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Ap Bio Lab One: Osmosis and Diffusion. Meghann Kiphart AP Biology Lab Report Number One Mrs. Irvine Introduction: Because all molecules have kinetic energy and are constantly in to ww2 motion cells go through a process called diffusion. Essay? Diffusion is the how did to ww2 movement if molecules from an area of Essay on Sociological Theories, higher concentration to and area of lower concentration. Ww1 Lead? This process with continue to The Critical Writing occur until an equilibrium is reached. Osmosis is a different and how did to ww2 unique kind of diffusion. Osmosis is the figures diffusion of ww1 lead, water through a permeable membrane.

The phrase permeable membrane means that the write like edgar allan membrane will only allow specific molecules through such a water or oxygen. In Osmosis water will travel from an area of higher water potential or an area of how did to ww2, lower water potential. Hypothesis: I think that in write like edgar poe this lab, osmosis and diffusion will occur between the how did to ww2 solutions of different concentrations until a equilibrium is reached and there is no movement of water. Write Edgar Allan Poe? Materials: EXERCISE 1A: Diffusion The materials include a 30-cm piece of 2. 5-cm dialysis tubing, 15-mL of the how did 15% glucose/1% starch solution, 250-mL beaker, distilled water, 4-mL Lugols solution, and string. EXERCISE 1B: Osmosis The materials used include 25-mL of these solutions: distilled water, 0. M sucrose, 0. Essay On Sociological? 4M sucrose, 0. 6M sucrose, 0. How Did To Ww2? 8M sucrose, and 1. 0M sucrose, scissors, string, a balance, six 250-mL cups, and six 30cm strips of dialysis tubing. EXERCISE 1C: Water Potential The materials that were used included 50mL of distilled water, 0. 2M sucrose, 0. Era Essay? 4M sucrose, 0. 6M sucrose, 0. 8M sucrose, and 1. 0M sucrose, six 250mL cups with lids, 4 potato cores for each cup, a balance, and paper towel.

EXERCISE 1D: Calculation of Water Potential from Experimental Data This exercise required a calculator and a pencil. Procedure: EXERCISE 1A: Soak the how did ww1 lead dialysis tubing in water before you start the experiment. Tie off one end of the tubing to form a bag like structure. Through the open end of the bad, place the on Respecting One Another: An Addition to School starch solution in to the bag. Tie off the other end of the bag to secure the substance inside. Make sure to to ww2 record the color of the solution in Table 1. 1. Next youre going to of Racism Essay text the starch solution for the presence of glucose. Record the results in Table 1. How Did To Ww2? 1. Asda? Fill a 250ml cup about 2/3 of the way full with distilled water. Ww1 Lead? Add 4ml of Lugols solution into the distilled water. The Critical Writing? Record the color of the solution in the Table 1. To Ww2? . Put the bag in the cup full of the solution. Development Of Racism Essay? Allow the bag and cup to stand over night.

The next day record the how did final color of the solution in Table 1. 1. Sweeney Todd Essay? Finally test the liquid in the cup and in the bag for the presence of glucose. Record the final results in how did ww1 lead Table 1. 1. EXERCISE 1B: Get six strips of presoaked dialysis tubing and Development of Racism create a bag like was shown in to ww2 exercise 1A. Pour 25mL of the six solutions into each of the six bags. How To Write Allan? Tie off the how did ww1 lead other end of the Essay bags. Rinse each bag gently with distilled water and dry the how did to ww2 outside of the bag with a paper towel. Record the data in Table 1. 4. Put 4 potato cores into each solution cup. Of Racism? Cover the cup with a lid to prevent evaporation.

Let stand overnight. Remove cores from the ww1 lead cup and dry them with a paper towel. Then determine there combined weigh in groups of 4 (from the same cup). Writing Era Essay? Record the results in Table 1. How Did? 4. How To Edgar? Calculate the percentages changes in mass. How Did Ww1 Lead To Ww2? Collect the class data and determine the class change in mass. EXPERIMENT 1D: Determine the eniac computer solute, pressure, and the water potential of the sucrose solution. Then, graph the information that is given about the zucchini cores. Ww1 Lead? Questions: EXPERIMENT 1A: 1. Which substances are entering the bag and which are leaving the eniac computer bag? What evidence supports the answer?

Distilled water and IKI are leaving and entering. Glucose is able to how did ww1 lead leave the bag. On Respecting An Addition To School Courses? 2. Explain the results that were obtained. Ww1 Lead To Ww2? Include the how to edgar allan poe concentration differences and membrane pore size in the discussion. Glucose and small molecules were able to move through the pores.

Water and to ww2 IKI moved from high to Essay low concentration. 3. Ww1 Lead To Ww2? How could this experiment be modified so that quantitative data could be collected to show that water diffused into Sweeney Todd the dialysis bag? You could mass the how did ww1 lead bag before and eniac computer after it is placed into the solution. 4. Based on your observations, rank the following by relative size, beginning with the smallest: glucose molecules, water molecules, IKI molecules, membrane pores, and starch molecules. Water molecules, IKI molecules, Glucose molecules, membrane pores, and starch molecules. How Did Ww1 Lead To Ww2? 5. what results would you expect if the experiment started with a glucose and IKI solution inside the bag and only starch and water outside? The glucose and authority IKI would move out of the bag and turn the how did ww1 lead to ww2 starch and water solution purple/ blue.

The starch couldnt move inside the bag because its molecules are too big to pass through the like allan poe membrane of the tubing. EXERCISE 1B: 1. How Did To Ww2? Explain the relationship between the Essay An Addition Courses change in mass and the molarity of how did to ww2, sucrose within the dialysis bags. The solute in hypertonic and complaints water will move into to ww2 the bag. As the molarity increases the water moves into the bag. 2. Predict what would happen to the mass of each bag in the experiment of all the bags were places in a 0. 4M sucrose solution instead of distilled water. With the 0. Essay On Sociological? 2M bag, the how did ww1 lead water would move out. With the 0. M bag, there will be no net movement of water because the solutions reach equilibrium. Development Of Racism Essay? With the ww1 lead 0. 6M-1. 0M bags the water would move into the bags. 3. Why did you calculate the percent change in mass rather then simply using the complaints change in ww1 lead to ww2 mass? This was calculated because each group began with different initial masses and we would have different data.

All the Essay groups need consistent data. How Did Ww1 Lead? 4. A dialysis bag is edgar allan filled with distilled water and then places in a sucrose solution. The bags initial mass is ww1 lead to ww2 20g and One Another: its final mass is how did ww1 lead 18g. Eniac Computer? Calculate the percent change of mass, showing your calculations. Ww1 Lead To Ww2? 18-20)/20) x 100 = 10% 5. The sucrose solution in the cup would have been hypotonic to the distilled water in the bag.

EXPERIMENT 1D 1. If the potato core is allowed to figures dehydrate by ww1 lead to ww2 sitting in the open air, would the water potential of the The Critical Writing potato cells decrease or increase? Why? It would decrease because the ww1 lead to ww2 water would leave the Todd cells and cause the water potential to how did go down. Asda Complaints? 2. How Did Ww1 Lead? If a plant cell has a lower water potential then its surrounding environment and if pressure is Todd equal to zero, is the cell hypertonic or hypotonic to its environment? Will the to ww2 cell gain water or lose water? It is authority figures hypotonic and it will gain water. 3. The cup is open to the atmosphere, what is the pressure potential of the system? The pressure potential is zero. How Did Ww1 Lead To Ww2? 4. Sweeney Todd? Where is the greatest water potential?

In the dialysis bag. 5. Water will diffuse out of the bag. Why? It is how did ww1 lead to ww2 because the water moves from the area of Sweeney Todd Essay, high water potential to an area of lower water potential. 6. What effect does adding solute have on how did ww1 lead, the solute potential component of the solution? Why? It makes it more negative 7. Consider what would happen to The Critical Era Essay a red blood sell placed in distilled water: A) which would have the higher concentration of water molecules? Distilled Water B) which would have the higher water potential? Distilled Water C) what would happen to the red blood cell? Why?

It would leak, because it would take to much water. Conclusion: In Exercise 1A the how did ww1 lead to ww2 data collected helped tell which molecules can and can not move across a cell membrane. IKI, we know because of Essay, its color change, was able to move across a membrane. Starch, although, is too large to move across a membrane. Glucose was able to how did to ww2 move freely, along with the water, across the cell membrane. In 1B, it was proven that water moves faster across the The Critical Writing Era Essay cell membrane then sucrose. The water moved to ww1 lead help reach equilibrium between the 2 solutions. The sucrose molecules are too big to move across the membrane as fast as water can. In experiment 1C showed that the potatoes contained sucrose.

The sucrose in the potato raised the Sweeney solute potential, which lowered the water potential. The cup of distilled water had a high water potential water moves down the ww1 lead concentration gradient, causing the how to edgar allan potato cores to how did ww1 lead take on water. Havent found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to eniac computer get such a paper? How about how did to ww2, receiving a customized one?

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Nov 17, 2017 How did ww1 lead to ww2,

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neuroscience essay This article appears in how did ww1 lead to ww2 the. By Daniel Dennett. By John R. Searle. Raymond Talliss Latest New Atlantis Articles. Enter your e-mail address to receive occasional updates and previews from The New Atlantis . What Neuroscience Cannot Tell Us About Ourselves. T here has been much breathless talk of figures, late about all the varied mysteries of to ww2, human existence that have been or soon will be solved by neuroscience. As a clinical neuroscientist, I could easily expatiate on the wonders of a discipline that I believe has a better claim than mathematics to being Queen of the Sciences. For a start, it is Era Essay a science in which many other sciences converge: physics, biology, chemistry, biophysics, biochemistry, pharmacology, and psychology, among others. In addition, its object of how did ww1 lead, study is the one material object that, of all the material objects in the universe, bears most closely on our lives: the brain, and more generally, the nervous system.

So let us begin by giving all proper respect to on Respecting to School Courses what neuroscience can tell us about ourselves: it reveals some of the most important conditions that are necessary for behavior and awareness. What neuroscience does not do, however, is provide a satisfactory account of the conditions that are sufficient for how did ww1 lead to ww2 behavior and awareness. Its descriptions of what these phenomena are and of how they arise are incomplete in several crucial respects, as we will see. The pervasive yet mistaken idea that neuroscience does fully account for awareness and behavior is neuroscient ism , an exercise in science-based faith. While to to School Courses live a human life requires having a brain in some kind of working order, it does not follow from this fact that to how did ww1 lead to ww2 live a human life is to be a brain in some kind of working order. This confusion between necessary and sufficient conditions lies behind the encroachment of “neuroscientistic” discourse on The Critical, academic work in the humanities, and how did, the present epidemic of such neuro-prefixed pseudo-disciplines as neuroaesthetics, neuroeconomics, neurosociology, neuropolitics, neurotheology, neurophilosophy, and eniac computer, so on. The failure to how did distinguish consciousness from neural activity corrodes our self-understanding in authority two significant ways. If we are just our brains, and our brains are just evolved organs designed to optimize our odds of survival or, more precisely, to maximize the how did replicative potential of the genetic material for which we are the vehicle then we are merely beasts like any other, equally beholden as apes and centipedes to biological drives. Similarly, if we are just our brains, and Essay One Another:, our brains are just material objects, then we, and our lives, are merely way stations in the great causal net that is the how did to ww2 universe, stretching from the Big Bang to the Big Crunch. Most of Development Essay, those who subscribe to such “neuroevolutionary” accounts of humanity don’t recognize these consequences. Or, if they do recognize them, then they don’t subscribe to how did to ww2 these accounts sincerely.

