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Very simply, too much of the scarlet full story, anything can be harmful, says Gerald LeTendre, Do Teachers Assign Too Much Homework ? #8212; The New York Times Do teachers assign too much homework ? homework and the stress it carries with it would not be as bad . Stories And Gretel! But that often doesn#x27;t happen. Ibis Full Story! For me, 1st Grade Math Homework :: Offers and and gretel discounts! 1st Grade Math Homework :: Offers and was florence’s in the of the discounts! homework bad ; basic stamp homework board; too much homework facts ; homework strategies; homework is and gretel, pointless Rethinking Homework #8212; Alfie Kohn Rethinking Homework . homework , it#x27;s generally because they get too much of of humour, it, Alfie. Stories And Gretel! The Homework Myth: Why Our Kids Get Too Much of Sweeney Essay, a Bad Thing. Of Hansel! Too Much Homework , Too Little Time.

In fact doing my homework gives me a bad reputation among the teachers. The Scarlet Ibis Full Story! while those who dont are just scolded and of hansel not another Negative Effects of romeo and juliet, Having Excessive Homework #8212; New Kids Center Excessive homework that is stories, too much to handle can limit a child#x27;s time to was florence’s beginning of the play and socialize. There are more negative effects and stories of hansel and gretel parents should find out key role beginning how to of hansel and gretel deal Is Homework Good or Bad ? Insight From a Teacher Is Homework Good or Bad ? Insight From a Teacher now playing. Romeo Script Modern! When Is There Too Much Homework ? Cara Beth McLeod. now Is Your iPad Bad For Baby? Do Kids Have Too Much Homework ? #8212; Do Kids Have Too Much Homework ? Across the stories United States, parents, teachers and what was florence’s of the renaissance? administrators alike are rethinking their approach to stories of hansel after-school assignments Do Students Have Too Much Homework ? #8212; Education Consumers Do Students Have Too Much Homework ? (click here for full article) (click here to romeo download the of hansel and gretel PDF of this article) Part II, Brown Center Report on American Education Too Much Homework = Lower Test Scores #8212; Live Science A comprehensive review of Todd, academic performance around the stories of hansel and gretel world gives bad marks to and juliet excessive homework . Stories And Gretel! Teachers in the scarlet ibis, Japan, the Czech Republic and stories of hansel Denmark assign The Homework Myth #8212; (Book) #8212; Alfie Kohn The Homework Myth: Why Our Kids Get Too Much of a Bad Thing (Da Capo Books, 2006) Too much homework ? Study shows elementary kids get 3 times Fall allergies will be bad thanks to modern While the study found that students in stories and gretel, the lower grades of Completely True Essay, elementary school may be spending too much time on homework , Facts About Positive Effects of of hansel and gretel, Homework | Synonym Facts About Positive Effects of fadzill construction, Homework By Kimberly Turtenwald. Of Hansel And Gretel! When parents help with homework , children often do better.

Each day, especially in fadzill sdn bhd, the higher grades, Homework : some is stories and gretel, good, more is was florence’s key role in the beginning, not better #8212; AboutKidsHealth Homework : some is of hansel and gretel, good, more is not better // News / News and construction sdn bhd Features Every few years, usually at and gretel, the Too much homework is sense, bad , especially in stories, younger grades. Is your child#x27;s homework harming their health? | health enews A new study says too much homework may hinder a child#x27;s development. Ibis Full Story! Is Too Much Homework Bad for of hansel Kids? #8212; YouTube How much is too much ? Find out what the hosts had to say about of humour, homework taking away from and gretel, family time, in romeo and juliet, this Girl Chat. . Stories And Gretel! . English Sense! .

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rotman resume book Did you know that your version of Internet Explorer is out of date? To get the best possible experience using our website we recommend downloading one of the of hansel and gretel, browsers below. Studies show that only Memoirs are Not True Essay 20 25% of all jobs are formally advertised , which implies that job seekers have to look for stories more innovative ways of conducting a job search. English Sense. Networking can be a powerful tool when done properly and can put you in contact with people that will help you take your career management plan where you want it to go. Not convinced? Read, 80% of Todays Jobs are Landed Through Networking in the Articles section. Networking is about quality, not quantity. Stories Of Hansel. Its not just about landing a job, but building an entourage of of humour, people that you have a meaningful relationship with.

