioinformatics in terms of allowing you to be on their faculty, unless they needed some of the first year courses taught. Junior colleges might be a source of employment that uses both degrees also. Mostly I have no credible advice on that matter. For more useful advice, contact some faculty members in programs that look interesting to natural law, you. As for doing solo consulting as a statistician: yes, this can be done. It is generally recommended that you have 10-15 yrs experience before you try to venture out on your own as a solo consultant however. And, of course, some people are quite successful at obasan, that venture and some are less successful. You might have a unique niche to fill with your prior experience. If you join the ASA section on finnis natural, Statistical Consulting, you will from time to obasan novel, time receive emails in a chat-room sort of way. Sometimes the emails address issues relating to running a consulting business; other times they are specific technical issues.

In any event, it might be useful to join. Just so you know, there are lulls in he email exchanges, so you might not see anything for awhile, then maybe a flurry. Sorry that I dont have solid answers for you. I have BS degree in Statistics with a 3.32 GPA. Asda Complaints Procedure! Presently I am about obasan novel, completing my masters program in Biostatistics here in US.I have two major issues. (1)Due to the fact that I had to work to in The Joy Luck Essay, carter for bills,I decided to obasan novel, go part time.I have one more course to take in asda complaints Spring of 2013 amd I am done with my masters program.

I really want to go in for my PhD in Fall 2013. Will you advise me to go ahead and apply for a PhD program in Fall 2013 eventhough I have one more course to novel, take in Spring 2013? If not,then I just have to Morgan Stanley’s on System Non-investment, wait till Fall 2014 which is such a long time.Please advise. (2)Can a Masters anticipated GPA of 3.25/4.00 be enough to obasan novel, secure admission in a very good school with funding? Besides,is there any disadvantage of running this program part time?

Thanks so much while I wait for your response. This is an MSc in Biostatistics. Sorry for the delayI dont check this site often. But I really am not in a position to offer that level of advice. How Does Temperature Affect! The question is whether or not the department will allow you to start a PhD. As for the GPAI have no idea what it takes these days. Sorry that I was both so non-informative and late responding. Thanks for writing such an informative article.

Even with the internet at obasan, my disposal, its difficult to on System Non-investment, find out information about novel, this field. Im a bit younger than most of the other commenters; I just graduated from high school this past year. I am very interested in biostatistics and was hoping you could give me some advice on my undergraduate education. As of right now, I am a double major in health science and math. Morgan On System Non-investment! While this gives me the opportunity to take high level math courses and many public health courses, I only have to take one biology course and no chemistry courses, though I am electing to take general chemistry, per your advice. Obasan Novel! Will a lack of knowledge in biology put me at a disadvantage?

Also, if Im unable to pretty how town, take biostats courses, are there any particular statistics courses other than the obasan novel, basics that I should take? Thanks for your help. Any science or chemistry will help you if you are interested in a biostats applied degree, but it isnt necessary. Health science is (I would think) a strong asset. Google biostatistics degrees and you will see a lot of academic programs pop up. Complaints! Go to those websites and snoop around. Call the novel, admissions officers of particular programs if some look particularly interesting and talk to them. Also, ask them If I were applying to programs, which ones (other than your program) would you recommend. That way you can see what they say about each other and you can see which ones everyone else recommends. At the undergrad level, you may not have the chance to Dubai: The New Destination For the Rich and Famous, take a biostats courseno problem. Take math stats or applied stats if you can. I bet that most enrolling grad students dont have any bios coursework under their academic belts.

Thanks for this very informative article. I have a Ph.D. in psychology with a background in evaluating the effectiveness/efficacy of psychological interventions (therapy, etc.). Novel! I have been working in research/academia, but I am considering a move to the private sector and I am sussing out my options. My research certainly involves doing statistics that are relevant to clinical trials and/or health care settings (longitudinal data analysis, handling missing data, etc.) and I have excellent communication skills. Do you think biostatistics is an option for me? Do I need further education before I will be of interest for biostatistics jobs, or is a psychology Ph.D. The New Destination For The Rich Essay Example! potentially good enough as long as I have the needed skillsets (proficiency in SAS programming and so on)?

Any advice would be greatly appreciated. I am not sure how strong your stats background is. You may be able to get a job w/ the PhD in psychapply and you will find out! For the novel, jobs you do not get, ask what is law, lacking. You may need additional coursework in novel stats. SAS programming would be an asset. I have friends w/ PhDs in finnis law Psych who are functioning very well as statisticians, but they have a strong stats background in their degree. Thank you so much for the insightful advice! I am a convert to biostatistics and novel, this has helped me tremendously. I do have a question regarding research positions.

First, a brief history, I have always loved math and actually began my college career in engineering. Joy Luck Essay! However, due to novel, the shortage of employment at the time, I changed my major to a medical degree. Long story short, I now have my Bachelors in Nursing. I was so excited to find out about the Dream, biostatistics degree! I feel like I finally found something that will combine my medical background with my love for mathematics. On to obasan novel, the questionI have noticed in procedure researching available jobs that several require 3-5 years of obasan novel, research experience. Do you know if this is asda procedure, beyond the research that is obasan, required for your Masters degree? Or if this needs to how does temperature affect, be full-time 40hr/week research? Thank you so much for obasan, your time!

COngrats on finding stats. Asda! Gotta tell you: my mother was a nurse (started the obasan, Pediatric Nurse Practicianer program at Yale), my daughter-in-law is a labor and Destination Rich and Famous Essay, delivery nurse, and obasan, my other sons significant other is a cardiac physicians assistant. With your scientific bent, stats and medical backgroundyou would be a good hire for many jobs. The New Rich Essay Example! As for novel, what a particular job is looking for when they say 3-5 yrs experience, I cant say. My guess would be post-degree, but my guess might be wrong. Also, even if they mean that, they may find your background so attractive that they change their mind. Sorry that I couldnt answer your question more definitively. Stanley’s Return! Warm regards, I liked your article.

I have been reading about Biostatistics recently. I have a MS degree in Engineering. I truly loved the statistics classes I took. I took Design of Experiments and Statistical Data Analysis during my masters. I just didnt realize how important statistics is in every field. Especially in quality and human factos classes, statistics played an important role.

We moved to Nashville and Vanderbilt offers PhD degree in Biostatistics. I was wondering your personal thought on obasan, if an Dubai: The New and Famous example engineer would be accepted to Biostatistics department? I call the Dept of Bios and ask for an appointment with someone on the faculty who could address this question. Then go meet the faculty member with a list of your coursework (text book names wouldnt hurt) and either a transcript (need not be official) or a list of your grades and ask them for a non-binding evaluation of obasan novel, your likelihood of finnis natural law, acceptance. They may point out what you lack, or they may just invite you to get your formal application in order by date X. Good luck, Thank you so much for writing this article! I had goal of working in obasan pharma industry but after spending about a year to find a job as a Biostatistician, my goal is shorten to having a job. 3 months of of summer intern at a medical school and having a weaker degree, MPH in Biostatistics have not done any helps in finding a job. For about past 6 months I have not get any interview offer so its very disappointing. How can I get a job?

Please help! Thanks! I am not an authority on this, but with the MPH, you might try to get a SAS certificate and how does temperature affect, get into a company as a statistical programmer, then migrate into stats. Novel! I dont know if this will work, but I think SAS certification isnt a high hurdle, especially if you know SAS already. Good luck! Thank you for your informative article.

Im a senior in Biology Applied Mathematics, attempting to reconcile my interests, and hence seriously considering a phD in Biostatistics. I have done research, but not Biostatistics research, although they involve quantitative skills basic sciences. How Does Temperature Osmosis! My questions are: 1. How important is it to obasan novel, have an established research area/interest when applying to pretty how town, a Biostatistics phD program? 2. Obasan Novel! Can you give some suggestions about where to look to for topic areas in Biostatistics? Or can you list some as a starting point? 3. I have taken a couple ugrad upper level/grad level statistics courses (which require multivariate calculus), and temperature, have a good track record (my schools courses are known to be very challenging). However due to scheduling reasons, I am only taking multivariate calculus this semester as a senior. I may not have the obasan, grades posted by the time I submit my application. Finnis Law! Will that be a problem?

I am not in academia, so I dont really know the answers to your questions for obasan, sure, but (1) I think it is Return on System Non-investment, entirely unimportant to obasan, have a previously established research interest, (2) you will figure out good topics when in grad school, and (3) I seriously doubt that unposted grades will be a deciding concern on an application. Good morning Katherine, I have a Ph.D in Medicinal Chemistry, worked in the pharmaceutical industry designing drugs for 7 years and for the last 5 years have started my own firm based in the US with 15 employees overseas in India doing BIO_IT. I am now interested in moving myself and my company in the area of Biostatistics (I have deep interest in math). What kind of degree program would you suggest ? I would suggest that you join the Statistical Consulting Section of the ASA and read the MS vs PhD tread that is going on. Return On System! I think there is a way to get to previously-sent emails. If you have trouble, Rick Peterson at ASA might be able to help you. After you read those posts, you can ask the question yourself (or a modified version, with more details) to see what the larger community advises. In general, the answer is It depends on what you are going to do with the degree. It sounds to me as though a strong masters program would do you well. (An MS is usually stronger than an MPH, for example.) Butthat is for you to decide.

Hi Katherine, thank you for an amazingly informative article and your responses to the posts! A recent college grad, I am working in novel science communication and planning on going back to school next year for a Masters in Biostatistics. The New For The Rich Essay Example! Even though I was a science student throughout college, I also find a lot of obasan, my interest lies in the humanistic side communications, marketing, etc. I always feel a little torn in terms of whether I should directly pursue my passions or work on developing concrete skill sets to pave the paths that might lead me to fulfill these passions. I am choosing the latter for now, and I do hope that a degree in temperature Biostats would not stick me to obasan, the stereotypical number cruncher image in the job market. Finnis! Ideally, I would like to use these quantitative skills for novel, a career in health marketing/consulting. Is my concern unnecessary that biostatistics might not fit in these environments?

Do you know any biostatisticians who have gone on similar routes? If you are good in communications, you should be able to select job opportunities that suit you, then market yourself in your resume and cover letter. Make sure to select a degree program that requires you to do actual consultingso you have an opportunity to work on the softer side. You might also select a few courses technical writing or consulting skills or some topic(s) that you can point to. Good luckwe need more people with technical skills who are good at translating the results. thanks so much for pretty how town, this article in obasan novel biostatistics. I am a graduate in complaints Micrebiology (BSC) and I will greatly love study Biostatistics at the masters level. My question is, will i be offered an admission in biostatistics mindful of the fact that my degree is not math incline? You will need some math. Each program is different.

Search the obasan novel, web for programs, then look at their admissions criteria. If you dont have enough, then you may need a semester or a year. Dubai: The New Destination For The Essay! If you already have enough math,then apply. Thank you for this article. Novel! It is really informative to choose a career in Biostatistic. Pretty How Town! Presently i am doing PhD in Biochemistry and Medical genetics in Canada. During my undergrad (Bachelor of novel, Technology) in Biotechnology, i had done undergrad level of statistic. Last two term of my PhD, i had taken Biostatistic courses.

One was basic biostatistic and another was based on SAS program. I am good in finnis law Math as well. I like to shift my career to obasan novel, Biopharma Company as a biostatiscian. Complaints! Do I need further education before I will be of interest for biostatistics jobs. If yes, what are the novel, steps can you suggest me. Any advice would be greatly appreciated. If you want to be a biostatistician, you most likely (most likelynot necessarily definitely) will need a more staty degree in order to get paid at a PhD level. However, biochem, medical genetics, and stats would seem to me to be a very, very powerful combination! But I cant really opine on asda procedure, what companies will hire you.

Thanks for the great advice! I was just wondering whether it would matter if I get a Masters in Biostatistics or a Masters in Statistics. Would either provide the same career opportunities? Or is a degree in Biostatistics held in higher regards? Can you please explain the obasan, difference between a SAS programmer and a biostatistician? How do their day-to-day job duties differ? Thank you! Some of those who earn a masters in biostats end up taking jobs as SAS programmers. How Does Temperature Affect! However, there are many SAS programmers who know no statistics and who use SAS in areas that are not particularly statistical.

In my experience, programmers primarily write programs. Biostatisticians often do some programmingand often will write the statistically more complicated parts of the program (often as a macro for the programmer to call)but they also write detailed instructions for the programmers so the programmers know how to build datasets or generate displays (tables, listings), they may help write protocols (a protocol is the obasan novel, document that specifies how the study is Stanley’s Non-investment, conducted and the high-level descriptions of data summary and analyses), they may write statistical analysis plans (the document that more precisely details the data summary and analyses), develop and annotate table shells (mock displays that have notes to the programmers to tell them what dataset to use, which records to select, and which datasets to novel, use, etc.), review case report forms prior to their completion, help interpret the results of the SAS output, write a statistical reports and help write the clinical study report, attend FDA meetings with the FDA, etc. In my experience (clinical data trials), SAS programmers in statistical areas review the data set specification and Morgan Return on System, turn the instructions into code. They also look at display shells and figure out how to obasan, manipulate the data so that the correct display is generated. The biostatisticians and osmosis, programmers work closely together.

Hope this helps! Thank you so much for such a fantastic and informative article. Before going any further, I would just like to point out that I am an unusual case: I guess you can say I am having a typical, quarter-life crisis.I received my B.A. in English last May. I am currently pursuing my Masters in the same field. To be honest, I have grown tired of obasan novel, thinking in abstractions.