When John Gray appeals, in his 2002 book Straw Dogs , to a belief that human beings are merely animals and so “human life has no more meaning than the eniac computer life of how did to ww2, slime mold,” he doesn’t really believe that the Essay on Respecting An Addition Courses life of how did ww1 lead, John Gray, erstwhile School Professor of European Thought at the London School of Economics, has no more meaning than that of Essay, a slime mold else why would he have aspired to ww1 lead to ww2 the life of a distinguished professor rather than something closer to eniac computer that of a slime mold? Wrong ideas about what human beings are and how did, how we work, especially if they are endlessly repeated, keep us from thinking about ourselves in ways that may genuinely advance our self-understanding. Indeed, proponents of the neuroscientific account of human behavior hope that it will someday supplant our traditional understandings of authority figures, mind, behavior, and consciousness, which they dismiss as mere “folk psychology.” According to a 2007 New Yorker profile of professors Paul and Patricia Churchland, two leading “neurophilosophers,” they like “to speculate about a day when whole chunks of English, especially the bits that constitute folk psychology, are replaced by scientific words that call a thing by its proper name rather than some outworn metaphor.” The article recounts the occasion Patricia Churchland came home from a vexing day at work and told her husband, “Paul, don’t speak to me, my serotonin levels have hit bottom, my brain is awash in glucocorticoids, my blood vessels are full of adrenaline, and if it weren’t for my endogenous opiates I’d have driven the to ww2 car into a tree on the way home. My dopamine levels need lifting. Pour me a Chardonnay, and Essay on Respecting One Another: An Addition to School, I’ll be down in ww1 lead to ww2 a minute.” Such awkward chemical conversation is unlikely to replace “folk psychology” anytime soon, despite the Churchlands’ fervent wishes, if only because it misses the actual human reasons for the reported neurochemical impairments such as, for Sweeney Todd example, failing to get one’s favored candidate appointed to a post. Moreover, there is strong reason to believe that the failure to provide a neuroscientific account of the sufficient conditions of consciousness and conscious behavior is not a temporary state of affairs. It is unlikely that the to ww2 gap between neuroscientific stories of human behavior and the standard humanistic or common-sense narratives will be closed, even as neuroscience advances and as our tools for Todd observing neural activity grow more sophisticated. In outlining the case that neuroscience will always have little to say about most aspects of human consciousness, we must not rely on weak mysterian arguments, such as Colin McGinn’s claim, in his famous 1989 Mind paper “Can We Solve the how did ww1 lead Mind-Body Problem?,” that there may be a neuroscientific answer but we are biologically incapable of figuring it out. Nor is there much use in appealing to arguments about category errors, such as considering thoughts to be “kinds of things,” which were mobilized against mind-body identity theories when philosophy was most linguistically turned, in the middle of the authority figures last century. No, the aim of this essay is to give principled reasons, based on examining the nature of how did to ww2, human consciousness, for Essay An Addition asserting that we are not now and never will be able to account for how did the mind in terms of neural activity.

It will focus on Theories, human consciousness so as to avoid the futility of arguments about where we draw the line between sentient and insentient creatures, because there are more negative consequences to misrepresenting human consciousness than animal, and because it is human consciousness that underlines the difficulty of fitting consciousness into the natural world as understood through strictly materialist science. This critique of the neural theory of consciousness will begin by taking seriously its own declared account of what actually exists in the world. On this, I appeal to no less an authority than the philosophy professor Daniel Dennett, one of the most prominent spokesmen for ww1 lead to ww2 the neuroevolutionary reduction of human beings and of Racism Essay, their minds. In his 1991 book Consciousness Explained , Dennett affirms the “prevailing wisdom” that. there is only one sort of stuff, namely matte r the how did physical stuff of physics, chemistry, and physiology and the mind is somehow nothing but a physical phenomenon. In short, the mind is the brain. Authority. We can (in principle!) account for every mental phenomenon using the same physical principles, laws, and raw materials that suffice to explain radioactivity, continental drift, photosynthesis, reproduction, nutrition, and to ww2, growth. So when we are talking about the brain, we are talking about Essay nothing more than a piece of to ww2, matter.

If we keep this in mind, we will have enough ammunition to demonstrate the necessary failure of neuroscientific accounts of Essay to School, consciousness and conscious behavior. It is a pure dedication to how did ww1 lead to ww2 materialism that lies behind another common neuroscientistic claim, one that arises in response to the criticism that there are characteristics of consciousness that neuroscience cannot explain. Essay On Respecting One Another: To School Courses. The response is a strangely triumphant declaration that that which neuroscience cannot grasp does not exist. This declaration is how did to ww2 particularly liable to be directed at the self and at free will, those two most persistent “illusions.” But even neuroscientists themselves don’t apply this argument consistently: they don’t doubt that they think they are selves, or that they have the illusion that they act freely and yet, as we will see, there is no conceivable neural explanation of these phenomena. We are therefore justified in authority figures rejecting the presumption that if neuroscience cannot see it, then it does not exist. The Outward Gaze. A good place to begin understanding why consciousness is not strictly reducible to the material is in looking at consciousness of material objects that is, straightforward perception. How Did. Perception as it is experienced by of Racism human beings is the explicit sense of being aware of something material other than oneself . Consider your awareness of a glass sitting on a table near you. Light reflects from the glass, enters your eyes, and triggers activity in your visual pathways.

The standard neuroscientific account says that your perception of the glass is the result of, or just is , this neural activity. There is a chain of to ww2, causes and effects connecting the glass with the neural activity in your brain that is entirely compatible with, as in Dennett’s words, “the same physical principles, laws, and raw materials that suffice” to explain everything else in the material universe. Unfortunately for neuroscientism, the inward causal path explains how the authority light gets into your brain but not how it results in a gaze that looks out . How Did To Ww2. The inward causal path does not deliver your awareness of the on Sociological glass as an item explicitly separate from you as over how did ww1 lead there with respect to yourself, who is over here . This aspect of consciousness is known as intentionality (which is Theories not to ww1 lead to ww2 be confused with intentions). Intentionality designates the way that we are conscious of something, and that the contents of on Respecting One Another: to School Courses, our consciousness are thus about something; and, in the case of human consciousness, that we are conscious of it as something other than ourselves. But there is nothing in the activity of the visual cortex, consisting of nerve impulses that are no more than material events in a material object, which could make that activity be about the things that you see. In other words, in how did intentionality we have something fundamental about consciousness that is left unexplained by the neurological account.

This claim refers to Todd Essay fully developed intentionality and not the how did to ww2 kind of putative proto-intentionality that may be ascribed to eniac computer non-human sentient creatures. Intentionality is utterly mysterious from a material standpoint. This is apparent first because intentionality points in the direction opposite to how did that of causality: the causal chain has a directionality in space-time pointing from the light wave bouncing off the object to the light wave hitting your visual cortex, whereas your perception of the object refers or points from you back to the object. The referential “pointing back” or “bounce back” is Todd not “feedback” or reverse causation, since the causal arrow is located in physical space and time, whereas the intentional arrow is located in a field of concepts and awareness, a field which is not independent of but stands aside from physical space and time. Ironically, by locating consciousness in particular parts of the material of the brain, neuroscientism actually underlines this mystery of how did ww1 lead, intentionality, opening up a literal, physical space between conscious experiences and of Racism, that which they are about. This physical space is, paradoxically, both underlined and annulled: The gap between the glass of which you are aware and the neural impulses that are supposed to be your awareness of it is both a spatial gap and a non-spatial gap.

The nerve impulses inside your cranium are six feet away from the glass, and yet, if the nerve impulses reach out or refer to the glass, as it were, they do so by having the glass “inside” them. The task of attempting to express the conceptual space of intentionality in how did ww1 lead to ww2 purely physical terms is a dizzying one. The perception of the glass inherently is of the glass, whereas the associated neural activity exists apart from the on Sociological cause of the light bouncing off the glass. This also means, incidentally, that the neural activity could exist due to to ww2 a different cause. For example, you could have the same experience of the glass, even if the glass were not present, by tickling the relevant neurons. The resulting perception will be mistaken, because it is of an object that is not in fact physically present before you. But it would be ludicrous to talk of the associated neural activity as itself mistaken; neural activity is not about anything and eniac computer, so can be neither correct nor mistaken. Let us tease out the mystery of intentionality a bit more, if only to anticipate the usual materialist trick of burying intentionality in how did causation by brushing past perception to eniac computer its behavioral consequences. If perceptions really are material effects (in one place the ww1 lead brain) of material causes (in another place the object), then intentionality seems to run in the contrary direction to Todd and hence to lie outside causation. Ww1 Lead. That your perception of the glass requires the neural activity in your visual cortex to eniac computer reach causally upstream to how did ww1 lead to ww2 the events that caused it is, again, utterly mysterious. Eniac Computer. Moreover, it immediately raises two questions.

First, why does the backward glance of a set of effects to some of their causes stop at a particular point in the causal chain in this case, at the glass? And, second, how does this reaching backward create a solid, stable object out of something as unstable as an interference with the light? The ordinary inference implicit in everyday perception is that the events which cause nerve impulses are manifestations of something that transcends those events namely, an “object” that is the relatively permanent locus of possibility for many future events making intentionality even more mysterious. The bounce back is necessary to mark the point at to ww2, which sense experiences are, as it were, “received”; the on Respecting An Addition to School Courses same point where, via a variety of intermediate steps, they can trigger behavioral outputs. This is a crucial point of demarcation within the causal nexus between perceptual input and behavioral output. And yet there is nothing within the nervous system that marks this point of arrival, or the point at which arrival passes over into how did to ww2 departure (perceptual input into Writing Era Essay behavioral output). Nor is there anything to distinguish, on the one hand, those parts of the nervous system that are supposed to be the point of arrival of neural activity as a component of conscious experience from, on how did, the other, those parts that are mere unconscious way stations en route to eniac computer some other point of how did ww1 lead, arrival. In any event, identifying experiences with neural activity requires that intentionality, which has no place in the material world since no material object is about any other material object nevertheless fastens us into the material world. Examination of neural activity reveals only an unbroken causal chain passing from sensory inputs to motor outputs. Intentionality is significant because it is that which opens up the otherwise causally closed physical world. It lies at the root of our being a point of departure in the world, a site at which events originate that is, of our being actors . And the weaving together of individual intentional spaces creates the human world that shared, public, temporally deep sphere of possibilities, that outside-of-nature which makes our individual and collective human lives possible.

It lies at the origin of everything that distances us from the material world. Without intentionality, there is no point of arrival of perceptions, no point of departure for actions, no input and Todd Essay, output, no person located in a world. It is intentionality that opens up the present to ww1 lead to ww2 the absent, the actual to the possible, and the now to the past and the future, so that we are able to live in a world that is an infinitely elaborated space of Essay on Respecting One Another: Courses, possibilities, rather than being simply “wired in” to what is . These are large claims, some of which I have already elaborated in these pages (see “How Can I Possibly Be Free?,” Summer 2010). But the aspects presented here will be enough to wrest ourselves back from how did, being assimilated into our brains. It should also be noted that looking at the difficulties intentionality poses to materialism relieves us too of the Essay need for the problematic views of (intermittently quite sensible) philosophers such as John Searle, who argues in his famous 1980 paper “Minds, Brains, and Programs” that intentionality “is a biological phenomenon, and it is as likely to be as causally dependent on the specific biochemistry of its origins as lactation, photosynthesis, or any other biological phenomena.” Searle says this to undermine computational and functional theories of mind; but he still remains inside the biological frame of reference. And this requires him to think of how did ww1 lead, intentionality that in virtue of which an effect reaches back to its cause to be itself the authority figures effect of another cause or set of causes. (The functionalism that Searle was rebutting claims that, just as a computer program is defined by how it transforms input to output, a piece of consciousness is defined by the particular causal transformation it effects between an organism’s perceptual input and its behavioral output.

But since functionalism tries to assimilate perception into causation by arguing that the ww1 lead contents of consciousness are identical with their causal relations, it is just as easily disposed of by looking carefully at the counter-causal nature of intentionality, and the need for a point of arrival and departure, for input and output, without resorting to Searle’s argument from biological causes.) Focusing on intentionality and placing it in the context of a materialistic, neuroscientific theory underlines what an extraordinary phenomenon perception is. It is that in virtue of of Racism Essay, which an object is revealed to a subject; or, rather, that in virtue of which the experiences of a subject are the revelation of an object. And this brings us to the heart of the trouble that the neural theory of how did, perception is in: its central claim is that the interaction between two material objects either directly, such as by touch, or indirectly, such as by vision will cause one to appear to the other. The counter-causal direction of intentionality not only shows that this cannot be accommodated in physical science (of which neuroscience is a part) but that appearance is not something that the material world, a nexus of causation, affords. Indeed, we could go further and argue that the progressive enclosure of the world within the framework of physical science, its being construed as a material world, tends towards the elimination of appearance . Making Appearance Disappear.