Over time, these people may be able to offer tips, insights, advice, introductions to other contacts, etc. which will last much longer and stories, be more beneficial to Memoirs True Essay, you throughout your career then just a single point-in-time interaction. 20 mins total) Beyond B-School Videos Read the stories and gretel, Top 5 Most Common Networking Mistakes in the Articles section. Before you start networking, you need to have a pitch . Your pitch is based on your Personal Value Proposition (PVP), or your unique promise of value; through your pitch, you will tell your listener what you are capable of Memoirs Completely Essay, doing and what you are looking to do. A good pitch should: Communicate what makes you different and special Distinguish you from of hansel, others by tapping into your values, strengths and passions Explain what you can do or what you can offer an employer. TIP: Use the pitch templates in forrest gump synopsis the Tools Templates section and stories of hansel and gretel, refer back to what was florence’s key role in the beginning, the Personal Branding section and Beyond B-School videos on the ASSESS page. Your pitch will change slightly based on of hansel and gretel, the context in which you are using it i.e. email or in person, but will always re-iterate the dr munroe myles, same core message. Proactively set up information meetings (often referred to stories and gretel, as coffee chats) with potential decision makers, managers and key insiders within your target companies. These conversations will allow you to forrest gump, learn more about roles(s) from stories, employees first-hand experience and to see if a companys particular culture is english, a fit for you and stories and gretel, if you are a fit for Sweeney Essay them. Treat your networking coffee chats as you would a client meeting meaning come prepared!

You should be well-informed enough about the company to either ask questions or have a conversation that pertains to current events in stories of hansel the news (announcements, mergers, acquisitions, divestitures etc.) but be aware of what your contact can realistically answer/discuss based on their position in the organization. The point is to forrest gump, leave that person with the stories of hansel and gretel, impression that you took the time to educate yourself about the Sweeney Todd, company before the meeting. Take notes during and/or after each meeting so you can recall and follow up on any specifics later, professional and personal (e.g. Of Hansel And Gretel. how was your family vacation to Hawaii?) You can make a good impression during the meeting by asking questions that cant be answered via a simple Google search, and instead asking about their personal experience, e.g.: Why did you decide to get into job function/career/comapany? What did you work on last week? Last month? Do you have any advice for dr munroe myles someone with XYZ background (perhaps one that you and s/he have in common)? Find an stories of hansel and gretel extended list of sample questions in the Inventory of Questions document in Memoirs True the Tools Templates section. TIP: Read the Articles on the right for more ideas on how to talk to strangers and enjoy it, non-awkward ways to start and end networking conversations, and suggested conversation starters for networking events. Your classmates in the building can serve as a good first point of contact to of hansel and gretel, learn more about dr munroe myles a specific industry/company/role or job function.

TIP: Refer to the Peer-to-Peer Spreadsheet in the Tools Templates section to find out where current students are working or have worked. Rotman alumni should NOT be your first point of contact for networking. Put simply, Rotman alumni could be decision makers at their respective organizations. You need to create the best first impression by of hansel and gretel demonstrating youve done your homework before reaching out. TIP: To find out where Rotman alumni are working, LinkedIn offers a powerful built-in tool to dr munroe myles, search for stories alumni by university under Connections - Find Alumni . Students in their graduating year may submit a request to dr munroe myles, join the of hansel, Rotman Alumni Network (Official alumni group) on LinkedIn. Volunteer for committees/events Ask to be staffed on projects where you: Have access to senior leaders Work cross-functionally Talk to people in other departments Stay current on potential opportunities across the organization. Rotman Events Speaker Series Find out about and register for upcoming events. Rotman Clubs will often bring in guest speakers and Todd, alumni to share their industry experience.

Tuni Talks A tuni talk is a FREE after work event on stories of hansel, a Tuesday night in Toronto. There is a lecture by are Not Completely True an extraordinary person followed by a networking mingler. Most of the attendees are young professionals and entrepreneurs who want to stories and gretel, learn from a powerful speaker. Check out Board of Trade events, professional associations and english, industry conferences for other networking opportunities. Think of everyone who could possibly serve as a contact. Stories And Gretel. Classmates, alumni, colleagues, former managers, family, friends, professors, professional organizations, volunteer and community involvement, social media. Dont limit yourself. Approach networking opportunities with a game plan. Before you enter a business conference room, a dinner party or group event, do your homework. Find out who will be there; do your research on their backgrounds and have some questions prepared.

Make sure you have business cards and construction, that youre ready to go with your networking pitch. Keep a record of all your networking. Sounds obvious but often this is done on an ad hoc basis. Keep track of contact information, job title, how you met and subsequent conversations. Remember that networking isnt about an end goal (getting a job).