I love my background in art and literature, but I am desperate for a complete change. Not to how does affect osmosis, mention, the market for novel, English majors is.well, less than ideal as you can imagine. When I was a kid, I excelled in For the Rich and Famous Essay example mathematics, scoring in the 99th percentile on my state exams. I had one particular math teacher, however, that really turned me off from math and science all together. Unfortunately, I was intimidated enough to stop trying and obasan novel, working hard.

I decided to pursue the Humanities. Talk about a 180 degree shift. Today, I booked an appointment with an complaints procedure advisor at my university and I will start working on a Bachelors Degree in obasan novel math. A career in Biostatistics sounds great. I will be 24 by Morgan Stanley’s Return the time I am done with my current Masters degree and novel, probably about 25 by the time I complete a B.A. in math. I wasnt planning on Dubai: and Famous example, going any further than an M.S. in Biostatistics.

Can you tell me a little bit more about what to expect? Do I have a shot? I have a lot of catching up to do Sometimes, I wonder if Ive lost my marbles #128521; Any advice or direction would be greatly appreciated!! Thank you for obasan novel, your article and creating this very informative thread. I hold a bachelors degree in Stanley’s on System pharmacy and a masters degree in biopharmaceutical sciences. My research projects during my masters were both in novel biotechnology field(wet lab) and pharmacokinetic modelling (dry lab) with R and finnis law, NONMEM.

I have now started a interdisciplinary PhD program which draws from pharmaceutical biotechnology, Statistical modelling (QSAR) and chemistry. My PhD is in Europe and is mainly research based and this leaves little room for course work. Over the years, I have discovered my affinity for data extraction and novel, management. In fact, I had applied to pretty how town, few programs in pharmacometrics but was not selected. However, since I do not have a solid foundation in statistics, I feel that I might be limited in obasan the extension of my current knowledge to affect, future work demands in novel the pharmaceutical environment. Do you think that a MSc in Biostatistics, after my PhD is a good choice for me?(I am now 26 with no tangible work experience, will I stand a risk of being over-educated) Do you think my current PhD would be of pretty how town, great benefit in the future or shall I change to a PhD in biostatistics (I am now preparing for GRE)? If possible, is combining a part-time masters in biostatistics with my current program advisable? Thank you and I hope to receive your response.

I am simply not qualified to guess what road might be best for you. In my mind, a good stats degree is useful in any research field, but should you do that? It takes time, it takes money I dont know. For example, I would have benefited from more chemistry classes, and a pre-med background would have served me well. Novel! But I dont have that, and Stanley’s Non-investment, I have done fine anyhow. So should you go for another degree in stats, or switch?

I just dont know what will lead you to the greatest likelihood of a job that you enjoy or a career that is productive. Seems to me that this is more life counseling than I am qualified to do! Do you have a shot? Yes, of course. It will take time and money, to be sure, but a statistician who can write well is a valuable find! One alternative is to move to SAS programming. Someone with a logical mind can pick up basic SAS in a relatively short amount of time, and quickly pick up more SAS from novel there. Finnis Natural! Some people with masters in biostat move into obasan novel programming rather than working at a job that has statistician as the title. A basic stat course is useful for a programmer if they intend to work with statistical data, but not necessarily essential. Hi, thanks for the article, i wanted to ask you a question. could we take biostatistics as a undergraduate degree? im in high school and turned 17 this year. The American Dream In The Joy Luck! I take pure bio, pure chem, pure math, and economics.

Im really confused though, i personally enjoy doing math and im okay in obasan novel biology and chem. Dream In The Joy Luck Essay! I like economics but i dont want to join the banking industry because of just the money attraction. So do you have any advice on what i should do? If you are interested in econ and math, with an interest in bio and chem, them a field such as pharmacoeconomics might be up your alley. Health economics should be a good field in the years to come: which treatments really work best and at what price. Obasan! See this http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacoeconomics and then do other searches from there. I would also suggest looking at some schools of public health: see what courses they offer in various departments, and what degrees. Finnis Law! Then search to see what is required for the degrees that look most interesting.

In undergraduate school, you want to keep your options open and not narrow things down too much from the start. Perhaps a bachelor degree in math with an emphasis in in stats and some econ courses would give you the more flexibility than a BS in biostats. I dont KNOW this is true, but it might be. My point is: research what is out there, keep track of the areas that seem the most interesting, figure out what it takes to get there, and obasan novel, pick an finnis natural law undergraduate program that is obasan, broad enough to let you shift your interests somewhat as you learn more. How Does Temperature Affect Osmosis! And when in college, dont forget to take history, art, literature, anthropology etc. Obasan! If you are going to be doing math/science the rest of your life, learn some other fun stuff while you are in college! The web is an outstanding tool. Use some of your Christmas break to explore! Happy Holidays, Katherine. This is a wonderful article and procedure, I love the fact that you respond so promptly to all of the readers.

Like many who have commented here, I, too, need a little bit of your wisdom. Obasan Novel! I have a bachelors degree in medicine and pretty how town, masters degree in international health care management. Both the degrees had courses on biostatistics. Now, the main issue that arises for me here is the obasan novel, lack of work experience. I have worked for a few months as sales representative for a pharmaceutical company and its not the complaints, direction I would like to progress in. I LOVE maths and I have all this background knowledge of medicine but I am not sure which positions I can apply for related to biostatistics. I am currently working in Saudi Arabia but I dont have issues moving to a different country if opportunities arise.

I recently got offered a position to work as a part of a research team at a leading hospital in Saudi Arabia. Can that be a good start? Can you please just guide a wee bit as to which entry-level positions can be available to people from my background, even if its in the U.S. or the U.K. etc.? Thank you. Not sure I replied to yousorry. I really am not a position to evaluate entry-level jobs globally for anyone.

I would think that a bachelors in medicine with health care management masters would afford you an opportunity to move out of sales into research position would be a good start, and my give you a chance to see what its like in some fields of obasan, potential interest. Another option would be to learn/teach yourself SAS and start as a programmer. I have no idea if that is of interest to you, or if you would have SAS available in your research position. In The Joy Luck Club! I doubt a sales rep position would give you access to SAS. One considerationchanging countries might be hard. Obasan Novel! It is probably easier to get a job in a country where you are, where you have permanent residency, or where you have studied than other countries. But this is an area way outside my area of expertise. Again, sorry if I missed your email earlier. Im not sure what happened. Thanks for affect, the post it was very insightful.

I have a question for you. I am in my second year in Bio undergrad with a Math minor (I started off in Math.) However, my University does not allow me to declare a Stats minor if I am not a Math major; so Math minor is the best I can do. Obasan Novel! So, my question: do you think my undergrad would hinder me from getting into graduate schools in asda complaints procedure Biostats? Any recommendations on how to obasan novel, make my chances of acceptance greater? Thank you!! Your undergraduate degree doesnt hinder you from getting to Biostatistics. As long as you have 1 and Dubai: The New Destination For the Rich and Famous Essay example, 1/2 years Calculus and 1 course Leanear Algebra, you should be ok. Some schools. require 1 Statistic course. Obasan! My daughter is a senior Bio major and pretty how town, she is just admitted to obasan, University of Michigan for Stanley’s on System Non-investment, Fall 2013.

Thanks for obasan, such a good article about biostatistic career, no other sites could explain it beautifully. I am from india and I did my Bachelors in Zoology and then I went for M.sc (indian masters in Biostatistics and Epidemiology) and recently i finished it with 73% and I am SAS certified. I am planning to do MS in biostatistics in U.S. Can i get a 1-year MS biostatistics course since I have done my M.sc in biostatistics? What is the scope of getting job after M.S. Pretty How Town! biostatistics or as SAS programmer right now? I dont know the novel, situation out there in The American Dream in The Club U.S. Obasan! since i am staying miles away from Dubai: The New and Famous Essay U.S. Novel! If you could tell the job market senario out there, it will be of great help for me to take a decision where to purse education out there or not. And also will it be able to get H1B visa for these jobs now a days? Thanks for reading. There are 1-year degree programs, but usually the 2-year programs are stronger. Might you be able to Dubai: The New Destination and Famous Essay example, get the stronger program with your background?

I suppose so. Search the web for novel, programs, and ask the departments directly. The departments will also be able to tell you where they have been able to place their students after receiving degrees, and how successful that process has been. And I know nothing about pretty how town, visas sorry. Thanks for the article! I have an obasan novel undergraduate degree in health science and would like like to persue a career as a biostatistician and your article has help me figure out that a masters will be just fine for The New For the example, me since I am mostly interested in working in industry. The one thing I am not sure of is if I should get my masters in obasan novel biostats or in stats.

Since I have a bs in pretty how town health science, I think I could get a job in biostats with just a stat masters but Im not sure if companies would perfer someone with a masters in biostat. Obasan Novel! Also, I am afraid that biostat will be too specialized and the broader stat degree would perhaps help to finnis law, open more doors for me but Im not sure. Can you please help? Thank you! The short answers is: it depends.

It depends on the program and it depends on what industry interests you most. Obasan Novel! In you are interested in pharmaceutials/medical research or in a biological, then biostat would likely be a better bet. If you are interested in other applications, then it is pretty how town, more iffy. It is my impression that biostat programs tend to focus a little more on applications and a little less on theory than stats programs, but there are certainly exceptions to that! I would look at specific programseven calling to talk to someone in the departmentto get a sense of whether or not the program is geared toward theory or offers an applied aspect to. Is a consulting course offered? Is it required, and if not, it is taken by many students? Where have the MS grads from this program gotten jobsand doing what (statistics or statistical programming?) Most likely the obasan, degree name itself wont matter enormously. Good luck, Katherine.

Thank you for your article! Its really hard to find information about pretty how town, biostatistics. I am graduating with BS in psychology in this May, and Ive decided to obasan novel, have a career in biostats since I am interested in pretty how town stats and obasan, health. Im currently deciding on doing a MS at Columbia or Michigan. In terms of reputation and how does temperature, job market, do you have any advice for me? I would like to get a job or join a PhD program in the west coast after graduation. By the way, as an obasan international student, is it hard to find a job in the US with a MS in biostats? Thank you again. I really appreciate it! I am not really in a position to finnis, opine on the relative merits of the 2 programs. Obasan Novel! Consider where you want to live for law, the duration (NYC and Ann Arbor are VERY different places), what courses are required/optional, the cost of the program and the cost of novel, living, if you know anyone in either place (ie, do you have support system in place)this matters too.

As for the difficulty of finding a job I dont know how much trouble people are having. Contact each program and ask them where their graduates from the last 3 years are working. You can help your chances by getting some practical experience, work on your oral and written English (if this is a problemyou indicate you are foreign and English fluency ranges widely so you may be fine here), and getting good grades! Thank you for your sharing. Its really helpful! I am graduating with a BS in psychology in May 2013, and have decided to do a MS in Stanley’s Return on System bio-statistics since I enjoy statistics and obasan novel, want to do something related to health. Now I am deciding between Columbia and Michigan.

In terms of asda procedure, reputation and job opportunities, do you have any suggestions for me? I would like to have a job or get my PhD in the west coast after graduation. Thank you again. I really appreciate it! Sorry, but I dont know particularly programs and their strengths or weaknesses. If you are interested in a PhD on the west coast, then find the PhD programs that you are considering, call up those departments. Perhaps members of the department would say that one of the 2 programs meshes better with their program. Obasan! Notice, however, the pretty how town, use of perhaps in the previous sentence.dont know if that would work for you or not. Also, whoever you talk with may try to get you to come to their program first! In any event, look at the PhD programs to obasan novel, see what the requirements are; perhaps you can tell which MS program works better first. Morgan Stanley’s! My final piece of advice is that I suspect that the road to a PhD is shorter if the MS and PhD are done in the same departments.

To be honest, Im speculating here but the point is worth considering. You can definitely ask various department members about that to novel, see whether or not my speculation is worth anything! I hope you have a successful academic experience, whichever school or coast (or lack of coast, as the case may be for Michigan) you end up in. First, thank you for continuing to answer students/recent graduates questions on this article even though it was written almost 2 years ago. Reading through the comments section (as well as the article) was very helpful. I recently finished my coursework for Stanley’s Return, an M.S. in Biostatistics. I was unfortunately unable to obtain an novel internship during my 1 summer break within the law, program, and am now applying for positions with a less than stellar (in terms of practical work experience) resume. Being a successful Biostatistician requires quite a diverse set of obasan novel, skills: statistical theory, computational, written and finnis natural, oral communication. From what I have seen, positions within industry that have the job title Biostatistician I or equivalent require that applicants have a minimum of 3-5+ years of novel, experience before applying.

These jobs require a high level of responsibility, so I understand the experience requirement. Given this, I have accepted that obtaining one of these jobs straight out of college is not feasible given my work experience. My question is: What are the names of some positions within industry that would allow me to *advance* into pretty how town a Biostatistician position after I gain sufficient work experience? For example: SAS / Statistical Programmer seem like a positions that would allow me to build some of the obasan novel, biostatistics skills listed above, and hopefully allow for a career shift into on System Non-investment a Biostatistican position 1-2 years down the line. Novel! Are you aware of what other such position titles might be? Thank you for your taking the time to read this post. Have a great summer! I am not really aware of any such entry jobs, other than interning or programming. Periodically Amstat news has internships, butsorry, I dont really have any great help for you there. Hello Katherine, I found your article very interesting and the closest thing Ive come to Dubai: Destination Rich Essay, that is close to my situation. Below is my back story.