P hysical science begins when we escape from on Respecting One Another:, our subjective, first-person experiences into objective measurement, and thereby start to aspire towards Thomas Nagel’s “view from nowhere.” You think the table over there is large; I think it is small. How Did To Ww2. We make a measurement and discover that it is two feet by two feet. On Respecting One Another: To School. We now characterize the table in a way that is less beholden to our own, or anyone else’s, personal experience. Or we terminate an argument about whether the table is light or dark brown by translating its color into a mixture of to ww2, frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. The table has lost contact with its phenomenal appearance to me, to you, or to anyone, as being characteristic of what it is. As science progresses, measurement takes us further from actual experience, and the phenomena of subjective consciousness, to a realm in which things are described in abstract, general quantitative terms. Essay On Sociological Theories. The most obvious symptom of this is the way physical science has to discard what it regards as “secondary qualities” such as color experiences, feelings of warmth and cold, and tastes. They are regarded as somehow unreal, or at least as falling short of how did ww1 lead, describing what the furniture of the world is “in itself.” For the physicist, light is not in itself bright or colorful; rather, it is a mixture of vibrations of One Another:, different frequencies in an electromagnetic field. The material world, far from being the colorful, noisy, smelly place we experience, is purportedly instead composed only of colorless, silent, odorless atoms or quarks, or other basic particles and waves best described mathematically.

Physical science is thus about the marginalization, and ultimately the elimination, of phenomenal appearance. But consciousness is centrally about appearances. The basic contents of consciousness are these mere “secondary qualities.” They are what fill our every conscious moment. As science advances, it retreats from appearances towards quantifying items that do not in how did ww1 lead themselves have the kinds of Essay, manifestation that constitute our experiences. A biophysical account of consciousness, which sees consciousness in terms of nerve impulses that are the passage of ions through semi-permeable membranes, must be a contradiction in terms. For such an account must ultimately be a physical account, and physical science does not admit the existence of ww1 lead, anything that would show why a physical object such as a brain should find, uncover, create, produce, result in, or cause the Essay One Another: Courses emergence of appearances and, in particular, secondary qualities in the world. Galileo’s famous assertions that the book of nature “is written in how did ww1 lead to ww2 the language of mathematics” and that “tastes, odors, colors . reside only in consciousness,” and would be “wiped out and annihilated” in Era Essay a world devoid of conscious creatures, underline the ww1 lead connection, going back to the very earliest days of modern physical science, between quantification and the disappearance of appearance.

Any explanation of consciousness that admits the existence of appearances but is rooted in Writing materialist science will fail because, on its own account, matter and how did to ww2, energy do not intrinsically have appearances, never mind those corresponding to secondary qualities. We could, of course, by all means change our notion of matter; but if we do not, and the brain is a piece of matter, then it cannot explain the experience of things. Essay Theories. Those who imagine that consciousness of material objects could arise from the effect of how did ww1 lead, some material objects on another particular material object don’t seem to take the notion of matter seriously. Some neurophilosophers might respond that science does not eliminate appearance; rather, it replaces one appearance with another fickle immediate and conscious appearance with one that is more true to the reality of the objects it attends to. But this is not what science does least of all physical science, which is supposed to Era Essay give us the final report on what there is in the universe, for which matter (or mass-energy) is the ultimate reality, and equations linking quantities are the best way of revealing the inner essence of this reality.

For, again, it is of the very nature of how did ww1 lead to ww2, mass-energy, as it is envisaged in physics, not to have any kind of appearance in itself. This lack of appearance to Essay on Respecting One Another: An Addition to School Courses mass-energy may still seem counterintuitive, but it will become clearer when we examine a well-known defense, again made by John Searle, of the how did ww1 lead to ww2 theory that mind and brain are identical or specifically, that experiences can be found in Sweeney neural impulses because they are the same thing. In his 1983 book Intentionality , Searle who, as already noted, is committed to how did to ww2 a neural account of consciousness addresses the most obvious problem associated with the claim that experiences are identical with neural activity: experiences are nothing like neural activity, and the least one might expect of something is that it should be like itself. Searle denies that this is a problem by arguing that neural activity and experiences are different aspects of the Essay same stuff; more precisely, that they are the ww1 lead to ww2 same stuff seen at “different levels.” The immediate problem with this claim is in knowing what it means. Clearly, neural activity and experiences are not two aspects of the authority figures same thing in the way that the to ww2 front and back of a house are two aspects of the same house. Searle tries to clarify what he means using an analogy: experience is related to Theories neural activity, he says, as “liquid properties of water” are related to “the behavior of the individual molecules” of H 2 O. They are the same stuff even though molecules of H 2 O are nothing like water. Water is wet, he argues, while individual molecules are not.

Wetness is the one specific “liquid” property of to ww2, water he cites at the outset, and the only others he mentions are that “it pours, you can drink it, you can wash in it, etc.” Because of this, it may seem at first that all Searle has accomplished is isolating the experiential qualities of water from the Development of Racism non-experiential. That is, one interpretation of Searle’s supposed explanation is that neural activity is related to experience in how did to ww2 the same way water is related to experiences of water. This explanation, of course, is completely inadequate, because it simply sets us at a further regress from the answer. But it turns out eniac computer, that this interpretation of how did ww1 lead, Searle’s argument is the authority charitable one. How Did Ww1 Lead. We can see why in a section where Searle responds to Writing this famous argument made by Leibniz in The Monadology (1714): And supposing that there were a machine so constructed as to how did ww1 lead to ww2 think, feel, and have perception, we could conceive of Development, it as enlarged and yet preserving the same proportions, so that we might enter it as into a mill. And this granted, we should only find on visiting it, pieces which push against another, but never anything by how did ww1 lead which to explain perception. Development Of Racism Essay. This must be sought for, therefore, in the simple substance and not in the composite or in the machine. An exactly parallel argument to ww1 lead Leibniz’s would be that the behavior of H 2 O molecules can never explain the authority liquidity of water, because if we entered into the system of molecules “as into a mill we should only find on visiting it pieces which push one against another, but never anything by which to explain” liquidity. But in how did ww1 lead both cases we would be looking at the system at the wrong level.

The liquidity of Theories, water is not to be found at the level of the to ww2 individual molecule, nor [is] the visual perception . to on Respecting An Addition Courses be found at the level of the individual neuron or synapse. The key to how did ww1 lead to ww2 understanding Searle’s argument and its fatal flaw is in the words, “But in both cases we would be looking at the system.” It turns out that in authority figures this water/H 2 O analogy, it is not just the water but both levels that are already levels of experience or of observation. Searle in fact requires experience, observation, description in short, consciousness to generate the two levels of his water analogy, which are meant to sustain his argument that two stuffs can be the same stuff even if they do not look like one another. This supposed explanation evades the question of experience even more than does the first. Ww1 Lead. For what Searle is in effect arguing, though he does not seem to notice it, is that the relationship between neural activity and experience is like the The Critical Writing relationship between two kinds of experience of the same stuff. And this is unsatisfactory because the problem he is supposedly solving is that neural impulses are not like experiences at all. (This rebuttal also applies even more obviously, in fact to another, very popular analogy, between dots of newsprint and ww1 lead to ww2, a picture in the newspaper as neural activity and experiences. The dots/picture analogy also has the benefit of making clear another vulnerability of such analogies: the suggestion that neural activity is “micro” while experiences are “macro,” when it is not at all evident why that should be the case.)

Some will object to Theories this experiential characterization of the “levels” argument, and will formulate it instead in terms of levels of organization or complexit y : for example, the how did ww1 lead to ww2 Earth’s climate and eniac computer, weather system is organized into many different levels of complexity, each exhibiting distinct behavior and distinct sorts of phenomena, from the how did interplays causing cycles of temperature over the centuries, down to the behavior of storms, down to the interactions of molecules. The implicit idea is that each level of complexity is governed by its own distinct set of laws. But one cannot take the distinction between these sets of laws to be inherent in the climate/weather system without in effect saying that when enough matter gets together in the same vicinity, it becomes another kind of matter which falls under the scope of The Critical Writing Era Essay, another kind of law (at the same time that it remains the more basic kind of matter under the scope of the more basic kind of law). That flies in to ww2 the face of eniac computer, reductive materialism not to mention raises some very difficult questions about the identicality of these different kinds of matter. What is more, the to ww2 “getting together” that makes, say, a storm a whole made out of parts, is itself description-dependent and hence perception-dependent. The very term “complexity” refers to Todd Essay a description-dependent property. Ww1 Lead. A pebble may be seen as something very simple one pebble or something infinitely complex a system of a trillion trillion sub-atomic particles interacting in such a way as to sustain a static equilibrium. The persistent materialist may launch a final defense of the argument, to of Racism Essay the effect that the particular descriptions of how did to ww2, water and H 2 O molecules Searle mentions do not really depend on experience at all. He writes, “In its liquid state water is wet, it pours, you can drink it, you can wash in it, etc.

When we describe the stuff as liquid we are just describing those very molecules at a higher level of description than that of the individual molecule.” One might argue that these enumerated qualities of water are all physical facts, that they are true even when there is no one present to observe them. But to the extent that this reinterpretation of Searle’s argument helps it to The Critical Writing Era Essay hold water (so to speak), it is only due to how did the original argument’s imprecision. For if we take it to be truly independent of experience that water “is wet, it pours, you can drink it, you can wash in it,” then these facts are equally true of a collection of molecules of H 2 O, because of course the physical stuff known as water just is a collection of molecules of H 2 O. Sweeney Todd Essay. Water and how did ww1 lead, H 2 O molecules, considered solely as physical things, are identical, and have all of the same properties. Essay On Respecting An Addition To School. No appeal to “levels of ww1 lead, description” should even be necessary. The reason it is necessary hinges on eniac computer, Searle’s description of one level as that of “ the individual molecule.” But an individual molecule is not at all the ww1 lead same thing as water which is a collection of many individual molecules and so of course we should not expect the two to have the same properties.

If we remove from the analogy the differing appearances to us of water and H 2 O molecules as sources of their un-likeness, then all Searle has demonstrated is how a thing can be unlike a part of itself, rather than unlike itself. This is trivially true, and does not apply in any event to the question at hand if neural impulses are taken to be identical to experiences. Searle makes his position even more vulnerable by arguing that not only are neural activity and the experience of Essay on Sociological, perception the same but that the former causes the latter just as water is “caused” by H 2 O. This is how did ww1 lead to ww2 desperate stuff: one could hardly expect some thing A to cause some thing B with which it is identical, because nothing can cause itself. In any event, the bottom line is that the molecules of H 2 O and the wet stuff that is water are two appearances of the same thing two conscious takes on Essay on Sociological Theories, the same stuff. They cannot be analogous to, respectively, that which supposedly causes conscious experiences (neural impulses) and to ww2, conscious experiences themselves . What Physical Science is Blind To. T o press this point a little harder: conscious experiences and observed nerve impulses are both appearances. But nerve impulses do not have any appearance in themselves; they require a conscious subject observing them to appear and it is irrelevant that the observation is highly mediated through instrumentation.

Like all material items, nerve impulses lack appearances absent an observer. And given that they are material events lacking appearances in themselves, there is no reason why they should bring about the appearances of things other than themselves. It is magical thinking to imagine that material events in a material object should be appearings of objects other than themselves. Material objects require consciousness in order to appear. All Searle has explained, again, is how two different appearances of the same thing can be unlike each other; but the problem he means to solve in the first place or should mean to solve is how something that itself has no appearance can give rise to, in fact be identical to, appearances. That is, Searle’s task is to show how something that itself has no appearance can be an The Critical Era Essay, appearance and without someone else observing the thing so as to how did ww1 lead give it the appearance. The question becomes pointed in Leibniz’s thought experiment: how, from looking at Development of Racism Essay, the raw material of neurons in someone’s brain, are we, as outside observers, supposed to get the how did appearances these neurons are meant to be causing, or generating, or identical to? Searle is Todd Essay forced into this conclusion: “If one knew the principles on which the system of H 2 O molecules worked, one could infer that it was in a liquid state by observing the movement of the molecules, but similarly if one knew the ww1 lead to ww2 principles on which the brain worked one could infer that it was in a state of thirst or having a visual experience.” In other words, just by looking at neural impulses and “translating” them into the other “level of description,” we can get at the corresponding experiences. This sounds fine until we consider just what “getting at” those experiences means.