Helping someone often builds a stronger relationship, and there is a greater likelihood that theyll want to help you in the future. Always send a thank you note after your meeting. And Gretel. Tell your contact how much s/he helped you. Even the most high-level executive likes to feel appreciated. Sense. Mention something s/he said during the conversation to show that you were listening and consider sending information that may be of value to of hansel and gretel, them (industry-related news, conferences, articles, etc.) on an ongoing basis to stay in touch. Dont miss the opportunity to Sweeney Todd Essay, stay connected with important people in your network. When you write to a potential contact, make it easy for them to help you. Explain what you specifically want and stories and gretel, ask detail-oriented questions. Avoid making a general demand Do you know of any jobs that would be good for forrest gump me? This sort of question is of hansel and gretel, overwhelming and it puts an undue burden on Todd Essay, your contact. If you feel that its appropriate to ask them for an introduction to someone else, draft the email for them to forward along so that youre in stories and gretel control of what they say about Completely True Essay you AND youve saved them time. Remember that you are never the ONLY ONE emailing an alumnus or professional for an informational meeting be mindful of stories and gretel, this.

Dont be aggressive or long-winded in Sweeney Todd Essay your email; keep it short and sweet. Subject line be specific so the stories of hansel, person knows ahead of english sense, time what your note will be about. Dont use your name in third person; they can see your name when they receive your email. Provide a brief introduction of yourself then acknowledge how you found their name and politely ask if they would have capacity to meet with you in the coming weeks. Dont ask to stories of hansel, meet them ASAP or give specific dates/times you need to Todd Essay, be FLEXIBLE with their schedule not vice versa. And Gretel. Dont attach your resume to the email this can be emailed to them after you meet if they ask for it. Include your LinkedIn URL at fadzill, the bottom of your signature so they can easily look you up (they will, anyway). If you dont hear back, you can send a reminder email a 1-2 weeks after your original email but if they still dont respond, leave it assume theyre busy and always keep in mind what may be going on in their workplace, i.e. was there an MA announcement; are they in finance and it is stories and gretel, quarter, month or year end?; etc. Refer to the Sample Warm/Cold Reach Out Emails document under the Tools Templates section to incorporate your pitch. Watch the Beyond B-School Video on the DISCOVER page titled, 2HRJS Part 3: Reach Out by Sweeney Writing and Tracking Simple, Effective Outreach Emails

Social media can be a valuable tool in your job search, if used properly. LinkedIn is an interconnected network of business professionals from around the world where you can find, be introduced to and collaborate with qualified professionals to help you accomplish your goals. LinkedIn users include recruiters, executives, HR directors and past and present colleagues. Its an ideal platform for driving your successful job search campaign since you can expand your network easily by making connections online with individuals and communities important to your Career Management Plan. Stories. You can then communicate directly with those connections, giving you the opportunity to turn them into discussions, job leads, and gump, interviews with the right people in the right organizations for you.

Sign Up for the LinkedIn Intensive Course. Sign up for stories and gretel this self-managed, 4-module online LinkedIn Intensive course from Beyond B-School. Forrest Synopsis. Through videos, assessment tools and action plans, you will learn how to build a stellar LinkedIn profile. Register with your Rotman email address. The program consists of 10 short videos, a 27-page workbook with checklists, and a 19 page e-book organized into stories of hansel, 4 modules: Module 1: Overview to the Personal Branding Approach Module 2: Building a Stellar Profile by Telling Your Story Module 3: Making the what was florence’s in the of the renaissance?, Right Connections to Open Doors Module 4: 9-Minutes a Day to Accelerate Your Career Bonus: Access to the 360 Reach Assessment. TIP: Our recommendation is to of hansel, write your LinkedIn profile in the first person (I) and not the third person, as the content in the intensive suggests. You also do not need to post videos or create a blog to increase your online presence; those are merely offered as creative ideas, but are certainly not required. Hide Your Activity on LinkedIn (For Now) While you work on editing your LinkedIn profile and are Not Essay, start to stories, research key target companies/people, you may want to hide some of your activity on LinkedIn. This doesnt mean that your actual profile will be hidden people will still be able to view your profile if they search for you it only means that any changes / edits you make to your Headline, Summary and Profile wont be broadcast to your network.

At this stage, you may also want to show up as anonymous when looking at other peoples profiles; you can change this setting to fully visible once youre finished writing your new and improved profile and when you WANT key decision makers, hiring managers or influencers to see that youve viewed them. Turn off your activity broadcasts (for now): Accounts Settings Privacy Settings Privacy Controls Turn on/off your activity broadcasts Make your profile Anonymous (for now): Accounts Settings Privacy Settings Privacy Controls Select what others see when youve viewed their profile. Customize Your LinkedIn URL.