What are my chances of getting into SAS Programming? I left my near 10 year IT career in obasan novel late 2006. My wife and temperature osmosis, I were starting a family. Both my wife and I are from Glasgow, so living in the south east of obasan novel, England with no family members close by, child care was the major driving factor. My job at the time required a great deal travel and Dream Club Essay, staying at locations for extended periods of time. I was lucky enough to have a Teaching Post Graduate Degree in obasan novel Maths and Computing and 3 years teaching experience, this allowed me to pretty how town, accept an offer to teach Maths and Statistics to secondary school pupils in obasan a high school in Hertfordshire (South East England). Working as a teacher offered a better work life balance and allowed for my wife and Club, me to better share the child care. I now intend to return to software development in the field of novel, Statistical Programming. My family has been started, as planned, and Stanley’s on System Non-investment, now two boys later, both in full time education, I am looking forward to investing my time into picking up my IT career from where it left of and furthering it to new heights of experience and knowledge acquisition. I can now commit myself to obasan novel, my new employer and be available to put in those extra efforts when needed.

My passion has always been developing software, and now with the pretty how town, chance to obasan novel, combine this with my Maths and Statistics knowledge (the power of Maths Statistics excite me), I am looking forward to how does temperature, delving into novel data and emerging with a picture painted that will tell a story to one and all. During my time away from IT I have not stopped developing software; Ive just been focusing on finnis, a different development environment, i.e. educational applications using VBA for Excel, Word and Access. I am excited about obasan novel, learning a new programming language, SAS Programming, and I am currently reading through The Little SAS Book (5th Edition, Delwiche Slaughter). I was a developer who liked to Morgan Stanley’s Non-investment, keep up with new technologies and study for obasan, qualifications in software development. Temperature! I delivered solutions in the Financial Services sector, so I also gained professional qualifications in that sector to (Financial Planning Certificate 1 and 2); this allowed me to communicate and obasan, understand the clients domain more. The American Dream In The Club Essay! I averaged a professional qualification a year. Obasan Novel! I am aiming to gain certification in affect osmosis the SAS Programming language.

With my full software development life-cycle experience, my Statistics knowledge, and my personal attributes, I know I have the wright skill set to novel, make this career move a success. Thanks, in advance for your thoughts. Congrats on surviving the pre-school era of parenting. When I went half-time to asda, take care of my (now 36-year-old) first born, I was definitely on the cutting edgeback then you either quit or worked full time. But then, I had no paid maternity leave either in those primitive days. Obasan! (I missed 2 classes, then a week for spring break, then I was back teaching.) I stayed part time for about 15 years. As for your question (What are my chances of getting into finnis law SAS Programming?), of course I dont really know the answer but my guess (GUESS mind you) is that they are very good. I have no idea what local opportunities there are for you, but I just did a job search for Hertfordshire UK and there were a bunch that came up.

I think the SAS certification makes a lot of obasan, sense to get started. It takes a little bit to get going, but after that you just keep learning new tricks. It sounds as though have the skills, interest, and The New For the Rich and Famous Essay example, ability to do well in the area. thank you for your article. I have 2 questions for you: 1. Obasan Novel! How did you improve your communication skills, both verbal and how does temperature affect osmosis, written? 2. Also could you please tell me what else I should focus on as an novel entry-level biostatistician? I have mathematical background, now Im learning SAS as part of my training. 1. GOOD QUESTION! Communication is important, and how to work on asda procedure, it depends on what you need. (a) A technical writing course can help in novel written skills. (b) Buy a book (eg, Style: Ten lessons in clarity and grace), Joseph M Williams) and work through it but dont rush. (c) If you are entry-level in a company, it would be entirely appropriate to go to your someone in the company (boss, HR, older colleague who you respect) and explain what you areas you would like help/mentoring in and ask for help and advice. (d) Also, watch other people and see what works. Being aware and attentive can be the biggest lesson.

If you see very effective communication, think about what made it effective; if you see bad communication, think about what made it not work. Think about what you are going to say and how someone else might hear. You will learn a lot over time by Non-investment being attentive. If you paying attention, over time you will learn a lot. Obasan! (e) If you have strong accent (whether regional US or foreign), you might profit from an accent-remediation class (or whatever they call it). Dubai: Destination Rich And Famous Example! (f) If you have an opportunity to novel, practice presentations, take it. You can even practice to a wall (but it is hard to temperature affect, get animated talking to a wall); a small group of friends or colleagues is a better betyou will do better and obasan, you will be constructive feedback (if you ask for it.) 2. Temperature Affect! SAS is very good; R would be too. (I am about to try to learn R myself!) If you arent already moderately familiar with WORD and EXCEL, you might want to pick them up. (I suspect you do know those already.) If you know what kind of field you are interested in, then learning more about the subject area is always helpful. Many many thanks for the article, it gives very clear insight about the topic. Really helpful. I am from novel Statistics background(Masters) and employed in analytic domain from last 1.5 yrs.

I had bio-stat in my last semester of Club Essay, graduate program scored really well. Novel! Now I am thinking of finnis natural, having PhD in bio-stat in obasan novel US or Canada as I always have the pretty how town, penchant for novel, the topic. I went through various topics like epidemiology, survival, bio assay,genomics etc. and the intrinsic use of statistics to formulate excellent findings. Still i feel like that field of Bio-Stat is more dominated by the people from heath care domain rather the people from Stat or Math background. Could you please little elaborate in how does temperature affect this topic and clear if there any ambiguity lies. And also could you please suggest what basic knowledge of biology I would require to start studying now, so that it gives me a support in PhD program. At least when I went to graduate school (long, long ago), most people came from a math background. Obasan! Im not sure it is the case that they come from a health care background, more they go to a health care field. Epidemiologists *used* to come exclusively from asda procedure health care. Obasan! (My mother was the Morgan Stanley’s Non-investment, first non-doctor/dentist/veterinarian admitted to the UNC Epi PhD program; they allowed her in as a provisional student because she was only an RN. The barrier then fell after that, but I dont know if some health care is required there still or not.) I strongly suspect a good math background works more in your favor than a strong bio/health care background.

Personally, I just which I had taken more chemistry in college. Anyhow, I suggest that you address your concerns by contacting a few grad schools and ask to speak to the faculty member on obasan, the admissions committee. Dream In The Joy Luck! them what they require/expect/suggest. They can give you data; I give you only speculation! Thanks a lot Katherine for the valuable suggestions #128578; Very interesting and informative article. Im also interested to do pursue career as a Biostatistician. Although I come from obasan novel genetics background currently pursuing PhD, learnt softwares such as R program,SPSS etc.Can u kindly suggest some good books on Biostatistics as well as softwares required. Is it necessary to do some course in finnis natural statistics?

You ask Is it necessary to do some course in statistics? Necessary for obasan, what? To be a biostatistician? Yes, you should have a degreeit is possible but not easy to work as a biostatistician without a biostats or stats degree of complaints procedure, some sort. Are you pursuing a degree in genetics, or in novel biostat? I think I would be doing you a disservice recommending a book, because there are so many at natural law, varying levels.

I would consult a faculty member who knows you and can direct you with a better knowledge of obasan novel, what is appropriate for The American Dream in The Joy Luck, you. SAS is a very widely-used program in obasan novel biostatistics, particularly in the pharmaceutical field. Sorry that I cant be more specific. Great advice and insight. How Does Temperature Affect! This is the best I have found on-line. To add to others unique situation, I give you mine. I work for a pharmaceutical company in the QC department doing everything from novel working with statistical trending, writing standard operating procedures, qualifying equipment, working with a database, etc. As far as the educational part, I have a BS in how does temperature affect Biology with a Chemistry minor.

I also have a graduate certificate in epidemiology which came with a graduate Biostats course and some epi courses along with a couple of electives. It is obasan novel, basically half a masters degree. Now I am interested in stats but am unsure if I should shell out some dough and finish up a MPH and finnis, try to fit as many stats courses as possible or start fresh with a stats MS and try to obasan novel, transfer classes. Ideally, Id like to have a company pay for that (currently not the case). I guess I am unsure where I fit in The American Dream in The Joy Luck Club in the pantheon of novel, things.

Thanks in advance. Sounds like you are well suited to pretty how town, go on obasan, for a degree in stats! You have a strong science background and you know enough to know where you are goingyou learn better that way. Companies vary in pretty how town what they will support and what you owe them back in return. It may well be possible to get help in obasan novel this regard.

I also have no idea what the situation with other aid might be; you have to talk to natural, departments of interest. As for whether to obasan novel, finish an MPH or go straight for the MS? My GUESS (guess!) is that going for the MS might be the shortest, least expensive route to yield you the strongest degree. However, I really dont know the earnings differential for an MPH vs MS, and not all MS degrees are equalsome are much stronger than others. Perhaps you can talk to persons in your graduate department (or, if appropriate, other graduate departments) to see where their MPH and MS students get jobs. The New Rich And Famous Essay Example! Also, you might call the HR departments of a few companies that interest you to get their perspective on obasan novel, the relative merits of an MPH vs MS. There are also a large number of recruiting firms that place statisticians. They might be willing to share their placement experiences with you.

Career counseling at complaints, this level is, alas, outside my current knowledge base. My best advice is that you can probably get better advice elsewhere! Google is novel, a wonderful tool to use to figure out pretty how town, who to call, and novel, then there is ye olde phone (dont tell Siri, but the phone has been around awhile) for use to reach out. At least some people will be able to be helpful, even if they just suggest a different person or different route of inquiry. I am a medical Dr and asda procedure, I am interested in medical statistics,what are my chances and obasan, the benefits of being a meidical statistician as a Dr. Thanks. I have no idea what your chances are of being an MD with an advanced degree in stats. I know nothing about your math background/skills, where you are geographically relative to a good stats program, how much time you have to devote to pretty how town, getting the degree etc. However, I strongly suspect that an MD with a degree in biostats would be someone highly marketable to the pharma industry or the FDA, or to novel, many academic research centers that conduct clinical trials or do more epidemiologic studies.

Would the asda, time, effort, and obasan, money be worth it financially in the long run for you? Obviously, I dont know that either. I suspect you might have some very interesting career opportunities, however. Good luck in deciding which way to direct your career. I am a MSc. student from Canada working on my degree in Population Health Sciences. I have a BSc. in Human Biology. Currently, during my MSc., I extended my program by 1 more year to take some undergraduate level math and stats courses (eg. linear algebra, multivariate calculus, mathematical statistics, probability, etc.) I intend on applying to some Biostatistics phD programs in Canada, but mostly schools in the US next year. (writing my GRE next summer). Do you think that for my situation, I should apply for the MSc. in how does osmosis biostatistics first because my chances of getting into the PhD programs are not as good? (But my trying to get into the MSc. in biostats first, I do intend on making it into an accelerated program to the phD.)

Please give me your honest opinion, I really appreciate it. Ill give you the same advice that I give others: call the departments that interest them and ask to talk with the director of admissions. They can give you informed information on such questions whereas I can only speculate. Novel! The answer may not be the same for all programs. Stanley’s Non-investment! Be prepared to tell them what courses you have taken (including the obasan, text book) and your grades; it wouldnt hurt to have the course description handy too, in case they ask. Good luck in your path. The Bio and Health Sciences background should be useful in asda complaints your future!

Hi, I am an obasan M.Sc. in Toxicology from India. Asda Complaints Procedure! I want to move to US for an MS in Biostatistics. My maths has been very good and did some course-work in Biostatistics in M.Sc. itself (we had bio-statistics as a subject both in 1st as well as second yr). The university I wish to apply asks for (a)Calculus 1 2 (b)Linear Algebra as pre-requisites. Would it be possible or you tell me what course should I take to fulfil these criteria.

Thank you so much already. In American colleges and universities, there ar usually classes in calculus and linear algebra. They are often called Calculus 1 or Calculus I, and then Calculus 2 (or II). The actual course number may be something else (eg, Math 131 or 242 orwhatever, depending on the school), but the description will call it entry-level calculus, or first-semester calculus or something similar. Linear Algebra classes are called Linear Algebra. Novel! You just have to take the Stanley’s Return on System Non-investment, classes. hi everyone . Obasan! I from temperature affect Pakistan and i have done my masters of obasan, science in complaints procedure biostatistic and obasan, done research in Dubai: The New Destination For the and Famous Essay thesis work . Novel! But i want to take guidence what are steps how i struggle in complaints procedure a proper direction because it is a vast field. That is too vague a request for obasan, me to try to answer, and I imagine that I could not give reasonable advice to you on this matter. Procedure! I would suggest that you contact your professors with whom you worked on your graduate degree. They will know your background, interests, and strengths the best. Thank you for a wonderful article.

I wish the internet had been around when I was in novel high school. Is someone ever too old to get into biostatistics? I am a 41 year old practicing physician with an finnis law undergraduate degree in novel Electrical Engineering and Mathematics (strong CS as well) who is The New Destination For the Rich and Famous Essay example, looking to obasan novel, get back into pretty how town what he loved (mathematics) and left for some inexplicable reason. If I did get my PhD in obasan biostatistics would my age and The New and Famous, experience be a hinderance, an asset or a mixed blessing? (Un)fortunately my experience lies in Emergency Medicine at novel, the clinical level and I have not been exposed to asda complaints procedure, the academic side since residency and am not in a specialty such as heme/onc which seems to have latched onto biostats, from a pure medical perspective, the obasan novel, most from Dream in The Club what I have learned. I have already reached out to the biostat admission chair at my med school and plan to meet him. Obasan! All the other pertinent planning is in the works as well. Thanks in advance, Your medical background would be a fantastic asset.

I wish I knew more medicine and chemistry! Im not sure if being an procedure oncologist would help you a whole lot, but the strong science background certainly will when you go looking for a job. Novel! It might not help get you through grad school, but it will help later. Unless you are better at remembering your math than I am, you might need to either take a refresher course or two (or pull out the textbooks and work through them) in order to handle the math needed to get a PhD. The biostat admission chair will give you good advice. Ask him for the names of books in some courses, then go look at them and see if your math wheels are good to go or if they need some greasing. And 41 is not too old. My mom was an RN who went back for her PhD in Epidemiology when she was 49.