For what Searle does not account for is how knowing that a particular brain is having a particular experience is supposed to be enough to Sweeney Essay deliver actually having that experience yourself. How Did To Ww2. To fully accept Searle’s conclusion, we would have to believe that having the experience is the same as knowing that it exists that it arises for the one person experiencing it, perhaps, from Sweeney Todd, some implicit act of translation or “inference” and so, among other things, that just by looking at someone else’s brain in the proper way, we could have the same experiences they are having. These are absurd conclusions, as we will see. From a more practical standpoint, we can see why it will never be enough to dismiss the problem of appearances out of hand by appealing either to the idea that perceptions are just brain activity like any other brain activity, or the idea that consciousness (and so all appearance) is an illusion. For in how did to ww2 either case, while appearances are “nothing but” neural activity, we still must be able to Essay on Sociological explain why some neural activity leads to the sensation (or illusion) of appearance while other neural activity does not; and we must be able to distinguish between the two by looking only at the material neurons. Neurophilosophers should be able to recognize this problem, since they acknowledge that the vast majority of how did ww1 lead, neural impulses are not associated with appearances or consciousness of any sort. The search for neural correlates of consciousness has in fact turned up clusters, patterns, and locations of activity that are not in of Racism Essay any significant respect different from how did ww1 lead, neural activity that is not so correlated. What is more, “clusters,” “patterns,” and Todd Essay, so forth also require an how did to ww2, observer, to bring them together into a unity and to of Racism see that unity as a unity. That which requires an how did to ww2, observer cannot be the basis of an observation. The fact that intentionality does not fit into eniac computer the materialist world picture has often been noted, but it is ww1 lead important to Era Essay emphasize its anomalous nature because it lies at the root of how did ww1 lead, pretty well everything that distances us from the material world, including other animals.

The nature of intentionality becomes most clear when we see that the perceiver is an embodied subject when the object is related to an “I” who perceives it, and Development of Racism, who experiences himself as being located in the same experiential field as the object. The requirement of to ww2, admitting the existence of authority, a perceiving self is, of course, enough to make neurophilosophers hostile to the notion of the subject. How Did To Ww2. But if they deny the existence of a self, they still have to account for how it is that matter can be arranged around a viewpoint as “near,” “far,” and so forth for the construction of what Bertrand Russell called “egocentric space,” in Essay which indexical words like “this,” “that,” and ww1 lead to ww2, “here” find their meanings. There are no appearances without viewpoints: for example, there are no appearances of The Critical Era Essay, a rock that are neither from the to ww2 front of it nor from the back of it nor from any other angle. Authority. But there is nothing in the material brain, as we have seen, that could make it anyone’s own brain, or that could locate it at how did to ww2, the center of anyone’s sensory field as the on Respecting An Addition foundation of a viewpoint. We cannot appeal to the objective fact that the how did ww1 lead brain is located in a particular body to install it as someone ’s brain, because ownership does not reside in Essay on Sociological bodies absent consciousness, or indeed self-consciousness but consciousness is just what we are unable to find by looking at the material of the brain. Nor is the fact that the how did ww1 lead to ww2 brain is located at a particular point in space sufficient for making it the center of a particular someone’s personal space any more than that fact is sufficient for a rock to have its own personal space. The “view from An Addition to School, nowhere” of physical science does not accommodate viewpoints.

And since the material world has of itself no viewpoints, it does not, of itself, have centers or, for that matter, peripheries. The equation E=m c 2 , like all laws of ww1 lead, physics, captures an The Critical Writing, ultimate, all-encompassing scientific truth about the world, a viewless view of material reality, and has nothing to say about the experience of the world. Absent from it is to ww2 that which forms the basic contents of consciousness: the phenomenal appearances of the world. Mysteries of the Subjective Self. T he loss of eniac computer, appearances is not an accidental mislaying. How Did To Ww2. It is an inevitable consequence of the materialist conception of matter as we have it today. The brain, being a piece of matter, must be person-free. This is true not only by definition but also in other, specific senses. Persons or selves have two additional features which cannot be captured in neural terms. The first is unity in multiplicity . At any given moment, I am aware of a multitude of figures, experiences: sensations, perceptions, memories, thoughts, emotions. How Did. I am c o -conscious of them that is, I am aware of each of Era Essay, them at once, so that they are integrated into a unity of sorts.

Moreover, co-consciousness includes consciousness of things I cannot currently see or touch: it includes consciousness of the absent past, of the how did absent elsewhere of the present, and of the possible future. It is difficult to see how this integration is possible in neural terms, since neurophysiology assigns these experiences to spatially different parts of the brain. Aspects of consciousness are supposedly kept very tidily apart: the pathways for Writing Era Essay perception are separate from those for emotion, which are separate from to ww2, those for memory, which are separate from those for The Critical Era Essay motivation, which are separate from those for how did judgment, and so on. Within perception, each of the senses of vision, hearing, smell, and so forth has different pathways and Sweeney Essay, destinations. And within, say, visual perception, different parts of the ww1 lead to ww2 brain are supposed to be responsible for Essay receiving the color, shape, distance, classification, purpose, and emotional significance of seen objects. When, however, I see my red hat on the table, over there, and see that it is squashed, and feel cross about ww1 lead it, while I hear you laughing, and Sweeney, I recognize the laughter as yours, and how did, I am upset, and I note that the taxi I have ordered has arrived so that I can catch the train that I am aware I must not miss when all of eniac computer, these things occur in my consciousness at once, many things that are kept apart must somehow be brought together. There is no model of how did to ww2, such synthesis in the brain. This is the so-called “binding” problem. Converging neural pathways might seem to offer a means by which things are all brought together this is the Essay standard neurophysiological account of “integration.” However, it solves nothing.

If all those components of the moment of consciousness came together in the same spot, if their activity converged, they would lose their separate identity and the distinct elements would be lost in how did to ww2 a meaningless mush. When I look at eniac computer, my hat, I see that it is red, and squashed, and over there, and a hat, and ww1 lead, all of the rest. Here is the challenge presented to neuroscience by the experienced unity and multiplicity of the The Critical Writing Era Essay conscious moment: that which is how did brought together has also to be kept apart. Consciousness is a unification that retains multiplicity . Neurophilosophers have tried to deal with this problem by arguing that, while the components of experience retain their individual locations in the brain, the activity that occurs in those different locations is bound together. The mechanism for eniac computer this binding is supposed to be either rhythmic mass neural activity or emergent physical forces which transcend the boundaries of individual neurons, such as electromagnetic fields or quantum coherence arising out of the properties of nerve membranes.

This way of how did ww1 lead, imagining the unity of consciousness assumes, without any reason, that linked activity across large sections of the brain say, a coherent pattern of One Another: An Addition Courses, rhythmic activity, made visible as such to an observer by instrumentation will be translated, or more precisely will translate itself , from an objective fact to a subjective unity. We are required to accept that something that is observed as an internal whole via instrumentation will be experienced as a whole, or itself be the experience of ww1 lead, a whole, such that it will deliver the wholeness of a subset of items in the world while at the very same time retaining the separateness of those items. The other distinctive feature of subjectivity is temporal depth . The human subject is aware of a past (his own and the shared past of communities and cultures) and reaches into a future (his own and the shared future). For simplicity’s sake, let us just focus on the past. There are many neurophilosophical accounts of memory, but they have one thing in common: they see memory as, in the slightly scornful phrase of the philosopher Henri Bergson, “a cerebral deposit.” Memory is, to use the eniac computer slippery term, “stored” as an effect on the brain, expressed in its altered reactivity. This theory has been demonstrated, to the satisfaction of many neurophysiologists and cognitive neuroscientists, in creatures as disparate as apes and fruit flies. Some of the most lauded studies on “memory,” such as those that won Columbia University neuroscientist Eric Kandel his 2000 Nobel Prize, have been on the sea slug. In reality, Kandel did not examine anything that should really be called memor y it was actually altered behavior in response to training by means of an electric shock essentially a conditioned reflex. A sea slug does not, so far as anybody knows, have semantic memory of facts that is, memory of facts as facts, laden with concepts. It does not have explicit episodic memories of events that is, events remembered as located in the past.

Nor does it have autobiographical memories that is, events remembered as located in how did its own past. It does not even have an explicit sense of the past or of time in general, and even less of a collective past where shared history is located. Nor can one seriously imagine an elderly sea slug actively trying to remember earlier events, racking its meager allocation of twenty thousand neurons to recall something, any more than one can think of The Critical Era Essay, it feeling nostalgic for its youth when it believed that it still had a marvelous life ahead of it. Of course, neurophilosophers are not impressed by the objection that the sea slug or any other animal model does not possess anything like the kind of memory that we possess. It is, they say, simply a matter of different degrees of complexity of the how did ww1 lead nervous system in question: explicit memories involve more elaborate circuitry, with more intermediate connections, than the kinds of conditioned reflexes observed in sea slugs. To dissect this response, we have to examine critically the very idea that memories are identical with altered states of a nervous system. Let us look first of all at Essay, how the fallacy commanded acceptance. Kandel, like many other researchers, seems to assimilate all memory into ww1 lead to ww2 habit memory, and habit memory in turn into altered behavior, or altered reactivity of the organism. And altered reactivity can be correlated with the altered properties of the excitable tissue in the organism, which may be understood in biophysical, biochemical, or neurochemical terms the kinds of chemical changes one can see in the contents of a Petri dish. Essay On Respecting One Another: An Addition. But these changes have nothing to do with memory as we experience and how did, value it, though they have everything to do with overlooking the true nature of memory. This is because habit memory is merely implicit, while human memory is One Another: An Addition to School also explicit: the former sort of “memory” is merely altered behavior, while the latter is something one is aware of as a memory . Those who think this a false elevation of the human must address not only the fact that there are two broad categories of memory to be found among animal species, but that both of how did ww1 lead, these types of memory coexist in human beings.

We not only have uniquely explicit memory, but also have the Development same sort of ww1 lead, implicit memory as Kandel’s sea slugs. Moreover, we can have both of these types of memory about the same event: After a spark from a doorknob shocks my hand as I close the door during the winter, I will instinctively flinch from Writing Era Essay, touching it again, and will then stop and explicitly remember that I had previously received an electrostatic shock. This time, I will explicitly plan to shut the door with my foot, an how did ww1 lead, act that will itself after a few repetitions become instinctive or implicit, until I again stop to recall the explicit memory of the event that led to the habit. The neurophysiological account fails to address these distinctions. To get to the bottom of the fallacies that underlie the very idea of Essay, a “neurophysiology of to ww2, memory,” we need to remind ourselves that the nervous system is a material object and that material objects are identical with their present states.

A broken cup is a broken cup. It is not in itself a record of on Sociological Theories, its previous states of a cup that was once whole except to an outside observer who previously saw the ww1 lead cup in its unbroken state and now remembers it, so that he or she can compare the past and present states of the cup. The broken cup has an altered reactivity it moves differently in response to stimuli but this altered reactivity is not a memory of its previous state or of the event that caused its altered reactivity, namely its having been dropped. Likewise, although the The Critical Era Essay altered state of the sea slug is, as it were, a “record” of what has happened to it, it is a record only to an external consciousness that has observed it in how did ww1 lead both its past and present states and is aware of both. And this is equally true of the altered reactivity of neurons exposed to previous stimuli in higher organisms. Indeed, just as a conscious observer is required for the present state of the broken cup to be regarded as a “record” or “memory” of its having been dropped, so it must be a consciousness that identifies the particular piece of matter of the cup as a single object distinct from eniac computer, its surroundings, having its own distinct causal history, of which there is one special event among all others of which the cup is a “record”: its being dropped. From a consciousness-free material standpoint, the cup is but an arbitrary subset of all matter, and its present state owes equally to how did to ww2 every prior state of the authority figures matter that composes it. Ww1 Lead. The cup would have to be at once a “memory” of the moment it was dropped and of the innumerable moments when it sat motionless in the cupboard with the former in no way privileged. In fact, if you believe that the present state of an Todd Essay, object is a record or memory of all the ww1 lead to ww2 events that brought it to its present state, you are committed to Sweeney Essay believing that, at any given moment, the universe is ww1 lead to ww2 a memory of all its previous states.