They admitted her as a provisional student after she was persistent: until then, only MDs, DVMsand other doctors had been allowed in finnis natural law the program. She smashed that glass ceiling, and within a few years all sorts of non-medical types were allowed in. She went on to start the pediatric nurse practicianer programs at Yale and UNC, among other things. So no, 41 is not too old! This is by far the most informative and inspiring article on Biostatistics in the entire Internet realm.

Thank you, Katherine, for sharing your knowledge for the pathway to a career in Biostatistics. As a Sophomore planning to major in Biology, I am glad that I have enough time to tailor my degree to keep the obasan novel, doors open for a M.S. in Biostatistics. If you dont mind, could you share with us your own pathway to the current position you are in? What did you major in during your undergraduate? Did you attend Grad school for statistics or Biostatistics, and what career options were open to you after grad school? I know the situation now must different to how it was when you completed grad school, but it still may be a helpful reference guide for undergrad students like me. Hi Khaled, Im so glad that you have enjoyed the article and found it helpful. I majored in math at a small liberal-arts school, with only one probability course and one math-stats class. I took some some bio classes and pretty how town, wish I had taken chemistry. If you are a bio major, then I recommend that you double-major (or nearly somaybe not EVERY course you need for novel, a major, but many of them), in math.

I went for a PhD in Destination and Famous Essay example Biostatistics; I wanted to do applications. Getting paid to continue learning other types of material? What a great job. Obasan! A strong MS can be good, but well, degrees are like union cards: different degrees allow you to get different types of jobs. PhDs tend to earn more on temperature osmosis, average, but a strong masters degree takes less time and can take you a long way; I know a number of very strong (2-year) MS-degreed persons.

Im glad I got my PhD, but you might do well getting an MS and novel, then seeing if you want to how does affect, go the obasan, extra mile. But not all masters degrees are the Dream Joy Luck, same: some are much stronger than others. Evaluate the program, ask them where the masters grads get jobs My options were limited when I graduated because I was married to obasan novel, a sociologistthey dont have many options. Temperature! As a result of that, I ended up at the University of Missouri-St Louis in a math dept that had never had a statistician before. Being the first statistician in a Math dept can be a wonderful opportunityif it is an enlightened department. This one was not. I left after 3 yrs and went to Ralston Purina.

I wanted to be 1/2 time (I had a baby by then and a half-time prof at the University was just not going to be tolerated back then). I found 4 such 1/2 time jobs in St Louis, and obasan, took the one I liked best. It was a great job! Mind you, back then going to temperature affect osmosis, industry was thought by some to obasan novel, be a step down, but it was a very good move for me. After 13 yrs in that job, my husband changed jobs and we moved to complaints procedure, Boston. It was an economically depressed time, and I had no clinical trials experience and the was a clinical trials town. I got a job at Ciba Corning Diagnostics (5 months later and novel, early interview at Astra came through, but I already was working). THis was a medical device company. After 3 1/2 yrs there, the Astra job opened up again, and this time I went there. Asda Complaints! Astra had an interal merger and after 18 months, I as suddenly an Associate Director of Biostats. 18 months after that, Astra merged and my job moved to obasan novel, PA.

I was not moving to Dream, the Philly area. The founder of Rho, Inc (based in Chapel, NC) where I now work, was a former professor and novel, long-time colleague. He knew I was job-hunting and asked me to open a satellite office in the Boston area. I did this (although I had quite a few other opportunities in Boston). It was a small office and 11 1/2 yrs later (now 2010) it was just not economically feasible to keep it opened: it was cheaper to natural, let the few statisticians work from home, now that telecommuting had advanced far enough. Sowe moved home. Since I was now working at home, I moved my home to Chicago, where my younger son and now my 2 grandkids are. Obasan! Rho set me up with a computer, printerand my cats sit on my desk while I work. BTW, Rho is a CRO (contract research organization).

It has been very stabile, and while many of my colleagues from Astra have changed jobs several times from how does temperature affect drug-company to novel, drug-company, Ive had a stead job since 12/1998. Ill retire from this job. Along the way (starting about 22 yrs ago), I started getting involved with the Boston Chapter of the asda complaints procedure, Am Stat Assn. Over the years I was secretary, then president of that organization. I also have done a lot of obasan novel, service for the ASAvolunteering for asda complaints procedure, committees. I served on the ASA Board of Directors, chaired the obasan novel, committee that runs the short-courses at Morgan Return on System, the annual meetings, and novel, have been Chair of the natural, PHarmaceutical Section of the ASA. All this just by stepping up, being willing to work, and novel, just doing it. Largely because of pretty how town, my service, I was made Fellow of the ASA in novel 2007 (this award given to 1/3rd of 1 pct of the membership per yearabout 60 people out of 18000 each year). Pretty How Town! I am also being given an award by the Boston Chapter, which will be given next month. I tell you this to make this point: becoming engaged outside your job can be rewardingserving your profession, whatever it turns out to be. I didnt even start much service until about 1991, 16 yrs after I got my degree.

I only took on novel, as much as I could to (one year I was asked run for 5 different officesI only ran for 1 of them!) I had absolutely NO idea where my career would go, but I must say it has gone well. SoI hope this answers your question well enough! I am graduating with bachelors in chemistry this year. Just came across your post when i was researching grad school options for finnis law, bio statistics. I had done well good in all math courses but contrary I also failed statistics for eng. ( thats different story). when ever I came across the novel, data analysis in chemistry courses I always find that my understanding and knowledge is lacking. my question to you how would I prepare my self to Morgan Non-investment, get into biostat masters program as I am from chemistry background. thank you so much and thanks for novel, sharing your thoughts and journey as statistician. The one thing I forgot to The American Dream Joy Luck Essay, mention is even though my math grades are great but just because its been so long I took those courses. I still have 2 more semester to graduate so planning to take linear algebra if that helps. so some one from different background want to go for obasan novel, biostat as grad school what remedial courses should be taken beside grades and courses what else can be done to make application stand out? This is a great article.

Thank you for sharing it with us. I am a Medical Technologist. Morgan Stanley’s Return On System! First job out of school. It is not bad but I figured I could do more and started looking into programs that suits my interest. So, I came across Biostatistics and did some research in it.Like you said, googled it. Even though I have a degree in Medical Technology, I always loved Math.

I was really good at it in novel High School and did well in Calc I, II and Intro Stat classes in college. Dubai: Destination Rich Example! College was a lot of Biology and Chemistry classes. I found that Linear Algebra and novel, Multivariable Calc are basic prerequisites to get into Biostatistics program. So, I took those classes in Fall 13 while I was working and did well in finnis natural law both. Obasan! I applied to few schools. I have not heard anything from them yet.Then I started doing more research into it.That is osmosis, actually how I came across your article. I am not even 50% sure if I will get accepted into grad schools this year, but I was thinking if I did, how much would my Medical Technology degree come to use after I finish the program?I have 4 years of experience as Medical Technologist. If I dont get accepted this year, I will probably take Advance Calc and Real Analysis Class like you suggested and go around again next year.It is just so difficult to find these courses in Boston that goes along with my work schedule. I enjoyed reading your pathway to current position.Thank you for sharing it too. While a medical technology degree is probably not the most straight-line path to a degree in biostats, I strongly suspect that you will be able to use your knowledge if you obtain a job in a medically-related field later on.

The biology and chemistry can definitely help if you land in novel a science-related position. Im not sure exactly when schools make their admissions decisions but if you are curious, call the departments and ask! Also, if you are not admitted, it would be useful for you to talk to the admissions director to learn what your application lackedwhat would increase your chances of admission next year? You can the focus your energy in law that direction. Good luck!

Glad you liked the article, I suggest that you contact look at obasan novel, the websites of the departments that you are considering and see what their entrance requirements are. Make sure that you have those courses solidly under your belt. If it has been awhile since you took the courses, then you can study from asda complaints your previous text books on your own. Chemistry may not help a great deal with the novel, coursework for your bios degree, but I suspect that you will find it useful in Dubai: Destination For the Rich Essay example later jobs!

Thank you for novel, the wonderful blog. I just have a question. I have Masters degree in how does Pharmacy (Pharmaceutical Chemistry) and also have 2 years of experience in Drug Safety and Pharmacovigilance. I now intend to direct my career towards Biostatistics in Pharmaceutical Industry. However, I am not able to decide whether I should pursue for MS or MPH in biostatistics.

May I know in terms of pharmaceutical industry, which is the novel, preferred pathway? Without knowing the details of the programs, I would recommend the MS, which tends to be a stronger degree, but Im going to refer this to Career Development Committee of the ASA. Someone might be able to give you more comprehensive advice. Im assisting Katherine with responding to questions. I am a member of ASA, I have a MS in The New Rich Essay example Statistics, and I have worked in public health. When choosing a program, consider the work you want to be doing and the future direction of your career. Obasan! If you want to. work in the Pharmaceutical Industry, you might consider seeking an informational interview with managers from pharmaceutical companies. Morgan Stanley’s On System! During the interview, ask about.

different career tracks available to those with an MS in biostatistics compared to those with a MPH in biostatistics. If you. are interested in a particular career track (i.e., managing a study), ask the obasan, manager what courses/training she/he found most relevant to working as a manager. The Section for Statistical Programmers and Analysts frequently addresses career. track questions at Return on System Non-investment, JSM roundtable and sessions and you may find it helpful to attend them. Additionally, consider under which department or school the program is offered. For example, a MS in biostatistics from the Department of Epidemiology within the school of Public Health might give a student a different perspective and/or training than a MS in biostatistics from the Department of Statistics in the School of Humanities. Obasan Novel! (Im not an expert on natural law, how. degree programs/departments are structured, but I do believe that structure impacts the course curriculum, and thus, a students skill set and perspective.) Thus, explore the novel, course curriculum in Joy Luck Club Essay detail and consider it in relation to the information you gained from the informational interview. Typically, I have seen that graduates who come from programs with a strong public health emphasis get hired as study coordinators or project managers and those coming from programs with a strong statistics emphasis get hired as. programmers and move up as statisticians and/or managers of obasan novel, programmers. Thank you for your question,

I was just wondering, for employers, do they place a strong emphasis on where phD or MSc. In The Essay! degree was obtained? I am thinking of obasan, studying for a phD at the University of complaints, Saskatchewan in Canada, but I am a little worried that it may hinder my potential for obasan novel, getting jobs because its not a well-known school. My feeling is that the answer is to some extent, yes, but not entirely. Im going to pretty how town, refer this to Career Development Committee of the ASA. Someone might be able to give you more comprehensive advice. I had to obasan novel, decide whether I would seek my MSc from pretty how town a university in Canada or a MS from a U.S. university in a geographical area that I intended to obasan, live and work after graduation. Finnis Law! A University of California professor advised that I should obtain a degree (Masters) in the location that I intended to obasan novel, seek employment because hiring managers would be more likely to choose graduates from local programs (i.e., programs.

with which they are familiar, students with predictable skill sets) than graduates who attended a program outside of the U.S. If you plan to stay in the area after graduation, it might be fine to get. a MSc degree at how does affect osmosis, University of Saskatchewan, especially if there is a cutting-edge research project that you can work on, alongside a professor. However, if you plan to seek work in a different province, you may want to investigate additional programs and the employment outlook for the province/city in which you plan to novel, live. Thank you for your amazing blog. Thank you for sharing it with us. I am a undergraduate, and I just got accepted in to The American Dream in The Joy Luck Essay, Harvard MS program and obasan novel, a 27 ranked PhD program in biostatistics with fellowship.

I found it very difficult to choose. I dont know how much the university ranking matters in The New Destination For the and Famous getting a job? My goal is to obasan novel, become a senior biostatistician or a director of biostatistics with good salary. So I think it is pretty how town, better to obasan, get a PhD degree. However I am not sure if it is worthwhile to pretty how town, take an obasan extra two year and tuition fees in pretty how town Harvard? Can you give me some advice? A Harvard MS should allow you to grow into a Senior Biostatistician position. Becoming a director eventually is more likely with the PhD, although I do know persons with an obasan MS who have become directors in smaller companies (not sure about later companies). How Does! As for is it worth it? I cant answer you that one because there are a lot of variables that enter into that equation.

You can gauge the benefits in terms of salary by obasan novel going to http://www.amstat.org, and law, then search on salary survey. There are various surveys: biostatistics; academic; survey of novel, business, industry and For the Rich and Famous, government. When comparing the surveys, note that the year of the survey. Is the extra income worth the extra time/expense of school? Maybe, maybe not. As for the importance of the obasan, ranking of the school? I dot really know the Stanley’s on System, answer to that one. Novel! I am going to pretty how town, refer that to obasan novel, the ASA Committee on Career Development. I am from India and i did my under graduation in pharmacy(B.Pharmacy) and now i am pursuing Masters in Bio-statistics.I wish to pretty how town, do Bio-statistics PhD in US.Which path should i choose to get into research in Pharmaceutical Bio-statistics ? I would google biostatistics departments in obasan the US, see which programs seem to The American Joy Luck Club, match your interests, and then contact the admissions officers in those departments. The individual departments can offer advice on how to proceed. Novel! Ask them what types of jobs do their graduates getdo some go into pharmaceutical companies. Think about what you want: a heavily theoretical dept or one that is more applied-based.

Thank you very much for your kind reply . I am interested in an application oriented field rather than a theoretical one. I currently hold a Bachelors of Science in Dubai: Destination For the Nursing and have worked as a nurse for 4 years or so, primarily in the OBGYN field. However, I am looking to obtain a masters degree in novel something other than nursing, something more research-oriented. I love math and on System Non-investment, analytical things but have been out of practice at novel, these things since college. I really only took one semester of calculus but ended up with 3 semesters of biology and 2 semesters of chemistry prior to affect osmosis, entering the nursing program.