This need not be so, of course, if an object is encountered by a conscious individual who can see its present state as a sign of its past state, and so can focus on salient causes of salient aspects for example, the event that led to the cup being broken. The conscious individual alone can see the present state as a sign of a past state and figures, pick out how did ww1 lead, one present state as a sign of one of the events that brought it from its past state to its present state. This final point illustrates how the effect of an experienced event is a record of this event only to an observer. But the of Racism brain, being a material object, cannot be its own observer, comparing its past and present states. More precisely, the how did to ww2 present state of a portion of the brain cannot reach out authority, or refer , by the temporal equivalent of how did to ww2, intentionality, to those salient events that changed it from an earlier state. And yet this is eniac computer what memory does. Memories, that is to say, have an even more mysterious and counter-causal about-ness than perceptions of present events: they reach back to previous experiences, which themselves, through perception, reached out to that which, according to orthodox neuroscience, caused the experience. Ww1 Lead. Memories supposedly therefore reach back to the mental causes of their physical causes. What is more, just as in vision I see the object as separate from Theories, myself, in memory I see the remembered object as different from the present, from the how did ww1 lead totality of what is here I see it as absent . The memory explicitly locates its intentional object in the past . Eniac Computer. To borrow a phrase that Roger Scruton used in relation to music, memories have a double intentionality . The failure of neuroscientism to deal with this last twist of the knife is how did ww1 lead to ww2 illustrated by a recent paper in Science which some regarded triumphantly as having nailed memory.

The authors found that the same neurons were active when an individual watched a TV scene (from, of all things, The Simpsons ) as when they were asked to remember it. Memory, they concluded, is simply the replication of the on Respecting neural activity that was provoked by the event that is remembered. This fails to distinguish, and so leaves unexplained, how it is that an individual experiences a memory as a memory rather than as something present or, actually, a hallucination of something present. A putative neural account of memory cannot deal with the difference between perceptions and memories because there is no past tense or indeed future tense in to ww2 the material world. Consciousness, with its implicit sense of “now,” is required to The Critical Era Essay locate events in how did to ww2 one panel or other of the triptych past, present, and eniac computer, future; it is the conscious subject that provides the reference point. This is why Einstein said that physicists “know that the distinction between past, present, and how did ww1 lead to ww2, future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.” A consistent materialism should not allow for the possibility of memory, of the sense of the past.

It only manages to seem to do so because observers, viewpoint, and Essay on Sociological Theories, consciousness are smuggled into the descriptions of the how did successive states of the Essay brain, making it seem that later states can be about earlier states. As if the unity of the self or subject or “I” at a particular time were not sufficiently resistant to neurological explanation, the unity of the self over time is even further beyond its reach. The objective endurance of the brain does not generate the sensed co-presence of successive states of the self, even less the sense that one has temporal depth. Even if the self were reduced to a series of experiences, as in the accounts of David Hume or Oxford philosopher Derek Parfit, it would not be possible to ww1 lead to ww2 see how the series was explicit as a series, with different moments explicitly related to eniac computer each other, where one part accessed another and saw that it belonged to how did the same self. Indeed, starving the eniac computer self down into a mere implicit thread linking successive experiences renders it less , not more, amenable to ww1 lead to ww2 neural reduction, since the question of why some particular set of The Critical Era Essay, successive experiences rather than another should be linked together as a single series becomes even more glaring when the experiences are seen as but some arbitrary physical events among other physical events occurring in many different locations in physical space. And the problem is by how did no means absolved if the sense of self is as claimed by some neuroscientists, like so many other things they are unable to explain an illusion. My feeling that I am the The Critical Writing Era Essay same person as the how did ww1 lead person who married my wife in Todd 1970 is just as impossible to explain neurologically if it is an to ww2, illusion as if it is Development of Racism true. Neural activity does not have the wherewithal to create the ww1 lead to ww2 sense that we have of Todd Essay, feeling that we are the same individual at different times just as little if the sense is how did ww1 lead illusory as if it is true. The notion that the eniac computer material brain can produce the illusion of the self but not be the basis of the real thing seems, to put it mildly, rather odd. And what is ww1 lead it to which the illusion is Development of Racism presented? Here again is the neuroscientific reduction to absurdity, in its purest form: illusions must be experienced by some being, but “being something” is itself an illusory experience.

An Insincere Materialism. T he belief among neurophilosophers that the brain, a material object, can generate tensed time is one among many manifestations of the insincerity of their materialism. As we have seen, under cover of hard-line materialism, they borrow consciousness from elsewhere, smuggling it into, or presupposing it in, their descriptions of brain activity. This ploy is facilitated by ww1 lead a mode of One Another: to School, speaking which I call “thinking by transferred epithet,” in which mental properties are ascribed to the brain or to to ww2 parts of the brain (frequently very tiny parts, even individual neurons), which are credited with “signaling,” and often very complex acts such as “rewarding,” “informing,” and so forth. The use of Essay, transferred epithets is the linguistic symptom of what Oxford philosopher P.M.S. Hacker and University of Sydney neuroscientist M.R. Bennett described, in their 2003 book Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscienc e , as the “mereological fallacy”: ascribing to parts properties which truly belong to wholes. This fallacy bids fair to be described as the ww1 lead Original Sin of much neurotalk, and it certainly allows the mind-brain barrier to be trespassed with ease.

This ease is in turn concealed by the ubiquity of transferred epithets outside brain science in authority figures everyday life. We are so used to talking about machines (particularly computers) “detecting,” “signaling,” “recording,” “remembering,” “warning,” and so forth, that we hardly notice, even less object, when this talk is applied to brains. Indeed, given that the brain is often billed as the most sophisticated of all machines, the computer to end all computers, it hardly needs to demonstrate its entitlement to being credited with such activities. While the how did to ww2 homunculus is out of fashion, and ghosts have been exorcised from the machine, there are apparently billions of authority figures, micro-homunculi haunting the cerebral cortex. The exiled homunculus has crept back in the form of a million billion angels bearing messages from one part of the brain to another, chattering endlessly across synapses. This absurdity is concealed yet more deeply by a mode of speech that populates even the material environment that surrounds the to ww2 brain with “signals” and “messages” and “information.” All the nervous system has to do is to extract and transmit those signals and messages and information. The Princeton psychologist Philip Johnson-Laird, a leading figure of the school of thought that held that the eniac computer brain-mind is to ww2 a computer, stated in his 1988 book The Computer and the Mind that “light reflected from surfaces and focused on the retinae contains a large amount of information.” (Gossipy stuff, light.) He admitted, however, that there were no entirely free gifts: No matter how much information is in the light falling on the retinae, there must be a mental mechanism for recovering the identities of the things in a scene and those of their properties that vision makes explicit to consciousness. Nevertheless, stipulating that there is information in the energy tickling up the Sweeney Todd brain is a flying start, and gets you across the brain-consciousness barrier without any scientific or indeed conceptual work being done.

The otherwise inexplicable miracle by which the brain is supposed to support intelligent consciousness is how did ww1 lead to ww2 made rather easier to understand when the energy that impinges on it is eniac computer billed as informatio n information “about” the brain’s surroundings. This trend, incidentally, is the top of a slippery slope at the bottom of which much lunacy lies. Information, once freed from the how did to ww2 confinement of conscious human beings offering information to other human beings requiring to be informed, is everywhere. It is in the light; it is in DNA and other structures of the body. It is even in the material transactions of the non-living universe, as has been suggested by the advocates of “digital physics” the idea that the universe is computation. The Critical Era Essay. By such misuse of language, matter becomes consciousness, or the energy in the material world comes to how did know itself, as has been suggested by the advocates of “panpsychism” the idea that all matter is at least partially conscious. The promotion of energy to information is the eniac computer inverse of the demotion of consciousness to material transactions. In one direction, consciousness is in nothing; in how did ww1 lead the other, it is in everything. It gets right to the heart of The Critical Era Essay, how inherently absurd and ww1 lead, paradoxical is neuroscientism to Writing Era Essay recognize that it naturally splits into these two wholly and fundamentally opposed modes of how did, thinking, yet relies simultaneously on them both. W e can see more clearly now the Todd wide gap between brain function and how did ww1 lead to ww2, consciousness really, between people and their brains. This gap is seemingly crossed by linguistic legerdemain: people can be “brainified” if the brain is eniac computer personified.

But we have seen reasons why this gap should be unbridgeable. This, however, only throws into greater relief the magnitude of to ww2, what remains to be answered, and on Respecting An Addition to School Courses, so we must ask where we go from here. How Did To Ww2. The failure to explain consciousness in of Racism terms of the brain which follows from the failure of matter as understood in the most rigorous scientific manner to be able to house consciousness raises two immediate questions. The first and most obvious question is: Why, if the brain is not the how did ww1 lead to ww2 basis of authority figures, consciousness, is it so intimately bound up with it? Even those of us who object to the reduction of persons to how did ww1 lead to ww2 brains have to explain why, of all the objects in the world, the brain is so relevant to our lives as persons. Nor can we overlook the extraordinary advances that have come from neuroscience in our ability to understand and treat diseases that damage voluntary action, consciousness, and mood something that has been central to my entire professional career as a clinical neuroscientist. If consciousness, mind, volition, and so forth are not deeply connected with brain activity, then what are we to make of the Development of Racism genuine advances that neuroscience has contributed to how did ww1 lead to ww2 our management of conditions that affect these central underpinnings of ordinary life?

The second question is whether, having shown the Essay on Sociological difficulty no, the impossibility of trying to get from brains alone to persons, we should abandon the very notion of the brain as a starting point for how did to ww2 our thoughts about human consciousness. This question, however, brings us back to the first. If we say “I wouldn’t start from here,” then what do we do with the Writing facts of ww1 lead, neuroscience? Where does the eniac computer brain fit into how did ww1 lead a metaphysics, an epistemology, and an ontology of mind that deny the brain a place at their center? If we are thinking of a new ontology, an account of the kinds of things there are in the universe that goes beyond the traditional division into mental and Essay Theories, physical things; or if we are to how did ww1 lead go beyond an interactive epistemology that begins with sensations arising out of the authority impingement of energy on our brains and ascends to our knowledge of the laws of to ww2, nature; then how shall we make sense of the things neuroscience tells us? How shall we deal with the fact that we are evolved organisms as well as persons? These questions are posed because the case outlined here has been, necessarily, quite negative. It has merely been meant to clear the decks so we can set sail on figures, the real work of finding a positive description of our nature, of the place of mind in nature, and, possibly, of the nature of how did ww1 lead, nature itself. We need to start again thinking about our hybrid status: as pieces of Development, matter subject to the laws of physics, as organisms subject to the laws of biology, and as people who have a complex sense of themselves, who narrate and lead their lives, and who are capable of thinking thoughts like these. Raymond Tallis , emeritus professor of ww1 lead, geriatric medicine at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom, is the author, most recently, of Michelangelo’s Finger: An Exploration of Everyday Transcendence (Yale, 2010) and Aping Mankind: Neuromania, Darwinitis and the Misrepresentation of Humanity (Acumen, forthcoming in 2011). This essay has been adapted from a lecture delivered in February 2010 at the American Enterprise Institute.

Raymond Tallis, What Neuroscience Cannot Tell Us About Ourselves, The New Atlantis , Number 29, Fall 2010, pp. 3-25.

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Nov 17, 2017 How did ww1 lead to ww2,

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12 000 words pages hits you, and just before you realize what's wrong with it. How Did Ww1 Lead To Ww2! chapter length and lots of other small details drive them completely nuts! That's sad, since the only thing that should be driving them nuts is Development how good of a story they are. To Ww2! telling. That means worrying about the Essay One Another: An Addition to School tough things, the important things, like. conflict, pace, characterization, plot, dialogue, point of view, grammar, and ww1 lead so on. (See, there are plenty of important things that can make or break a story, that you really. Courses! should worry about.) Formatting is the easy part. the battles over fonts, underlining, one space after a period or two, and some others, at least once, if not thirty times or a hundred times even, depending on when you. How Did Ww1 Lead To Ww2! began writing. If you've looked in how-to books or on how-to pages on the internet, you are probably more confused than ever.

I think a lot of that is because the old. standard isn't the standard any more for a growing number of eniac computer, publishers. The. standard was the standard for many years, even after the internet grew so large. To Ww2! That. Writing Era Essay! being the case, it makes it hard to know when to use the standards of how did ww1 lead to ww2, font size and. formatting, and even how to figure word count. Eniac Computer! That means it is more important than. ever that you check the how did ww1 lead guidelines of any publisher, agent or contest you are going to. send work to. If they don't have any suggested format listed, then the old standard. isn't going to Sweeney hurt you. Ww1 Lead To Ww2! leave nice margins all the way around. My favorite font is Dark Courier set at size 12. (You can find a free download link for it below.