I think biostatistics would interest me a great deal but am unsure what steps to take at this point. Would I be accepted into a masters program for biostatistics with these credentials? Or would I have to take more courses? Do you know where I may look to obasan novel, find out more information? And ultimately, do you think this would be a good transition for me?

Thanks for your input, You can learn more about what preparations are needed for pretty how town, a degree by searching departments with programs of interest and seeing what the entrance requirements are. One calc course will be insufficient for most (all?) biostats degrees. If bios is what you have your heart set on, then look at various programs on line (or call the admissions officers at those schools) to novel, determine what pre-reqs you need. However, you might consider other public health programs that are less mathematically intense. Find websites for various schools of public health (eg, http://sph.unc.edu/# ), then look at their departments and see what interests you. Maybe Health Education, Epidemiology, or Maternal and Child Health? My mother was a pediatric and OB/GYN nurse who went on to get her PhD in The American Dream in The Joy Luck Club Epidemiologythen started the Pediatric Nurse Practitioner program at Yale and novel, a similar one at UNC. Thank you for Morgan Stanley’s Return on System Non-investment, the wonderful article.

I am from India .I have Bachelors degree in novel Botany with Biotechnology and Masters degree in asda complaints Biostatistics. I wish to do PhD in obasan novel Biostatistics in Stanley’s on System US. Which path should i choose to get in to PhD in Biostatistics. That is a very broad question. I would suggest discussions with your Biostats professors to help focus your interest (math stats? applied stats? medical? type of job you might like).

Then google to research departments and obasan, look into their programs, then contact the The American Dream in The Joy Luck Essay, departments that seem the novel, best fit. Thank you for The American Dream Joy Luck Club, your amazing article! Its really helpful for me. Im a high school student, currently admitted to the university. Im planning to major statistics(in management faculty though), but Im also interested on science too. Novel! With reference to Joy Luck, your article, I acknowledged that biostatistics can possibly fulfill my interests in two areas, but I have one question about it.

Ive done chemistry in high school, a little touch with physics, but have absolutely no knowledge in biology. Is biology essential to obasan, have biostatistics career? Would chemistry knowledge be fine? Im also planning to Morgan Return on System Non-investment, go graduate schools too. Im glad that you found the article useful! Biology is not essential for a degree in novel biostatistics, but if you are just starting college, taking an finnis natural intro biology course (focusing on animal, not plant, biology to the extent possible) wouldnt hurt in the long run. It also wouldnt hurt to novel, take a college-level chemistry class.

I didnt take college chemistry, but I could have used more in Stanley’s Return every single job Ive had. However, you will need to have the required math background when you apply to grad school. I suggest that you google department of biostatistics then go to the websites of a number of programs to see the prerequisites are for various graduate schools. Some will require more than others, and you have 4 undergraduate years to obasan novel, get the prereqs under your academic belt. If you meet the stiffer requirements of some schools, you will have more flexibility later on. Thank you for the insightful article! I started college with the idea that I wanted to Morgan on System, go to physical therapy school. However, after working as PT aide Ive decided that its not what I want to do. Im going to be a junior next year, and obasan, Ive taken a year of both General Chemistry and Anatomy Physiology. I am majoring in math, simply because I like it, so I feel like biostatistics would combine my interests well.

However, I need some advice about minoring in chemistry or biology. If I minor in Dream Joy Luck Club chemistry I will have taken: Gen Chem III, Organic Chem III and Analytical Chem. If I minor in biology I will have taken: Gen Bio III, Anatomy Physiology III, and one upper level biology class (something like genetics or cell bio). Im three classes away from either minor, but I cant fit in a double minor. Based on these classes, do you feel a stronger background in chemistry or biology would be more beneficial as a biostatistician? Ive read through some of the posts and you seem to have wished that you had a stronger chemistry background. Its made me think twice this summer before registering for classes in the fall, and as Im trying to figure out novel, what I want to do instead of physical therapy. Thank you for any advice! My chemisty was limited to high school, so you are already way ahead of me.

I had bio in college: intro bio, genetics, and evolution. You already have a stronger background than I did for Biostats. Finnis Natural Law! With your math major, you are all set. My senior year in college, I was offered the opportunity to take Honors Math at Oberlin. That meant taking more math classes, and then a chance to graduate with honors. My advisor suggested that I not worry about taking the honors program (after all, the honors label and obasan, some money buy you a cup of coffee) but rather go take art, history, music, literature, or whatever. How Does Temperature Affect Osmosis! In other words, he advised that I use the time to get the most out of a liberal arts school since I was going to obasan novel, grad school in Biostats anyhow.

Given your math major and your very strong science background, I give you the same advice: go broaden and enrich your mind. You might consider a writing or technical writing class if offered, but other than that, enjoy your undergrad opportunities! I took art history as a freshman to fulfill a requirement, and liked it so much that I took music into later. Instead of the math honors extra coursework, I took pottery! I have never suffered at complaints, all professionally for failure to obasan novel, participate in the honors program.

Best of luck, Katherine. Im a member of the ASA Committee on Professional Development, and Im assisting Katherine with some of the posts. Ill add to Katherines wonderful suggestion by Dream in The Joy Luck Club saying that if your university offers a math lab where you provide peer tutoring in exchange for academic credit, you might consider registering for obasan, a semester of math lab. Tutoring strengthens a persons skills for listening and communicating technical information clearly, both of The American Dream in The Club Essay, which help in preparing for that first job. Youll work with/help people of different ages, in different majors, with different levels of math skills. I did this as a math undergrad and enjoyed it so much that I took 2 quarters of statistical consulting lab as a graduate student in novel statistics. Regarding a minor, I encourage you to think about your first, post-college job. In what field do you want to work? If youre unsure, search the ASA jobs database and Dream in The Joy Luck Club, several online jobs databases. Enter appropriate keywords relating to your ideal job. Click on job titles that appeal to you and read the obasan novel, job descriptions and academic requirements.

This will help you assess whether a bio or chem minor is more desirable for jobs that tend to The American Dream Joy Luck, interest you. Good luck in exploring the possibilities! Your article is very very informative. I was just reading through a couple of comments to see if I would find an answer to my question! Almost went through all of them.

I am in sort of a unique situation. I have a Masters in Electrical Engineering and I have worked in the Automation field in manufacturing for nearly 2 years. Obasan! However, am thinking of temperature osmosis, moving my career to obasan novel, the statistics field, something like research oriented programming for bio-statistics to be very specific. I am considering a PhD. I am still researching the pros and cons of what this decision would bring, as it will be a very big move for Dubai: For the Rich and Famous example, me, money wise and novel, career wise. Dubai: The New Essay Example! I have always been inclined towards biology and math (not so much chem), but I was only obasan novel able to take high school level biology and chemistry due to the nature of Joy Luck Essay, my program, as I moved to the Electrical Engineering degree. Obasan! I have taken all three levels of math during my BE (its called BE in India, similar to BS). Also, math has been a vital part of my curriculum in The American Dream in The pursuing the Masters, but there werent any just math courses, it was sort math applied to the specific courses. It has been very difficult to figure out what sort of steps I would need to take to make this move effectively, given my past educational experience is in Electrical Engineering. If you have any insight on novel, this, please let me know. If you can point me in any direction, I would be happy to contact anyone who would have more information on this.

I saw that you mentioned in The American Dream Joy Luck Club Essay a couple of posts above that talking to the Admissions office would help. Novel! Would it help in my case as well? Google search has not been very effective yet! Thanks and Regards, Sneha. Im a member of the Committee on Career Development, and Im assisting Katherine with responses to how does affect osmosis, career-related questions.

It sounds like you are leaning in obasan novel the direction of how does, studying statistical computing. I recommend trying to find a person who is obasan novel, working in statistical computing or in statistical computing within a bio-statistics group and ask the person for an informational interview. Stanley’s Non-investment! An informational interview is an opportunity to learn more about the field, the kinds of obasan novel, work one might be hired to do, the expected growth in that field or industry, and the kinds of academic programs that would match your interests. Specifically, if you are a member of ASAs Statistical Computing and Graphics Section, you can post your request for an informational interview to the group via ASA Community. If youre not a member of procedure, that Section, just click on Sections at the top menu of obasan novel, http://www.amstat.org and go to the Statistical Computing website. Pretty How Town! E-mail the chair with a request to put you in contact with some members who would be willing to discuss academic programs, post-docs in obasan the field, career opportunities, etc. Be sure to on System Non-investment, mention your background in engineering and automation when seeking an informational interview. Good luck in exploring your options! Thank you so much Monica. Your reply helps a lot! I will get in touch with someone from the statistical computing community.

Hi Katherine, thanks very much for your article all the information here which I found very useful. Ive been working in clinical research for about 5 years now becoming more interested in the design statistics side. In my current role as a CRA I am working huge hours overtime every day including weekends, though I find the projects interesting I do get burnt out. In terms of lifestyle, I was wondering if biostatisticians normally work significant overtime too? I dont mind from time to novel, time but it would be good to procedure, have an obasan novel idea of the stress levels /demands. Thanks again. My name is Monica Johnston, and Im a member of the ASA Committee on Career Development. How Does! Im assisting Katherine in answering some of the questions posted here. Im assuming that when you work late and on the weekends, youre neither seeing biostatisticians at novel, work nor are you receiving e-mail from pretty how town them which would indicate they are working off-site on obasan novel, the weekends or late at night during the week. I believe that the number of hours that CRAs and biostatisticians work vary from company to For the example, company. I suspect that in a start-up company both professionals would work long hours.

In an established company, I think that it is novel, uncommon to work huge hours overtime, whether one is a CRA or a statistician. If your job involves programming/coding, you might work longer hours or feel that you need to work longer hours in order to keep up with the workload and time lines. I encourage you to reach out other CRAs and statisticians in the same industry as you to see if their hours are comparable to in The Joy Luck, yours. On Nov. 3, ASA is launching Open Forum and novel, this might be a great way to pretty how town, post your question about whether CRAs work more/equal/fewer hours than biostatisticians within your industry. Im sure youll get many opinions.

.Oh, by the way, it doesnt hurt to apply for a job at novel, a different company and pretty how town, check out its company/work culture. The best time to hunt for a job is when you have one. Many thanks Monica for your advice, unfortunately I missed the open forum, but will definitely look into researching CRA hours other companies. Ill add my 2 cents worth here, namely that Monica is right: the amount of overtime expected as a norm varies by obasan company culture, but the actual amount can also very over time. Affect Osmosis! There might be a period of time (weeks, months or even longer) when there is a lot of obasan novel, overtime even if the usual pace isnt brutal.

But if your company is burning you out, check out finnis law, other companies. The travel part of obasan novel, CRA work will almost always be there, however. Hi Katherine, Thanks very much for your advice, apologies I just saw your message now. Stanley’s Return On System! I have been looking into other companies hopefully will find one with the right culture soon. This article is very insightful and has broaden my horizon.Presently,im planning to write a motivational letter to pursue a master degree in biostatistics,this has been very tough for me because my university degree was in dentistry.Please can you be of assistance. My name is Monica Johnston, and Im a member of the ASA Committee on obasan, Career Development. Im assisting Katherine by Dream in The Club responding to obasan novel, questions. When drafting a motivational letter, it can be helpful to (1) identify your motivation for studying biostatistics, (2) describe how your current professional degree in pretty how town dentistry overlaps with your interest in obasan pursuing a masters degree in biostatistics, and (3) identify specific career opportunities or direction that you want to take after completing your masters degree in biostatistics. Biostatistics is a broad field. Do you think that you would be interested in doing research in dentistry, perhaps helping companies to improve oral hygiene products, to develop new medical devices, or to develop products that help prevent gum disease in how does temperature osmosis areas of the novel, world that have irregular access to clean water? In other words, your motivational letter will be much easier to write after you have asked yourself many questions about what you hope to accomplish with a background in pretty how town dentistry and biostatistics, what impact you want to make, and how you want to make that impact.

Please post again if you have additional questions. Hi Monica and Katherine, I have completed my PhD in obasan the field of Diabetes and its complications from Return on System Non-investment India. Part of my PhD involved statistics thats wherein I got interested in Biostatistics. Obasan! I have assisted few friends in conducting required statistics for their research papers and Dubai: Destination and Famous Essay example, helped them get published. Currently I am working in publication industry and obasan novel, want to in The Joy Luck Essay, pursue my career in clinical research.

I intend to shift to obasan novel, clinical research field, preferably overseas for finnis law, my future prospects, but for obasan, that I need to get enrolled in a course. Please address my below questions: 1. Do you suggest me to get enrolled in MS in Biostatistics? If yes, which university in USA should I apply? How much would be the fee for MS? 2. The American Joy Luck Club Essay! Will MS in Clinical Data Management more useful or MS in novel biostatistics for finnis natural, me to get good opportunities in future in obasan novel Clinical research field?

What is more demanded in Dubai: The New Destination For the Rich and Famous the field? 3. Does MS in Biostatistics include SAS and obasan, other relevant programming? 4. Will USA be a good option or should I look for asda complaints, any other country? 5. Will I have an obasan opportunity to work while I get enrolled in MS courses in USA? Your response to my above questions will help me take wise decisions for my career. Hope to hear from you soon. Dear Dr. Dream Joy Luck Club Essay! Priyanka:

I apologize for obasan novel, the delay. Ive inserted my responses below your question. 1. Do you suggest me to get enrolled in MS in Biostatistics? If yes, which. university in USA should I apply? How much would be the fee for MS? I encourage you to spend more time clarifying the kind of work you want to do before you choose a program. The New Destination For The And Famous Example! Your selection of programs/university may largely depend on the type of job you want (e.g., clinical trials, data document management, clinical trial manager, new drug development, etc). Given your professional interests and given that you have a PhD with some experience with statistics, you might explore Certificate in Clinical Trials or other certificate instead of a Masters degree.

I encourage you to broadly explore the programs that universities offer. Obasan! That is, dont go looking on a website for biostatistics programs. Morgan! Instead, browse the School of novel, Public Health, the Statistics Department, the Biostatistics Department, etc. and see what programs they offer. Also, see if there are any universities that allow you to build a Masters degree so that you get the kind of Dubai: The New example, degree that prepares you for the job you want. I dont recommend particular universities or degree programs because there are so many factors an individual should consider in order to have an outstanding academic experience. I do recommend that you identify the top 10 characteristics that you want in obasan novel a program and begin exploring websites. Dream Joy Luck! There are good universities around the world. Novel! Dont overlook the ones close to home such as the affect osmosis, Indian Statistical Institute. Fees for universities programs vary. In California, a MS degree will cost between $15,000 and $30,000 per obasan, year (on-campus housing included), with private universities having fees in the upper part of that range. Most programs can be comfortably done in two years.

2. Will MS in Clinical Data Management more useful or MS in biostatistics for me. to get good opportunities in Dubai: Destination For the Essay future in Clinical research field? What is obasan, more. demanded in the field? I recommend that you request information interviews from people currently working in clinical research and ask them this question. Complaints! Reach out to people in your professional network and/or LinkedIn. 3. Does MS in obasan Biostatistics include SAS and other relevant programming? Most likely. Morgan Return! Read the obasan, course catalog for the degree program you are considering. If SAS is not listed, call/e-mail the department that offers that degree and speak with the Masters degree faculty advisor. 4. Will USA be a good option or should I look for any other country?

I recommend getting your degree in the country that you are readily able to work and want to work. I am a Californian, and I contemplated attending a Canadian university and returning to California to work. Asda Procedure! A California professor/mentor said that California employers may have a preference for hiring statisticians with a degree from the U.S. because they are more familiar with U.S. education, U.S. statistics programs, etc. While I agreed with him, we both acknowledged that there were exceptions to that statement. One exception would be getting a degree from a highly acclaimed university with an obasan international reputation. Such a degree can get you interviews even when competing with candidates with degrees from local programs. Also, companies with a global presence may value/seek job candidate with who have studied in a different county than the one in which the job is located. Every year, at JSM, I meet foreign-born students who are coming upon graduation from a U.S. statistics program. They want to Dubai: The New For the Rich and Famous, work in the U.S. but find that few organizations will sponsor them or allow them to work on obasan, an H1-B Visa.

Looking for work under the looming deadline of a student Visa that is about to expire is stressful. 5. Will I have an opportunity to work while I get enrolled in procedure MS courses in USA? It depends on the university and the program (and student work Visa rules, about which I have no information). Some schools give priority to PhD candidates with respect to obasan novel, work-study funding. However, if a university is trying to grow their Masters program, the department may set aside separate funding for Masters degree candidates.

Programs that only offer a Masters degree may have more funding opportunities than those that offer Masters and PhD degrees. Your response to my above questions will help me take wise decisions for my. career. Hope to complaints procedure, hear from you soon. I hope that I was helpful. There are many factors for you to consider. Obasan! Remember to talk to how does temperature affect osmosis, people currently doing the obasan, work that you want to law, do. Talk to Masters degree faculty advisors and obasan novel, graduate advisors at the Career Development Centers at universities with degree programs and certificates; ask them what they and their departments do to help new graduates find work after getting a Masters degree or certificate. Committee on asda, Career Development.

I am currently looking to obasan novel, apply for a masters degree. I received my undergrad degree in math and I minored in biology and statistics. As for affect osmosis, a career, I have always loved school and I am definitely open minded to becoming a professor. I also am interested in clinical trials. Obasan Novel! My question is, I can apply for a MPH with a concentration in Biostatistics or a MS in Biostatistics. Pretty How Town! Could you lend any advice for choosing which degree would be beneficial not only for my career interests, but also for the potential of obasan novel, obtaining a PHD? Thank you so much, If your are considering to The American Dream in The Joy Luck Club, work in public health then a MPH would be useful, especially if you want to obasan, help develop and finnis natural law, implement public health programs like cancer screening, diabetes prevention, etc. If you want to work in public health as a statistician, a MS or PhD is needed. If you want to work for a corporation (biopharmaceutical) I believe a MS in biostatistics is the degree you want. Regarding programs, examine them carefully if you think you may later go for novel, a PhD.

Check if master and doctoral candidates are on the same or different tracks. If different, and you get a masters degree and years later want to get a PhD you may need to repeat that first year of graduate studies to get a better foundation in statistical theory. Always talk to a couple of professor/advisors and discuss you specific career interests and future academic interests as they relate to that universitys statistics program before enrolling in pretty how town any program. Also, obtain a list of novel, required courses to obtain a degree and read the course descriptions to get a sense of whether the courses have the blend of procedure, theory and novel, application you need relative to the career that you desire. ASA Committee on Career Development. am a second year student in one of the kenyan universtiy currently taking bsc(biostatistics), My question is apart from teaching,which other areas can one venture his career after finishing undergraduate.

Im responding a member of the ASA Committee on Career Development, and Im responding on behalf of The American in The Joy Luck Club Essay, Katherine. There are many careers open to people with a background in biology and novel, statistics. First, let me direct you to pretty how town, ASAs Stattr@k website at http://stattrak.amstat.org/. In the obasan novel, right menu youll find Career Tr@k. Check that link and explore the others.

See which careers appeals to you and then try to obtain an internship in that career/field. It is very helpful to take an internship during the summer prior to graduation as this will improve your chances of getting a job when you graduate the following spring/summer. Third, it is important to join a professional association for statistics professionals. Dubai: The New Rich Essay! Of course, I recommend joining ASA and finding an organization local to you. Most professional groups offer professional networking, job postings, etc., which give you an edge when looking for work. Knowing which direction to take your career is obasan novel, not easy, but it is easier if you spend substantial time reading about careers and coming to know what the possibilities are for you in your town or province. I started my career in public health and The American Dream in The Club, even after just 10 years of working in that field, I found it impossible to find work in another field except teaching.

Im not saying that it is impossible to change fields, and in some cases, people have no problem changing fields. I do recommend that you think carefully about your internship and the first job that you take as either can has a substantive impact on your future career opportunities and the direction of your career. Comments are closed. You will not be able to post a comment in obasan novel this post. Produced by the American Statistical Association, STAT tr@k is geared toward individuals who are in a statistics program, recently graduated from a statistics program, or recently entered the job world.

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Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali Essay Questions. What qualities in Sundiata's character define him as a hero? Use specifics. Sundiata is described by the griot as heroic because of several qualities: his intelligence, his compassion, his bravery, his sense of justice, his charisma, his piety and his strength. He uses intelligence as a commander of the army by devising strategies that defeat larger armies. His bravery is reflected in his tendency to obasan novel rush into battle himself, killing enemies left and right with little regard for his own safety. His sense of natural, justice is reflected in the way he forgives others' trespasses (within reason), and the description of his rule is obasan novel a just one. His charisma unites people together; during his exile, all he encounters are impressed with him, and hence do they later join his empire. His piety helps him defeat Soumaoro, since, once Sundiata discovers the extent of Soumaoro's sorcery, he is willing to admit he needs the help of spirits and magic to win.

And finally, his legendary strength makes him a hero worthy of remembrance. Balla Fasseke tells him to be a man of pretty how town, action so that his deeds will be remembered, and novel, Sundiata certainly lives up to procedure his destiny. Do you consider the griot to be a historian or a storyteller? Defend your answer. One could argue this both ways. Obasan. The griot certainly defines himself more as a historian, though not by Western standards. Griots are culturally oral historians. He loathes written history, as it lacks the warmth of the human voice. How Does Temperature Affect Osmosis. But he constantly defends his vocation as crucial, since it preserves the memory not only of the Mali ancestors, but also of the decisions that were made and alliances forged. By reminding current rulers of those alliances, the griot helps maintain peace.

Further, the obasan, griot recollection of Sundiata who is known to have been a real person is far more specific than any other historical sources that have survived from this era. However, one could point out that the griot is natural law reliant on elements more akin to a storyteller. His use of music and dramatic rhythm (pumping up the crowd) remind us that his history is meant for an audience, and hence susceptible to certain exaggerations. Further, his constant stressing of his own importance could stretch the credibility of what he describes as facts. As with many early epics, more than one version exist and the details vary depending on the storyteller. The strongest answer to this question suggests that for a griot, history and obasan, storytelling are one and the same, since he preserves essential truth by using the warmth of the human voice to how does temperature osmosis inspire his listeners. What qualities make Soumaoro a bad ruler? Be specific.

Like Sundiata, Soumaoro has a surplus of strength and novel, ambition, and yet he is categorically painted as a bad ruler, even described occasionally by the griot as evil. This perspective results from several of his qualities; his cruelty, his lack of pretty how town, responsibility to his subjects, his lack of hospitality, and his arrogance towards magic. The griot certainly embodies a moral sense when he praises Sundiata for compassion, while lambasting Soumaoro for the latter's cruelty. He is known to kill at will and to treat subjects harshly through both threats of violence and the demand for excessive tribute (taxation). This is not the mark of a good ruler, who would have a responsibility to inspire his subjects to follow him rather than simply to fear him. The way Soumaoro treats his subjects is obasan novel best captured by the incest he commits by stealing his nephew Fakoli's wife. Soumaoro also ignores the Mali custom of hospitality, which is a grievous fault. For example, when Dankaran Touman sends an embassy to inspire peace, Soumaoro takes Balla Fasseke and Nana Triban hostage, a gross violation of his duty as host.

But what ultimately defeats him is his arrogance towards his sorcery. He treats his powers as subservient to him, using disgusting fetishes to build up his power. It is no surprise that, when Sundiata prostrates himself before the spirits and admits his powerlessness without magic, that the jinns choose to favor Sundiata and natural, thereby allow Soumaoro to be robbed of obasan, his powers and defeated. What is the griot's depiction of mankind in general? How does this depiction help to explain the need for heroes? The griot consistently presents the population of tribes and cities as fickle. Consider the people of Niani, who know well that Sundiata has been prophesied to be a great ruler. They are nevertheless easily swayed to mock him when he is procedure handicapped during childhood, and likewise to obasan have contempt for his mother Sogolon. Much of this derives from the gossip spread by Sassouma Berete, gossip that is quickly swallowed and perpetuated by the people. It is only when they are oppressed by Dream in The Club Essay, Soumaoro that they finally start to obasan novel seek out Morgan Stanley’s their destined ruler. People throughout the epic behave shortsightedly, and their susceptibility to rumor and impatience implies the importance of strong, positive heroes.

For mankind to reach its best potential, they must be led by a great hero. Sundiata, through his positive qualities, inspires the tribes towards peace and prosperity as part of the Mali Empire. What is the value of obasan novel, hospitality in Mali custom? How is it shown to be useful or harmful depending on how it is used? Hospitality is presented as central to custom in the epic. It is pretty how town presented as an unspoken contract between guest and host. From the beginning, Maghan Kon Fatta is obasan given a chance to sire a great hero because he is hospitable to both the hunter who prophesies Sundiata's birth and, later, the two hunters who bring Sogolon to Niani.

Much of Sundiata's empire is how does temperature built upon the foundation of the positive treatment he and his family are shown when they wander as exiles, as well as relationships cultivated in Sundiata's youth. The characters who show lapses in hospitality are presented as horrible. Consider Mansa Konkon, who cheats Sundiata of a victory in wori and had accepted gold to exile them further and murder the boy. He is novel not rewarded once Sundiata is victor. Affect. And lastly, Soumaoro is painted as cruel through examples that show his lack of hospitality, whether to travelers on the road or in the kidnapping of obasan novel, Balla Fasseke, who was sent as guest by The American Club, Dankaran Touman. Why is novel patience so heavily stressed as a virtue by the griot? How does patience aid humans? Patience is so important, according to the griot, because mankind is Club fundamentally unable to understand the obasan, forces of destiny.

Mankind's tendency is to expect that what you see is what you get and hence to pretty how town doubt that greater forces might be at obasan novel, work. As a result, the people of Niani are quick to turn on Sundiata when he is asda born crippled, and Sogolon herself has doubts about the boy's greatness. Obasan Novel. But the natural law, greater forces work in their own time, and destiny unfolds beyond the novel, sight of humans, so it behooves us to remember that greatness is often born from the measliest of seeds. One of Sundiata's strengths is asda his willingness to wait. He does not try to reclaim Mali before he is ready, and as a result is able to quickly recruit an army to fight Soumaoro when the time comes, since he had been patient enough to build alliances throughout his youth.

Explain the role of magic in Mali. How is it used for good or evil? In what ways is it difficult to apply such terms to magic in general? Magic in Mali is not to be considered supernatural, but rather as an extension of the natural world. The forces that control the world exists in trees and obasan, lakes and mountains, and can be accessed by paying respect to their spirits. Finnis Law. It encompasses all, including elements that might seem disparate to us. For example, the obasan, monotheism of Islam is not considered contradictory to the polytheism of the complaints procedure, Mandingo. There are those who use magic for evil, like Soumaoro, and others who use it for obasan, good, like Sundiata or Sogolon. However, perhaps it is fallacious to consider this magic 'good' or 'evil', since to do so implies human understanding of greater forces. Morgan Non-investment. The griot is quick to remind his audience of how little humans can truly understand, and this is easily applied to the magic forces, which operate in a way we can barely perceive and hence mankind ought be humble enough to admit we don't understand.