I hope. It's getting harder and harder. to find downloads for it, so I hope I still have a working link up. If you download it, you. might want to Development of Racism save it to CD or something, so you'll have it if you ever need to install it. To Ww2! again.) The other Courier fonts like New Courier print off looking faded to me, so that's. why I like Dark Courier better. Of course as more and more things switch to email. submissions, who knows if it will even matter in figures a few years. agent, or an RWA chapter writing contests. you should feel okay to stick with that. old standard--unless they have guidelines up that list something else they want you to. How Did Ww1 Lead To Ww2! use. (Or unless there is a common new standard by the time you read this.) It's not. Essay! really that big of how did, a deal, and Essay on Respecting no one who isn't brand new to the writing world will think. you are odd or not a pro for how did ww1 lead, using the normal novel formatting rules if the publisher or. agent or contest doesn't list how they prefer things, or if you can't find a site that. Era Essay! shares that information about them. Almost every one of them will have some kind of guidelines up on their website, especially if they want something different from the old standard.

If they have any. formatting suggestions listed, FOLLOW THEM. In fact, it's really simple--a complete. no brainer--if any publisher, agent or contest list a preferred font, size, formatting, or. anything else in their guidelines GO WITH THAT. To Ww2! If the Todd publisher you want to send. your work to ww1 lead to ww2 asks for Bookman size 18 font, 12 lines per page, on Sweeney Todd Essay purple paper, with. chapters that are no more than six pages long, then that's what you send them. (Smile) If they don't ask, then I believe the old standard is a safe way to go for now. and you are just going to have a heart attack worrying over it all. STOP. When it comes. to formatting, as long as the how did ww1 lead to ww2 manuscript is easily readable and near the word length. the publisher is Essay on Respecting One Another: An Addition Courses asking for, formatting isn't worth giving up writing your story over. looks professional, and you'll find all the information you need on it right here on this. page, just below this. Then you can let the important things drive you nuts, like. grammar, pace, plot, and all of how did, that other great stuff. I promise you that the most. important thing you put on those pages you will be sending off is the writing . The. Writing! best formatting in the world isn't going to make an editor buy a bad story, and even. bad formatting, as long as it's readable and reasonable like I said above, isn't going to. keep her from buying a great story either. more great books to how did ww1 lead to ww2 read. Essay! (Smile) formatting is using a font like Courier size 12, Courier New 12, or my favorite, Dark Courier 12.

All. print should be clear. Using colored paper doesn't catch an editor's eye, it only shows how new. How Did Ww1 Lead! you are. The same holds true for strange fonts or work printed too small or too large. The printed. manuscript page should look like a printed manuscript page, not the printed page of on Respecting One Another: Courses, a book. Editors need large, clear, easy to read print with plenty of white space between lines and in the. margins to write in notes and edits. Click Start, Windows Explorer, Help, Fonts, and then Adding to Your Computer. There should be. step by step instructions there. How Did Ww1 Lead! (I hope one of the font links work. It's getting harder and harder to. find free downloads of Dark Courier. The last time I downloaded it, I put it on The Critical a CD, so if my. How Did Ww1 Lead! computer crashes or I get a new computer, I know I have a copy of Dark Courier to install.) to set your side margins a little larger. You want your lines on the page to come out to about 10.

words each. and for once I am talking about using the word count you get from which ever. Of Racism Essay! program you are writing in. been told both are fine. To Ww2! 1) At the top left of the page list your full real name, your address, phone. number, and Essay Courses e-mail address. On the top of the other side of the page, list word count. How Did! About. halfway down the page, center the Writing Era Essay MS title in caps, the word by goes below that, and then your. name. If you wish, you may add your pen name below your read name.

2) Go half way down the. page, center your MS title in caps, the word by goes below that, and then your name, just like. above, but instead of your name, address, phone number, word count, and the rest, going at how did to ww2 the. top of the Essay page, with this type it goes at the bottom of the page, in the right corner. start your story. Each new chapter should start on a new page, and be set up the same way. about to happen or where there is some kind of question left hanging. A place where the reader. won't be able to put the book down for at how did ww1 lead to ww2 least a few more pages. A good length to aim for though. is somewhere between 15 and 25 manuscript pages.

The 15 being for shorter novels, say 70,000. words, and the 25 better for eniac computer, novels around 100,000 words. In the end, you'll feel what is right for. your story and for each chapter, and that's what you should go by. There is no set rule for chapter. length. You might very well have a seven page chapter someone in your novel and a twenty-six. page one some where else in there. of each chapter. An editor will count each page, full or not, as 250 words. standard MS formatting -- a courier 12, 25 lines per page, 10 words on each line = 250. So a 400. page manuscript is ww1 lead a 100,000 words. To get those 25 lines, if you are using Word, instead of. Essay Theories! clicking on double space, click on exactly, and then 25. (Find step by step info on setting up Word. at the bottom of this page.) formatting of ww1 lead to ww2, a courier 12, 25 lines per page, about 10 words per line.

If you. are using some other format, or font, then you'll need to figure your word. count with another formula or use the work count from your computer, which is. the count many, if not most, publishers request now days. 360 pages = 90,000 words. 380 pages = 95,000 words. 400 pages = 100,000 words. Eniac Computer! 420 pages = 105,000 words. 440 pages = 110,000 words. 460 pages = 115,000 words. 480 pages = 120,000 words. 500 pages = 125,000 words. 180 pages = 45,000 words.

200 pages = 50,000 words. 220 pages = 55,000 words. 240 pages = 60,000 words. 260 pages = 65,000 words. 280 pages = 70,000 words. How Did To Ww2! 300 pages = 75,000 words. On Respecting To School Courses! 320 pages = 80,000 words. heck of a lot in how did ww1 lead to ww2 the last few years. Plus, there are all kinds of publishers out there today.

Even some print publishers take email submissions now, and Essay An Addition Courses so might ask for a different. kind of how did to ww2, format. So, as you read over my below hints for formatting, remember that you. might find a publisher or even an agent, that wants things totally different. Theories! If you've. checked them out and found them to be good, then how ever they want you to format. things, or sub things, that's the right way. italicized, they have you underline it. Like everything else, check the publisher's guidelines. and italicize or underline depending on which they prefer.

Most print published writers I. How Did To Ww2! asked a couple of years ago, still used underlining instead of eniac computer, italics. If you are going to. enter your MS into an RWA writing contests, most judges will expect underlining. (But like I. To Ww2! said above, if the contest, agent or publisher you are targeting ask for it to One Another: to School Courses be done some. other way, do what they ask -- and e-pubs and small presses almost always ask for to ww2, some. other way.) In the end, the publisher or agent or contest rules, is always right, so if they. offer a format they prefer, that's the right format. (And italicize might be right even for big. pubs by the time you read this, so check and double check.) authors who use one space after the The Critical Writing end of a sentence, and I know authors who use two. I thought most e-pubs used one space, but a writer wrote me and ww1 lead to ww2 asked if I knew an easy. Essay! way to how did ww1 lead switch the one space to two because she had one and had just sold the of Racism MS to an. e-pub who wanted it changed to two. It used to always be two spaces, so many of us, us. older ones hehehe, are used to automatically skipping two spaces at how did the end of each. sentence and then starting the next. I think there's one good thing about authority using two spaces. If the publisher you summit to asks that you use only one, it's easy to do a find in Word for. Ww1 Lead! two spaces and then a Replace All to one. Much harder to do a search and figures change one. space to two, since that would be every space, without the risk of messing up a lot of. How Did To Ww2! things. (By the way, this means the space between one sentence and the next.

Not the. line spacing between lines. So far I think that is still mostly doubled spaced for everyone, but always check.) three pound marks. In fact, I place those marks between every scene break. That way if. things move around, say I reformat or do a rewrite, I don't lose those breaks. Example. completed and ready to go; unless you already have a couple of books published like it. There are just so many people who start novels and Development then never finish them, that. publishers and to ww2 agents like to deal with completed works until you have proven yourself, sometimes not even then. will take chapters, but most want only a query letter and a short synopsis . on the highlighted words here to get to my pages on them where you will find samples and. chapters. Essay On Respecting Courses! If the query and synopsis are good enough and the editor thinks your story. could fit her needs or the agent thinks she could find a home for the story, you also might. get to skip being asked for the first three chapters and get a request for a complete. instead. How Did To Ww2! With waiting times often being months, sometimes nearly a year, and sometimes. even much longer, who wants to wait that long to hear on three chapters, and then wait. again just as long, or longer, to on Sociological Theories hear about a complete. placed in a normal size business envelope -- don't forget the SASE.

If you send in. chapters or a complete, of course you are going to how did ww1 lead to ww2 need a large envelope for this. The. large brown kind works well for chapters, or even a short manuscript, but for a long one. I've found the larger Priority envelopes you can get for free from the United States Post. Office are great. manuscript is long, you can place one rubber band length ways, the other width ways. Don't forget an SASE that is large enough to have the work returned to you. (Or a small.

SASE for Theories, a reply, with a note saying they can recycle the MS.) When you send that. manuscript, don't send it in a way that will cause the editor or agent to have to how did ww1 lead sign for it. Either send it with a simple delivery confirmation slip, or enclose a SASP (Self addressed. stamped postcard) that the editor can place in her out box to be returned to you. Note that. your SASP might not come right back though, since the package might not get opened for. Sweeney! a long while. Depends on the house. Check out this page for more info on mailing a. Make sure if you are sending chapters, that there is enough postage to get it back to to ww2 you. back write something like, Your MS reached us on _______. That way you not only know your MS made it to the publisher or agent safe and sound, but. the date it was opened and who has it. SASE to get them sent to you. Many houses, if not most now days, even post this info on. their websites. If you can't find them on the internet, write and ask. Guidelines are important.

They list wants and want not's, names of Essay on Sociological Theories, editors, and lots of other stuff that will help you. know which house is right for your story, how to format it, what to how did ww1 lead send, ect. The Critical Era Essay! If your MS is. How Did! 100,000 words, why waste time and money sending it to a house that only wants MSS that. are less than 80,000 words? The same goes with love scenes. Some lines want too hot to. Eniac Computer! touch, and how did ww1 lead to ww2 others want sweet as candy. one house at the same time.

Most publishers don't accept these. Figures! editor on your submission. It is different at each house. One rule though. in most cases, if. they list two months, that could mean six or more. Sometimes they live up to ww1 lead the time frame, but not often. I've also noticed that form rejections come faster than personal ones. That. might just be my luck. I've waited a year for a rejection on a complete, and I'm not alone. I've. also gotten one back in as little as seven weeks. Just don't hold your breath.

This is what. makes that deal about not accepting multiple submissions really suck. okay to send a letter asking about Essay to School your MS. Include the date it was sent, and the title. How Did! If it. was requested work, mention that as well. Don't forget the SASE. I've even sent an SASP. instead, with something on it like, Your manuscript is still under consideration __. Your manuscript has been rejected __. We enjoyed your manuscript and you'll be hearing from on Respecting Courses us soon __. All the editor or agent has to do is ww1 lead to ww2 check one, and toss it in the out box.

writers use and that most editors ask them to use or send work in or from. Office Home and. Note. I really like One Note. It's a great help and lets you keep notes, pictures, all kinds of eniac computer, stuff in. one easy place under different tabs.

Makes keeping up with characters, plot points and time. lines a breeze. Office Home and Business offers even more, but the price is to ww2 more too. It has. Eniac Computer! Word and even more stuff, including One Note and Publisher. The top of the price list is how did ww1 lead to ww2 Office. other business stuff too, you might want to put out the extra money. The only Essay on Respecting One Another: to School thing you really. need is Word. If you have a few extra bucks, I'd go with Office Home and to ww2 Student so you can get. Authority! One Note. Anything over ww1 lead that, and it's just a matter of choice and what all you need and authority do on. your computer. Just click on the picture or highlighted words above to find out information on. how to buy it if your computer didn't come with it.

You can find other helpful programs and tools. Word formatting on both. How Did Ww1 Lead! On some computers, or with a different Word program, you might. have to play with these numbers a little. I say use what ever works to on Sociological Theories get what you need. Once you find those numbers, save them, so you can set your next manuscript up the same. way each time.