The griot suggests that his words are the strongest weapon a hero can have. Explain. Because the griot comprises the sum total of novel, medieval Mali's history, it is only through him and his family that memory can be preserved. Greatness is necessarily transient if it cannot be remembered and related to future generations, and so it is that kings and griots have a reciprocal and important relationship. It's more than just the arrogance of wanting to be remembered for a king; instead, there is a fear that the accomplished deeds will be forgotten and asda complaints, a king's empire will not continue to grow.

For instance, alliances can be forgotten or mistakes can be repeated. For greatness to resonate throughout the obasan, ages and inspire others, griots are central. So a hero brandishing a sword can commit a great deed, but what good is Dubai: The New Rich and Famous Essay example it if he has no words to make that deed into novel, a legend? In more practical terms, Sundiata is a great king and ruler because he listens to his people and does not go back on his word. The people fear him, but also love him and his sense of justice and fairness. In the closing sections of the epic, the griot speaks of the mysteries of Mali that men are best not to pursue, and natural, only the griot is privy to. What might these mysteries be?

Use examples to support your conjecture. The griot's insistence that men not try to uncover the secrets of Mali reveals his perspective on people: they are fickle and obasan, unable to recognize the limits of their sight. The mysteries likely have something to do with destiny. Destiny is revealed as central and immovable through the epic, in the way that Sundiata's greatness is foretold and delivered. It is possible that the griots know of Mali's future destiny, but fear that the common man would misunderstand this knowledge and hence act poorly with this knowledge. Throughout the work, man is unable to show patience for destiny to unfold. The secrets might also have to do with magic, a central force for the Mandingo.

Most people can neither use magic nor understand its workings. Only the great, like Sundiata, are able to show appropriate piety, as he does through his sacrifices and respect to the jinn. Perhaps the temperature, griot worries that a common person would misuse the secrets of obasan, magic if he learned them, or perhaps would be swallowed by those forces. Lastly, the griot might be warning people against the secrets because it is through maintaining those secrets that the griot keeps his job. There is no shortage of self-promotion in the epic, as the griot always stresses his centrality to finnis natural law Mali tradition and its perpetuation. Perhaps the griot does not want others privy to obasan novel his secrets, for then he would lose his vaunted status. In what ways is music seen to be important to Mali civilization? Firstly, music is the means by which the griot keeps history and pretty how town, communicates it to obasan the people. So for all the reasons that the griot is important as a keeper of history, so is music important.

However, music also serves as a means of communion for a people, and a way to celebrate the greatness of its heroes. Asda Procedure. Notice the novel, long dance celebrations that are detailed in the epic. The marriage of Sogolon to Nare Maghan inspires a celebration not matched until Sundiata's great victory over Soumaoro. Songs provide a way for Morgan Stanley’s Non-investment, all to celebrate the obasan novel, same event. Hymn to Dubai: The New Rich Essay the Bow not only preserves the moment that Sundiata walked for obasan novel, the first time, but it also serves as a battle cry later, and a way for all to celebrate the greatness of their new ruler and, by extension, themselves. The power of asda complaints procedure, music is obasan apparent in the way Balla Fasseke saves his life through flattery of Soumaoro, which he does with an impromptu song. Music can make people listen, and hence. through song, they may learn about themselves and grow stronger by celebrating their greatness. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/sundiata-an-epic-of-old-mali/study-guide/essay-questions in how does osmosis MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and obasan, Analysis Summary And Analysis Preface The Words of the Griot Mamadou Kouyate The First Kings of Mali The Buffalo Woman The Lion Child and Childhood The Lion's Awakening Exile Soumaoro Kante, the Sorcerer King, History, and The Baobab Leaves The Return and The Names of the finnis, Heroes Nana Triban and Balla Fasseke and Krina The Empire, Kouroukan Fougan or The Division of the World, Niani, and Eternal Mali About the Epic Form Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself!

Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store Anonymous - Sundiata Biography. Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for obasan novel, Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. I'm sorry, I am unable to find evidence of the asda procedure, word hammock in the text. Novel. Please provide the text in Essay question. What chapter is obasan this referring to?

I think Griot was, among other things, a teacher. Study Guide for Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali. Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali study guide contains literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and how does temperature affect, analysis. Essays for obasan, Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali. Sundiata: An Epic of pretty how town, Old Mali essays are academic essays for citation.

These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali.

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aids essay outline 4 Contact Hours. 1. Guidelines by the Centers for Disease Control. 2. Modes and risk of virus transmission in the workplace. 3. Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus to workers. 4. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus to workers. 5. Principles of infection control and their application to health-care workers. 6. Employer responsibilities. 7. Management of percutaneous exposure to blood and other infectious body fluids. 8. Disinfection decontamination and disposal.

9. Universal precautions. Florida Statutes on HIV. 11. Requirement for instruction on human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 12. Novel! Testing for human immunodeficiency virus. 13. Patient care of persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection. After completing this course, you'll be able to: 1. Discuss the guidelines issued by the Centers for Disease Control for Morgan on System Non-investment the modes of transmission, assessment of the risk of transmission, control of the risk and specific risk control recommendations for employers and workers for HIV and HBV. 2. Discuss the modes and risk of virus transmission in obasan novel the workplace.

3. Discuss the transmission of HBV among health-care workers and emergency medical and public-safety workers and the requirement and effectiveness of vaccination for HBV. Example! 4. Describe the epidemiology of HIV in health-care workers. 5. Discuss the principles of infection control and their application to health-care workers. 6. Define universal precautions. 7. Discuss universal blood and body fluid precautions to obasan prevent occupational HIV and HBV transmission.

8. Discuss the 5-step recommendations for employer responsibilities in protecting workers against bloodborne diseases. 9. Describe various measures that should be taken in the management of percutaneous exposure to blood and other infectious body fluids. 10. Dubai: For The Rich And Famous! Describe the procedures for disinfection, decontamination and disposal of needles and sharps to reduce the occupational risks of HIV and HBV infection. 11.

Reinforce the importance of hand washing; cleaning, disinfecting and sterilizing equipment and surfaces in the pre-hospital setting; cleaning and decontaminating spills of blood; proper handling of laundry; decontamination and laundering of protective clothing; and handling of infective waste. 12. List body fluids to which universal precautions apply and novel body fluids to which they do not apply. Pretty How Town! 13. Describe 3 guidelines in the use of protective barriers to reduce the risk of HIV and HBV transmission. 14. Describe 5 guidelines to be used in novel the selection of gloves. 15. Explain the legislative intent behind the requirement of continuing education on HIV/AIDS.

16. Amplify the legislative intent behind the testing for HIV. 17. Provide definitions for such terms as HIV test, HIV test results, significant exposure and test subject. 18. Dream Joy Luck Club! Specify the legal requirement of obtaining informed consent and outline circumstances under which informed consent must be obtained and exceptions thereto. 19. Outline the 6-point counseling program after performing an novel HIV test. 20. Discuss the confidentiality of the test results and point out 12 exceptions where the results may be revealed. 21.

Enumerate 12 instances in which the informed consent of the The New Destination Rich and Famous Essay example, subject is not required. 22. Describe the county health department network of voluntary HIV testing programs. 4 Contact Hours. 1. Guidelines by the Centers for Disease Control. 2. Modes and risk of virus transmission in the workplace. 3. Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus to workers. 4. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus to workers. 5. Principles of infection control and their application to health-care workers.

6. Employer responsibilities. 7. Management of percutaneous exposure to blood and other infectious body fluids. Novel! 8. Disinfection decontamination and disposal. 9. Universal precautions. Florida Statutes on asda complaints procedure, HIV. 11. Requirement for instruction on human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 12. Novel! Testing for human immunodeficiency virus.

13. Patient care of persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection. After completing this course, you'll be able to: 1. Discuss the guidelines issued by the Centers for Disease Control for the modes of transmission, assessment of the risk of transmission, control of the risk and specific risk control recommendations for employers and workers for HIV and HBV. 2. Discuss the modes and risk of virus transmission in temperature the workplace. 3. Discuss the transmission of HBV among health-care workers and emergency medical and public-safety workers and the requirement and effectiveness of vaccination for HBV. 4. Describe the epidemiology of HIV in health-care workers. 5. Obasan! Discuss the principles of Stanley’s Return on System infection control and their application to health-care workers. 6. Define universal precautions. 7. Discuss universal blood and body fluid precautions to prevent occupational HIV and HBV transmission.

8. Discuss the 5-step recommendations for employer responsibilities in protecting workers against bloodborne diseases. 9. Describe various measures that should be taken in the management of percutaneous exposure to blood and other infectious body fluids. 10. Describe the obasan, procedures for disinfection, decontamination and disposal of needles and sharps to reduce the occupational risks of HIV and HBV infection. 11. Reinforce the importance of hand washing; cleaning, disinfecting and sterilizing equipment and surfaces in the pre-hospital setting; cleaning and decontaminating spills of blood; proper handling of laundry; decontamination and laundering of protective clothing; and handling of infective waste. 12. List body fluids to which universal precautions apply and body fluids to which they do not apply. 13. Describe 3 guidelines in the use of protective barriers to reduce the risk of HIV and HBV transmission. Complaints! 14.

Describe 5 guidelines to be used in the selection of gloves. 15. Explain the legislative intent behind the requirement of continuing education on HIV/AIDS. 16. Amplify the legislative intent behind the testing for obasan HIV. 17. Provide definitions for such terms as HIV test, HIV test results, significant exposure and test subject. 18.

Specify the legal requirement of obtaining informed consent and outline circumstances under which informed consent must be obtained and exceptions thereto. 19. Outline the 6-point counseling program after performing an HIV test. 20. Discuss the confidentiality of the test results and point out 12 exceptions where the results may be revealed. 21.

Enumerate 12 instances in which the informed consent of the subject is not required. 22. Describe the county health department network of voluntary HIV testing programs.

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essay on vital signs Content and Photographs by Charlie Goldberg, M.D., UCSD School of Medicine and obasan novel VA Medical Center, San Diego, California 92093-0611. The daVinci Anatomy Icon denotes a link to related gross anatomy pictures. Getting Started: The examination room should be quiet, warm and well lit. After you have finished interviewing the patient, provide them with a gown (a.k.a.

Johnny) and The American in The Club leave the novel, room (or draw a separating curtain) while they change. Instruct them to remove all of their clothing (except for briefs) and put on the gown so that the opening is in the rear. Occasionally, patient's will end up using them as ponchos, capes or in other creative ways. While this may make for a more attractive ensemble it will also, unfortunately, interfere with your ability to asda procedure perform an examination! Prior to obasan novel measuring vital signs, the patient should have had the opportunity to sit for approximately five minutes so that the values are not affected by the exertion required to walk to the exam room. All measurements are made while the patient is seated. Observation: Before diving in, take a minute or so to look at the patient in their entirety, making your observations, if possible, from an out-of-the way perch. Does the patient seem anxious, in pain, upset? What about Dubai: The New Destination Rich Essay their dress and hygiene?

Remember, the exam begins as soon as you lay eyes on the patient. Temperature: This is generally obtained using an oral thermometer that provides a digital reading when the obasan, sensor is Stanley’s Return on System Non-investment, placed under the patient's tongue. As most exam rooms do not have thermometers, it is not necessary to repeat this measurement unless, of course, the recorded value seems discordant with the patient's clinical condition (e.g. Obasan! they feel hot but reportedly have no fever or vice versa). Depending on the bias of a particular institution, temperature is measured in either Celcius or Farenheit, with a fever defined as greater than 38-38.5 C or 101-101.5 F. Rectal temperatures, which most closely reflect internal or core values, are approximately 1 degree F higher than those obtained orally. Respiratory Rate: Respirations are recorded as breaths per minute. They should be counted for at least 30 seconds as the total number of breaths in pretty how town, a 15 second period is rather small and any miscounting can result in novel, rather large errors when multiplied by 4. Try to do this as surreptitiously as possible so that the patient does not consciously alter their rate of breathing.

This can be done by observing the rise and pretty how town fall of the novel, patient's hospital gown while you appear to pretty how town be taking their pulse. Normal is between 12 and novel 20. In general, this measurement offers no relevant information for finnis law, the routine examination. However, particularly in the setting of cardio-pulmonary illness, it can be a very reliable marker of disease activity. Pulse: This can be measured at any place where there is novel, a large artery (e.g. carotid, femoral, or simply by listening over the heart), though for the sake of convenience it is asda complaints, generally done by palpating the radial impulse. You may find it helpful to feel both radial arteries simultaneously, doubling the sensory input and helping to obasan novel insure the accuracy of your measurements. Place the temperature osmosis, tips of your index and middle fingers just proximal to the patients wrist on the thumb side, orienting them so that they are both over the length of the vessel.

Technique for Measuring the Radial Pulse. The pictures below demonstrate the location of the radial artery (surface anatomy on the left, gross anatomy on the right). Frequently, you can see transmitted pulsations on careful visual inspection of obasan novel, this region, which may help in locating this artery. Upper extremity peripheral vascular disease is relatively uncommon, so the natural law, radial artery should be readily palpable in obasan, most patients. Push lightly at first, adding pressure if there is Dream in The, a lot of subcutaneous fat or you are unable to detect a pulse.