This should work with Word programs before Word 97. Some of it should work. with Word 97 too, but things may be located in different spots. Ww1 Lead To Ww2! Paragraph . In Paragraph click on Indents and The Critical Writing Era Essay Spacing . If you are starting out fresh, with a. blank page, you can skip the click on Edit and how did to ww2 the Select All steps, and just start out by. clicking on Sweeney Essay Format , and follow on from there. Left: 0 or 0.1 or 0.2 (Depending on the margin you want, which should be around 1 inch..) including Widow/Orphan Control . Ww1 Lead To Ww2! Click OK . way. Now click on eniac computer the first square you see in the box below. This will be the Insert Page. Number button. You can right click to get rid of that green line if it pops up between your. name and page number. The sixth button in ww1 lead to ww2 that box looks like an open book, it's your Page.

Setup . Click on eniac computer it, then on Margins , and make sure your Top margin is set to 1 , then click. OK . I've found if it is bigger than one inch, you can get less than 25 lines on each page. Click. Close and you're done. I hope this set up works for you. links and to ww2 info you might helpful on my Articles page.

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Nov 17, 2017 How did ww1 lead to ww2,

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The Pros and Cons of Music Lessons Via Skype or Google+ The age of virtual music lessons is here. The computer geek music teacher is no longer the how did only type of teacher who gives distance lessons. Catherine Saint Louis wrote a good article yesterday in The New York Times (With Enough Bandwidth, Many Join the Band), and the enthusiasm of responses by readers shows that this subject is one that still carries a lot of novelty and Development of Racism Essay, excitement. Music teacher conferences such as MTNAs national conference have offered technology sessions that address distance lessons for several years now.

Many teachers are doing it, and its filling a much-needed gap in societys need for lessons, especially for ww1 lead, students in rural areas who dont have access to music teachers. I have taught students from Mexico to on Sociological Theories Tasmania using Skype. So far, I have yet to see any complete pros and cons list regarding distance lessons, so to the best of my ability, I made my own. I feel that part of my duty to ww1 lead to ww2 prospective distance students is to authority make sure theyre fully aware of all benefits and how did ww1 lead to ww2, drawbacks of these types of Writing Era Essay, lessons. First, the pros! Quality of the ww1 lead to ww2 teacher: I believe it is better to Era Essay have Skype lessons with an excellent teacher than it is to have in-person lessons with a mediocre teacher. Skype gives students even more options to choose from when looking for a teacher since they are not restricted to to ww2 their small local region. Weekly Convenience: Students dont have to Development of Racism Essay travel 10 or 20 minutes to their teachers studio.

Also, when a student is 5 or 10 minutes late, I give them a courtesy call in case they forgot, but if they live 15 minutes away and ww1 lead, they have a 30 or even 45 minute lesson, its hardly worth it for them to come late. On Respecting One Another: An Addition To School! Lessons online means no missed lessons due to forgetfulness since the student and teacher can connect 30 seconds after the courtesy call. Convenience of Recording Lessons: While students always have the option to record their face-to-face lessons, that never happens (at least, in the history of my teaching). But students can easily record Skype and Google+ lessons for review at a later time with software like Evaer and SuperTinTin (audio only: Pamela, MP3 Skype Recorder, and how did, VodBurner). Immediate Practicing: (added 1/13/12) While face-to-face students must drive home before practicing what they learned (which eats up time and tires people out), distance students can practice immediately after the lesson when ideas are fresh and when energy levels are still high. (Thanks to Sweeney Todd Joy Morin for how did to ww2, pointing this out.) This is an extra practice session most students will get. The first practice session will always be of higher quality when it is eniac computer done immediately than if it were done the how did to ww2 next day, and the first practice session is the most important session of the entire week. Siblings Dont Have To Wait: (added 1/13/12) Kids can do their own thing while their siblings have lessons, while in the private studio, they are held hostage until their siblings are done. Warming Up: Students can warm up at Essay to School Courses the piano before their lesson, only stopping seconds before the lesson begins.

The piano student also gets to how did ww1 lead play their own instrument. This would let the student show off their best playing to their teacher each week instead of their worst. (This can also be seen as a con see below.) Less off-task behaviors: According to this study in 2010, off-task behaviors took up 36% more time in of Racism face-to-face lessons than in distance lessons. Ww1 Lead To Ww2! I suspect part of this might be due to an awkwardness factor that I think we all feel when talking through a webcam. Its harder to feel and act as we normally would in front of Sweeney, a webcam than it is when face-to-face. The study also finds that eye contact during distance lessons is to ww2 more frequent, and figures, this is ww1 lead to ww2 probably for the same reason. Essay One Another: To School Courses! Increased student performance: The same study indicates that students spend 22% more time performing during distance lessons than in face-to-face lessons.

Some Problems More Quickly Diagnosed: Sometimes the technical or musical problems students experience in their lesson can be an unexpected artifact of ww1 lead to ww2, their unique instrument or practice environment at home. For example, perhaps the student is afraid to play too loud because of living in an apartment or because family members are asleep (both of these scenarios describe a couple students Ive taught before). These factors would come out immediately in a webcam lesson, but it might take a few face-to-face lessons for a teacher to The Critical Writing figure out why the student doesnt seem to ever play out. Dont Have To Be In The Same Room: Students wont need to to ww2 cancel lessons because they had the An Addition to School stomach flu two days before (stomach flus can be contagious for up to two weeks after symptoms have passed). There is also less suffering for everyone: students wont suffer if their teacher ate onion rings for lunch, and bagpipe teachers have the option of how did ww1 lead, muting their computer speakers while their students play. No ability to physically work with hands: Sometimes the most efficient way to achieve technical results with a students is to physically manipulate their wrists, fingers, elbows, etc. Eniac Computer! while their hands are at the keyboard. (Note: according to the study referenced above, touching hands occurred less than 1% of the to ww2 total duration of face-to-face lessons.) Dependent upon Internet connection: The student and teacher must both have a fast Internet connection, and even if they do, sometimes there are days when Internet backbones are lagging, ISPs are having trouble, etc., although thats a rare occurrence. Family members at the students house (and at the teachers house) must refrain from using the Internet during the lesson unless the Sweeney Internet connection is extremely fast.

Glitches still happen sometimes with Skype and Google+. Sound quality: Even with a fast Internet connection, sound quality is not even remotely close to the quality of a CD or even an audio cassette tape recording, let alone the quality of hearing the student in person. Having said that, I feel that Im still able to judge tone quality acceptably well. No recitals: A teacher with students scattered all over the place cannot expect students to buy a plane ticket once or twice a year to perform in how did to ww2 a live recital. Group webcam sessions could be organized, but certainly not on The Critical Writing Era Essay, the scale of 30 students and 100 people in the audience. Videos could be e-mailed to the teacher and combined into how did ww1 lead one performance video simulating a recital, but being able to try as many times as they want to get the perfect recording is not the same experience as having only one chance on stage to get it right. No teacher duets: Beginning method books all have duet parts written for teachers to play along with kids when theyve finished their pieces.

This is not possible over eniac computer a lagging webcam (and all webcam sessions experience lag). No student duets: Unless the Skyping teacher just happens to have two students of similar level who live with or near each other, students will not be able to have any duet experiences with each other, again because of webcam lag. Double sheet music copies: The teacher must always have their own copy of the music the student uses. To Ww2! That means students cant just spontaneously bring in music theyre learning they must first e-mail it to the teacher, buy it for the teacher, or the teacher must obtain their own copy. No ability to Sweeney point to students music: Sometimes the most efficient way to solve a rhythmic problem is to have the how did student follow the bouncing pen (teacher taps the students music much like the bouncing ball in some kids TV shows), and of Racism, this would be impossible in ww1 lead a distance lesson. Writing Era Essay! (Note: according to the study referenced above, pointing in the students music occurred less than 1% of the total duration of face-to-face lessons.) No ability to mark students music: Sometimes teachers must do a little editing in students music (marking in how did ww1 lead to ww2 or circling finger numbers, changing dynamic/articulation markings, etc.), and occasionally they must do a lot of editing (such as with an urtext Bach edition that has no articulation or dynamics marked). In this case teachers would have to mark their own copy and e-mail it to the student, or if they dont want to mark my copy (I prefer to keep my library clean), the student would have to on Respecting One Another: An Addition to School e-mail the teacher their music, the how did ww1 lead to ww2 teacher would print it out and The Critical Writing, mark it up, then scan and e-mail it back to the student. (Note: according to the study referenced above, marking students music occurred less than 1% of the total duration of how did to ww2, face-to-face lessons.) No real-time coaching: Sometimes teachers help students count out loud by counting with them while they play, but sync issues over distance lessons will make this impossible. Sometimes a teacher might say, Good.

Yes. Ok, louder now, and now peak right here on this note, etc. as the student plays (perhaps even singing along sometimes to Era Essay encourage certain dynamic or articulative expression), and to ww2, this also becomes impossible. Music theory hassle: Students would need to hold their completed theory assignment up to the webcam, and The Critical Era Essay, their teacher will have to tell them what to circle and how did, fix for next week. Some of my students are working in The Practice of eniac computer, Harmony , a very heavy college theory textbook/workbook combo, and some of those pages can take a solid two or three minutes to correct (e.g., one page might have students identify 120 major, minor, augmented and how did ww1 lead, diminished chords). In that case, the students may need to eniac computer scan their homework each week and how did ww1 lead to ww2, e-mail it to me. Teacher Modeling: According to the same study as referenced above, teacher modeling in face-to-face lessons occurred 28% more often than in Development of Racism Essay distance lessons. To Ww2! Teacher modeling is what happens when a teacher demonstrates and Essay, the student strives to make themselves sound like the teacher. How Did Ww1 Lead! Looking from a different angle: Sometimes (but not very often), I will walk to the other side of the piano in order to see what the Sweeney Todd students hands look like from the other side, in ww1 lead to ww2 cases where I have to look specifically at the left hand thumb or the right hand pinky (my piano is to Sweeney the left of my student piano).

Since I cant do that in a distance lesson, students would have to reposition their webcams. Ww1 Lead! Numbered measures: Both copies of the sheet music must always have numbered measures (except for very short beginning pieces that are only 8 or 16 measures long). Sweeney Todd! No teacher accompanying: Advanced students who perform concertos will not be able to benefit from ww1 lead, their teachers free accompanying in on Respecting One Another: Courses recitals, festivals and competitions theyll have to hire a separate accompanist. Note-taking: The student must take notes in ww1 lead to ww2 their notebook. Authority! Younger students (and especially very young students) are slow note-takers, which would make it necessary for the parent to how did ww1 lead take notes. Teachers could overcome this by typing the students practice goals each week into an e-mail to the student during the lesson (Microsoft OneNote on eniac computer, a tablet PC could be a good solution for this since OneNote combines writing and typing). Up-Front Cost: Students should purchase high-quality webcams so that the teacher can see as much detail as possible, and should probably consider purchasing a microphone as well, such as the Yeti Blue Microphone. To Ww2! Warming Up: It could be seen as a bad thing that the student has their lesson immediately after warming up, because almost every performance situation students encounter (whether playing at the homes of friends and family or playing in recitals) involves playing when not warmed up. Traditional lessons simulate this experience every week. Similarly, playing on the teachers piano gives students the valuable experience of adjusting to different instruments, which is what happens at others homes, recitals, festivals and competitions.

Distractions: (added 4/16/12) Students may be more distracted at home by noises made by siblings, animals, neighbors, etc. (Thanks to Essay Theories Lyle Compton for pointing this out in a comment below.) Its worth noting that these last two points (warming up and distractions) would also apply to ww1 lead to ww2 the face-to-face teacher who travels to students homes. Both Google+ and Skype are free, and both offer the ability to Writing connect to multiple people at how did to ww2 the same time. This presents the Theories possibility of ww1 lead to ww2, going over music theory, music history, etc. with a group of students at the same time. This is eniac computer also why No Group Lessons did not make it onto the cons list above: with Google+ Hangouts or Skype group calls, teachers can put together group sessions in which students can perform live for how did to ww2, each other. Todd! That said, I think Skype still has better control over echo effects caused by having your speaker turned up past a certain volume, which makes your chat partner hear their own voice as an echo. Its also worth noting that piano lessons take up more room spatially than harmonica or oboe lessons since they involve the full length of a keyboard. A harmonica teacher only needs to see the face of the player, while a piano teacher needs to see the entire body and keyboard from a good angle. They need to how did ww1 lead get a good view of the pedals, and the webcam needs to eniac computer be placed sufficiently above the keyboard so that arms dont get in ww1 lead the way of hands. I will definitely add to this list if any reader comments point out factors I may have overlooked.

The most personally relevant drawbacks for me in Development of Racism Essay giving Skype lessons are the how did ww1 lead to ww2 following: Draining: Everything takes more energy over eniac computer Skype than in person. If the student starts playing in the wrong measure, I have to ww1 lead to ww2 verbally describe where to start. Things that would only take a couple seconds in an in-person lesson take 15, 20 or 30 seconds when working over eniac computer Skype, and how did to ww2, this effect is felt throughout the entire lesson. It also didnt help that I had to do a lot of prep work before each lesson, turning on the laptop on the piano, setting up the webcam, bringing up my e-mail to see theory assignments and print out sheet music, etc. Audio normalization: Skype is not designed for music, it is designed for speech. Quiet speech is amplified to a normal volume, and Sweeney, loud speech is de-amplified to ww1 lead to ww2 a normal volume. Audio engineers know this as normalization, and this is the worst thing you can possibly do to music. I can still tell the difference between piano and forte, but hearing the difference between mezzo-forte and forte, or piano and pianissimo, takes a level of conscious focus on Essay, my part that is taxing.

I have to concentrate so much on the timbre of the piano instead of being able to just rely on ww1 lead, the decibel level like we can do in real life, and this distracts me from thinking about bigger issues in the music. Duplex and Essay, lag awkwardness: In telecommunications, duplex is the type of connection that is how did ww1 lead to ww2 required to allow parties to eniac computer transmit audio data at the same time. How Did! Unfortunately, Skype is Essay on Respecting One Another: An Addition only half-duplex. In real life, when two people start to ww1 lead talk, they quickly stop and figure out who should go. When it happens over Skype, only Sweeney Essay, one of the how did ww1 lead to ww2 people is heard.

They must finish speaking before they can be interrupted. Skype lag complicates this further, because if you need to stop someone, they get your message delayed, and because theyre transmitting, they may not get your message at all. And its kind of funny when both people are trying to figure out who should talk first: they both see that each other is patiently silent, so they both decide to talk. The Critical Writing Era Essay! But since they are seeing an image that is anywhere between 0.5 and ww1 lead to ww2, 4 seconds delayed, they dont realize that they both started to talk at the same time until these seconds have passed. Of course, nearly all the cons in the above list are felt as well, and Development, it is the how did to ww2 accumulation of all these limitations that make Skype lessons so much more challenging than in-person lessons. One Another: Courses! I especially notice the how did ww1 lead decrease in Essay on Respecting An Addition to School my own teacher modeling to students. Because of all the how did to ww2 extra time and energy required to accomplish things in Essay Skype lessons, I always have a sense of needing to how did ww1 lead be as fast and efficient as possible, leaving less time for of Racism Essay, demonstration.

There may also be a small part of me that believes the modeling would be less helpful when theyre hearing me demonstrate through Skype rather than hearing it in person. Having said that, Ive done Skype lessons at ww1 lead a very advanced level before (with good supporting technology and fast Internet connections), as well as with an early intermediate adult, and it felt doable. For reasons that I will outline in great detail in The Critical Writing a distant blog post, advanced students are easier to how did to ww2 work with than beginners. Perhaps the added ease of working with an advanced student counteracts a lot of the authority figures extra energy needed to make the how did limitations of distance lessons work. What a thorough list! Ive only one addition to suggest for the PRO list: My students have found that they like being able to authority figures practice right after the ww1 lead lesson while things are fresh. I used to do this at eniac computer college at the suggestion of my professor. Our private students cant do this if they have a commute home to make after the lesson. But Skype/Google+ students can!

Yes, of course! Thats a big one. Thanks, and ww1 lead to ww2, Ill credit you for thinking of it. Distraction, in of Racism the form of a TV or sound system playing in another room, siblings running and shouting elsewhere in the home while the student tries to concentrate, babies crying, even cooking smells drifting in to ww1 lead to ww2 make the mouth water, pets wandering in and demanding attention or feeding, all are potential downsides to teaching in a students home. I would imagine that at least some of the same situations would apply to Skype/Google students, even if they are using headphones. Another good one thanks. Added to the end of the cons list.

Ive found those exact distractions at on Respecting One Another: An Addition to School one my trumpet teachers home! But an understandable challenge all the same. Great Article. I have been kicking the tires on introducing SKYPE and how did to ww2, GOOGLE+ lessons to Lessons In Your Home (our in-home music school). But I think we are going to take the plunge. I guess one aspect i cant get over Todd Essay is starting beginners, which we do often. To Ww2! I have 0 experience teaching distance lessons. I am assuming incorrectly that the con list gets mush bigger when focusing on just beginners. Im thinking of aspects like: A. how to hold, handle, manipulate, and approach your instrument. B. Posture (not sure how much you can see)

C. Feel, is there a key, pad or valve thats sticking. Jay, I suspect youre right about that. I do suspect that self-directed learners are easier to teach via Skype than beginners, so I think its extra critical that the parent be present, to the point where theyre almost taking lessons too. Of course, self-directed learners are also easier to teach in person than beginners too. #128578; Chad, thank you for eniac computer, taking the time to create this marvelous infolist!

Im just thinking about trying this, and will look into the Google method. I just know that youve taken a lot of the rocks out of the road for a teacher just starting to try this out! I will definitely require a parent present, which I actually require for regular lessons, anyway. I think Ill actually try it with a teacher friend first, too! Beverly Holt Guth. thanks for the extensive and informative list. How Did To Ww2! I am a student and my teacher has moved to authority the US. We will try online teaching and hopefully it works.

It is possible when playing an electrified instrument to plug an output from the amp (using the effects loop) directly into the mic input of the laptop. this would improve sound quality- but then you need to find a work around for the voice mic- which is automatically disabled. thanks again. My experience with long-distance learning is that no beginner can succeed. Ww1 Lead To Ww2! There are simply too many bad habits and bad practices that cant be communicated even via Skype. The only success Ive ever had with teaching folks at Sweeney Todd Essay a distance was with those that already played pretty damn well and were able to follow directions. Hmmmwhat about a combination of half live and half Skype? Do you think thatd be more doable and realistic to achieve? Hi Penny, even doing all Skype lessons is ww1 lead realistic to achieve its just a matter of opportunity cost for you and eniac computer, your students (i.e. how much are your students missing out on each time they have a Skype lesson, and how much are you missing out on when you give them).

Pingback: Singing Lessons Via Skype or Google+ - Celeste Siciliano. Now tell me, [ before this semi pro how did to ww2 adult, begins taking again next tuesday via sype] Does the few second delays mess with the inter-action between out of state teacher and myself/. Authority Figures! It just seems like we interupt one another be the question/ That last part of your message doesnt make any sense to me perhaps resubmit your comment and Ill take a stab at how did ww1 lead answering it Also please be more specific about what you mean by interaction talking? Playing? What are you asking specifically? What kind of webcam do you and your students use? Do you have problems with lag or with choppy frames?

thanks for the pros and cons list. Im moving to The Critical Writing Germany soon and looking to keep a few of my piano students. Im going to invest on the cam and mic you recommend. Quick question about your webcam set-up: do you toggle between overhead and side-cam? What is your ideal placement?

Also- what is your mic placement like with the Yeti? Wow, good luck on the move to Germany! Thats quite a move. I thought moving across the country from how did to ww2, Reno to Pittsburgh was a big deal I dont toggle between overhead and side cam, but that would be awesome if I could. Im sure theres an One Another: easy way to do that, but I just havent looked into it.

I place my webcam on the music rack of the piano my students use during lessons I teach on two pianos. How Did Ww1 Lead To Ww2! My piano is to the left of the students piano (so it would be secondo in a two-piano piece). I prefer students place their webcams as close to where my head normally is when I teach. We get used to certain views of things, and I think it helps our intuition to not have to change our point of view. I think the Yeti can be placed just about anywhere. I place mine on top of my piano. thanks Chad. Im looking forward to testing out to School Courses, scenarios. A really helpful analysis of pros and cons, thank you! I have had trouble with Flute sounding as though its blowing overtones on Skype, and dropping out, causing me to have to abandon the call in the end.

Moreover, the to ww2 time lag means I cannot play along as accompanist in Full Duplex. That said, I am able to do Half Duplex successfully for most purposes, such as for a Piano less and eniac computer, no problem with anything involving Orchestration, Composition, Music Technology. For Music Tech, Ive found its essential that the student use a mobile device so it can swing round to show the computer screen, and ww1 lead to ww2, other parts of the Sweeney Essay studio. Can be tricky if theyve not got Skype on their phone yet, or their wifi is slow, and to ww2, Ive spent hours getting this going, that cannot be charged for. Obviously its necessary to use screensharing for detailed computer work, since the resolution on Skype is authority too fuzzy. Awesome list. I teach piano and voice online and have a lot of to ww2, trouble with the voice lessons because of the audio normalization as well as the fact that while they are singing I cant sing or play piano at the same time and actually hear anything they are singing.

I keep hoping for someone to write some better software of fix Skype. On the authority other hand piano lessons are great and like you said its really difficult to how did ww1 lead hear the difference between p and mp or f and ff. It was good to Essay see this list to ww1 lead know that its not just me having these issues. Nice List. On Sociological! Thanks. Great list as Im thinking about trying this. Another pro that Im hoping will be the how did case. One Another: An Addition To School! . .Continued lessons with the same great teacher you started with. Ive have a student whose family will be making a military move.

He has Aspergers Syndrome, so establishing the social connection was the how did ww1 lead challenge for The Critical, him. He is 12 so totally into technology. . How Did Ww1 Lead To Ww2! .so well give it a try. Am considering teaching Skype lessons and have a question. Do teachers need to be extra careful when taking on eniac computer, Skype students, in respect to their practise committments? Im guessing its much harder to handle the non practisers here, cos they tend to have more problems with rhythm and technique? Id say that everything that is a problem in normal in-person lessons is how did to ww2 amplified when giving Skype lessons because of the extra challenges of Writing, communication, inability to ww1 lead play with the student, inability to point to their music, etc. In terms of mental fatigue, after each Skype lesson I feel like Ive given 1.5 normal lessons. But since my Skype students have generally been adults, non-practicers havent really been a problem adults tend to beat themselves up when they dont practice, so you know theyre already doing their best to make time for The Critical Era Essay, practicing but cant always manage.

Do you have to have two webcams, one in the laptop and a second USB one? as a teacher I want to be able to see their fingers/keyboard and their face when Im talking to them. Second questions other websites mention an app called Music reader where you can annotate and both of you can see the same music. Have you or anyone used this yet? Hi Heather, in the past I have not used two webcams, but I know that would certainly be helpful. I havent used Music Reader yet, but Im sure if anyone here has, they will chime in. Well after all that over-thinking it, over-researching it, I have a pupil in the US (Im in the UK he wanted to carry on with me) so I had to how did to ww2 take the plunge. Sweeney Todd! All that worry! Whe it cam down to to ww2 it, all we re using is my laptop on a high stool, and he is using a tablet hitched onto Sweeney Todd Essay, a goose-necked holder attached to how did ww1 lead to ww2 an ironing board. And everything works fine no headphones, no speakers, no extra webcams.

Oh, all that worrying I did! I find that it takes me more time both before and after the lesson any music we might want to do I need to think ahead and have it scanned and Writing, emailed. Any duets I have to play and record the duet part so he can play along at how did to ww2 home and authority, not playing duets live is a BIG miss, I must say; I use them so much in face-to-face lessons. And I write up all the lesson notes and email them in a face-to-face lesson Im writing in the pupils notebook as we go along. But apart from those things, the ww1 lead to ww2 sound is fine, the not-talking-at-the-same-time is getting better, I can see his fingers and if I do need to see the LH little finger, say, I ask him to re-position. Mother is eniac computer there all the time but always has been, so thats a big help. In response to Jays post (about five years ago!) I think and agree with many that teaching beginners is not something that I would try to do. I do spend a lot of time in face-to-face lessons moulding little fingers, helping wrists and arms float etc and I think putting all that into words and demos over Skype would be just too difficult. Maybe with parent therebut it does sound very tricky.

To be honest, I dont enjoy it as much as a face-to-face lesson; possibly because of the how did to ww2 talking thing. Writing! I think I like to have a banter and a joke and how did ww1 lead, its harder over Skype. But its working great with minimal equipment. The Critical Era Essay! Thanks again for your article. Can a person teach lessons on an acoustic piano simply through Skype or does one need to hook the internet up to a keyboard?