If you push too hard, you might occlude the vessel and mistake your own pulse for that of the patient. During palpation, note the following: Quantity: Measure the obasan novel, rate of the pulse (recorded in beats per minute). Count for 30 seconds and multiply by 2 (or 15 seconds x 4). If the rate is particularly slow or fast, it is probably best to The New Destination For the and Famous Essay measure for a full 60 seconds in order to minimize the impact of novel, any error in recording over shorter periods of time. Normal is between 60 and 100. Regularity: Is the time between beats constant? In the normal setting, the heart rate should appear metronomic. Irregular rhythms, however, are quite common. Dream Club Essay! If the pattern is obasan novel, entirely chaotic with no discernable pattern, it is referred to as irregularly irregular and likely represents atrial fibrillation.

Extra beats can also be added into the normal pattern, in temperature affect osmosis, which case the rhythm is described as regularly irregular. This may occur, for example, when impulses originating from the ventricle are interposed at regular junctures on the normal rhythm. If the pulse is novel, irregular, it's a good idea to in The Club verify the rate by listening over obasan novel, the heart (see cardiac exam section). This is because certain rhythm disturbances do not allow adequate ventricular filling with each beat. The resultant systole may generate a rather small stroke volume whose impulse is not palpable in the periphery. Volume: Does the pulse volume (i.e. the subjective sense of fullness) feel normal? This reflects changes in stroke volume. In the setting of hypovolemia, for pretty how town, example, the pulse volume is relatively low (aka weak or thready). There may even be beat to beat variation in the volume, occurring occasionally with systolic heart failure. Blood Pressure: Blood pressure (BP) is measured using mercury based manometers, with readings reported in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).

The size of the BP cuff will affect the accuracy of these readings. The inflatable bladder, which can be felt through the vinyl covering of the cuff, should reach roughly 80% around the obasan, circumference of the arm while its width should cover roughly 40%. If it is too small, the readings will be artificially elevated. The opposite The American Dream in The Joy Luck Essay occurs if the cuff is too large. Clinics should have at least 2 cuff sizes available, normal and obasan large. Try to use the one that is most appropriate, recognizing that there will rarely be a perfect fit.

Blood Pressure Cuffs. In order to measure the BP, proceed as follows: Wrap the cuff around the patient's upper arm so that the finnis natural, line marked artery is roughly over the brachial artery, located towards the medial aspect of the antecubital fossa (i.e. the crook on obasan novel, the inside of their elbow). The placement does not have to be exact nor do you actually need to identify this artery by palpation. The pictures below demonstrate the antecubital fossa anatomy (surface anatomy on the left, gross anatomy on the right). Put on your stethescope so that the ear pieces are angled away from your head. Twist the head piece so that the bell is engaged. This can be verified by gently tapping on For the Essay example, the end, which should produce a sound. With your left hand, place the bell over the area of the obasan novel, brachial artery.

While most practitioners use the diaphragm of the stethescope, the Dream Joy Luck, bell is actually be superior for picking up the low pitched sounds used for measuring BP. It's worth mentioning that a number of different models of stethescops are available on the market, each with its own variation on novel, the structure of the diaphragm and bell. Read the instruction manual accompanying your stethoscope in finnis, order to determine how your device works. Grasp the patient's right elbow with your right hand and raise their arm so that the novel, brachial artery is in The Club Essay, roughly at the same height as the heart. The arm should remain somewhat bent and completely relaxed. Obasan! You can provide additional support by gently trapping their hand and forearm between your body and right elbow. If the arm is held too high, the reading will be artifactually lowered, and vice versa. Turn the finnis natural, valve on the pumping bulb clockwise (may be counter clockwise in some cuffs) until it no longer moves.

This is the position which allows air to enter and remain in the bladder. Hold the bell in place with your left hand. Use your right hand to novel pump the bulb until you have generated 150 mmHg on Dubai: The New Destination Rich and Famous Essay example, the manometer. This is a bit above the novel, top end of normal for pretty how town, systolic blood pressure (SBP). Novel! Then listen. If you immediately hear sound, you have underestimated the SBP. Pump up an additional 20 mmHg and repeat. Complaints! Now slowly deflate the obasan novel, blood pressure cuff (i.e. Dubai: The New Destination For The And Famous Essay Example! a few mm Hg per second) by turning the valve in a counter-clockwise direction while listening over the brachial artery and novel watching the Dubai: Destination and Famous Essay, pressure gauge.

The first sound that you hear reflects the flow of blood through the no longer completely occluded brachial artery. Obasan Novel! The value on the manometer at this moment is the SBP. Note that although the needle may oscillate prior to this time, it is the finnis, sound of blood flow that indicates the SBP. Continue listening while you slowly deflate the obasan novel, cuff. The diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is finnis natural, measured when the sound completely disappears. This is the point when the pressure within the vessel is greater then that supplied by the cuff, allowing the free flow of blood without turbulence and thus no audible sound. These are known as the Sounds of Korotkoff. Technique for Measuring Blood Pressure.

Repeat the measurement on the patient's other arm, reversing the position of your hands. The two readings should be within 10-15 mm Hg of each other. Differences greater than this imply that there is differential blood flow to each arm, which most frequently occurs in the setting of subclavian artery atherosclerosis. Occasionally you will be unsure as to the point where systole or diastole occurred and novel wish to repeat the measurement. Ideally, you should allow the cuff to completely deflate, permit any venous congestion in the arm to resolve (which otherwise may lead to inaccurate measurements), and then repeat a minute or so later. Furthermore, while no one has ever lost a limb secondary to BP cuff induced ischemia, repeated measurement can be uncomfortable for the patient, another good reason for pretty how town, giving the arm a break. Avoid moving your hands or the head of the stethescope while you are taking readings as this may produce noise that can obscure the Sounds of Koratkoff.

You can verify the obasan, SBP by palpation. To do this, position the patient's right arm as described above. Place the index and middle fingers of your right hand over the radial artery. Inflate the cuff until you can no longer feel the pulse, or simply to a value 10 points above the SBP as determined by auscultation. Slowly deflate the cuff until you can again detect a radial pulse and note the The New For the and Famous Essay, reading on the manometer. Obasan! This is the SBP and should be the pretty how town, same as the value determined with the use of obasan, your stethescope. Normal is between 100/60 and 140/90. Hypertension is procedure, thus defined as either SBP greater then 140 or DBP greater than 90. It is important to recognize that blood pressure is rarely elevated to a level that causes acute symptoms. That is, while hypertension in general is novel, common, emergencies resulting from extremely high values and pretty how town subsequent acute end organ dysfunction are quite rare. Rather, it is the chronically elevated values which lead to target organ damage, though in obasan, a slow and relatively silent fashion.

At the other end of the spectrum, the minimal SBP required to maintain perfusion varies with the individual. Therefore, interpretation of low values must take into account the clinical situation. Those with poorly functioning hearts, for example, can adjust to a chronically low SBP (e.g. 80-90) and Dubai: Destination Rich and Famous Essay live without symptoms of obasan, hypoperfusion. However others, used to how does higher baseline values, might become quite ill if their SBPs were suddenly decreased to obasan novel these same levels. Many things can alter the accuracy of your readings. In order to limit their impact, remember the following: Do not place the The American in The Joy Luck, blood pressure cuff over a patients clothing or roll a tight fitting sleeve above their biceps when determining blood pressure as either can cause elevated readings. Make sure the patient has had an opportunity to rest before measuring their BP.

Try the following experiment to assess the impact that this can have. Obasan Novel! Take a patient's BP after they've rested. Then repeat after they've walked briskly in place for Morgan Stanley’s Return, several minutes. Patients who are not too physically active (i.e. relatively deconditioned) will develop an elevation in both their SBP and DBP. Obasan Novel! Also, see what effect raising or lowering the arm, and how does temperature affect thus the obasan, position of the brachial artery relative to pretty how town the heart, has on BP. If you have a chance, obtain measurements on the same patient with both a large and small cuff. These exercises should give you an appreciation for the magnitude of error that can be introduced when improper technique is utilized. Novel! If the reading is surprisingly high or low, repeat the measurement towards the end of your exam.

Instruct your patients to The American in The Club avoid coffee, smoking or any other unprescribed drug with sympathomimetic activity on the day of the measurement. Orthostatic (a.k.a. postural) measurements of pulse and obasan blood pressure are part of the assessment for in The Joy Luck Club Essay, hypovolemia. Obasan! This requires first measuring these values when the Dream Club Essay, patient is supine and then repeating them after they have stood for 2 minutes, which allows for equilibration. Normally, SBP does not vary by more then 20 points when a patient moves from lying to standing. In the obasan novel, setting of significant volume depletion, a greater then 20 point drop may be seen. Changes of lesser magnitude occur when moving from lying to sitting or sitting to standing. Pretty How Town! This is frequently associated with symptoms of obasan novel, cerebral hypoperfusion (e.g.. light headedness). Heart rate should increase by not more than 20 points in affect osmosis, a normal physiologic attempt to augment cardiac output by providing chronotropic compensation. In the setting of GI bleeding, for example, a drop in blood pressure and/or rise in heart rate after this maneuver is a marker of significant blood loss and has important prognostic implications. Orthostatic measurements may also be used to determine if postural dizziness, a common complaint with multiple possible explanations, is the result of a fall in blood pressure. For example, patients who suffer from diabetes frequently have autonomic nervous system dysfunction and cannot generate appropriate arteriolar vaosconstriction when changing positions.

This results in postural vital sign changes and symptoms. The 20 point value is novel, a rough guideline. In general, the natural law, greater the change, the more likely it is to cause symptoms and be of clinical relevance. If possible, measure the blood pressure of novel, a patient who has an indwelling arterial catheter (these patients can be found in the ICU with the help of a preceptor). Arterial transducers are an extremely accurate tool for assessing blood pressure and therefore provide a method for checking your non-invasive technique. A few clinically relevant thoughts about high blood pressure: Hypertension is very common disease ( 25% in US affected) defined on basis of severity: Pre-hypertension : Systolic BP 120-140 or diastolic BP 80-90. Stage I hypertension: Systolic BP 140-160 or diastolic BP 90-100. Stage II: Systolic BP 160 or diastolic BP 100. Ideally, several measures on different occasions should verify the finding.

One time measures 160/100 also confirms the Dubai: The New For the and Famous Essay example, diagnosis. It's worth mentioning that normal is 110s/70s, and cardiovascular risk rises w/any values above these points. Hypertension (HTN) causes accelerates the obasan, progression of: Renal dysfunction, coronary artery disease, systolic diastolic heart, left ventricular hypertrophy, peripheral arterial disease, stroke, and retinopathy. The risk of HTN induced damage correlates both w/height of BP and chronicity of elevation (ie longer and The American Dream in The Joy Luck higher =s worse). The treatment of HTN prior to the development of Target Organ Damage (aka TOD) is referred to as primary prevention; while treatment to prevent /or slow progression once disease has already been established is called secondary prevention. Evaluation of patients w/HTN requires careful history, exam, labs, other studies to search for co-morbid problems (diabetes, sleep apnea, etc) /or occult TOD. Most patients w/HTN are asymptomatic, at least until they develop target organ damage, which can take years to occur. The majority of obasan, patients w/HTN ( 60%) will require at least 2 meds for treatment. For a BP between 140-160/80-100, best initial drug treatment is typically with hydrochlorthiazide, a very mild diuretic w/potent anti-hypertensive properties. For those w/starting values 160/100, it's best to start w/2 meds simultaneously.

A few more thoughts: Where you start isn't where you end - so expect to reassess BP in a short time (several weeks) and make adjustments as necessary Most drugs w/in the same class (e.g. Morgan Stanley’s On System Non-investment! any of the 8 or so ACE-Inhibitors) work equally well. Effective treatment requires continual reassessment of medication adherence - a major reason for lack of response to obasan Rx. It helps to know the common side effects for each medication, as these can affect adherence (e.g. ACE-I →cough; HCTZ→ mild increase in temperature affect osmosis, urination, erectile dysfunction; all anti-htn meds→ hypotension) HTN is directly related to weight, inactivity, ETOH consumption, salt intake. As such, life style interventions are absolutely worth addressing, though they are relatively ineffective as sole treatments (due to the inability of patients clinicians to achieve sustained and meaningful changes).

That said, you'll never know the impact until you try to address - and readdress - and readdress @ each visit. HTN swims in the same vascular risk factor soup as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking. These other areas must also be addressed. Treatment goals vary a bit from patient to patient - those with established vascular disease are treated w/goal of reaching BP 120s/70s. Those in primary prevention group w/o diabetes, target BP 140/90. Most patients have primary hypertension (ie the obasan, elevation in BP is the temperature affect, primary disorder). Secondary HTN (elevation in BP secondary to novel another, treatable condition) is rather uncommon - though worth thinking about in and Famous example, the right situation. Secondary causes include: pheochromocytoma, excess cortisol production, hyper adlosteronism, hypo/hyper-thyroidism, renal artery stenosis, chronic kidney disease. Certain conditions favor particular meds - for example: Diabetes → ACE-I or Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs); Coronary artery disease → B blockers. The use of 3 or more meds for refractory HTN isn't uncommon - in particular w/very obese patients.

Acute interventions to immediately lower BP are largely reserved for obasan novel, those times when there is clear evidence of acute symptoms from acute TOD (e.g. CHF, coronary ischemia, increased intra-cranial pressure) secondary to very high values. JNC 7 Express -- Summary of Guidelines for treatment HTN. Oxygen Saturation: Over the past decade, this non-invasive measurement of gas exchange and red blood cell oxygen carrying capacity has become available in all hospitals and many clinics. While imperfect, it can provide important information about cardio-pulmonary dysfunction and is considered by Dream in The Essay, many to be a fifth vital sign. Obasan! In particular, for those suffering from either acute or chronic cardio-pulmonary disorders, it can help quantify the degree of impairment.

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