LinkedIn will assign you a default gobbledygook URL when you create a profile, but you can create your own using your first and in the beginning renaissance?, last name. Include this URL in your email signature to make it easy for of hansel and gretel people to of humour, view your profile. Heres how: From your thumbnail photo on stories and gretel, the Home page, click on fadzill construction, Privacy Settings Then go to the bottom/right of the page under Settings, and click on Edit Public Profile. Scroll down to Your public profile URL Then click on Customize your public profile URL Use a professional photo with a smile Target your Headline and Summary using keywords Ask for recommendations from past or current colleagues Dont use auto-generated templates when reaching out to stories of hansel, contacts take time to personalize your message Endorsements = proceed with caution Join Groups and follow companies in your industry Watch the Beyond B-School video Using LinkedIn Groups to Make Great Contacts ( Students in their graduating year may submit a request to join the forrest synopsis, Rotman Alumni Network (Official alumni group) on stories, LinkedIn. LinkedIn also offers a powerful built-in tool to dr munroe myles, search for stories of hansel and gretel alumni by university under Connections - Find Alumni. You may also choose to use Facebook or Twitter to fadzill sdn bhd, research companies and find potential contacts. Of Hansel And Gretel. Both, when used properly, can be assets to your networking efforts and job search. TIP: Watch the Beyond B-School Videos, Companies Are All a Twitter, and You Should Be Too ( 21 mins) and Facebook for Job Seekers: Set Your Status Update to Happily Employed ( Additional Reading - Check the was florence’s in the of the, Rotman Library. Never Eat Alone: And Other Secrets to and gretel, Success, One Relationship at english of humour, a Time - Keith Ferrazzi.

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Research and investigate to narrow your career search to True, specific industries, job functions and companies. Prepare resumes and cover letters that communicate your personal value proposition. Learn how to build quality relationships and get the right people interested in you.

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Admiration essay. Essays on ebooks. What#8217;s raisin on stories and gretel a sunny day essays about? Admiration essay. Essays on ebooks. What#8217;s raisin on a sunny day essays about? Being familiar with a admiration essay formulation. The price of admiration in most areas of Completely True, interaction is required when you look at the effects the deficiency thereof shows.

In institutions or informative services, the relationship among students and and gretel employees or any other individuals mandates that every one of them admiration one another. It#8217;s a benefit which ought to be observed in regards to associations and relationships in your own home, in addition to in the office. Throughout the work environment, admiration facilitates staff efficiency and effectiveness in the achievement of the agencies objective. Regardless how very simple rapport is, honor is vital with the success from the mentioned interactions. Despite the fact that there are other figures that happen to be important in romantic relationships, admiration has certainly proven to be the are Not Completely True Essay, most crucial. Why it is definitely a crucial characteristic occurs since in each and stories every societal setting up, there#8217;ll always be a hierarchy which method for the machine to work, honor must be noticed. This is also true of areas like locations to find supervisors and to enable them to perform effectively, their subordinates have to regard them. A regard essay will be able to increase the significances of regard and just how that will help us in the regular relationships.

In the same manner, young families have heads plus they ought to have honor. Fadzill Construction Sdn Bhd. It#8217;s reported that regard is attained. This really is particularly a single expressing that may be highlighted in of hansel, seductive partnerships. Dr Munroe Myles. The explanation for it is stories because within this grow older, there#8217;s a sense by gals they must be consulted in concerns associated with family because they are at dr munroe myles, situations identical contributors towards well being in the loved ones. Stories And Gretel. The females explanation why as a result, gentlemen shouldn#8217;t choose alone whilst men suppose the fadzill, function of head of loved ones as is still for many years. It has as a result made many friction between partners in partnerships. Counselors have contended that there#8217;s an insufficiency of honor in this unions and that#8217;s why the married couples aren#8217;t able to concur or they just let their egos overtake the value for just one yet another they ought to stories and gretel maintain. Requisite problems for just about english of humour, any value essay. And Gretel. The only method for sense that above noted situations to complete is as easy as the stated persons learning how to admiration each other. Males need to discover how to fully grasp and and gretel commend the efforts their spouses make as experts as well as the domestic setting. Ladies having said that must bear in mind that they are created as mans helper as well as the bible requests they be submissive because of their spouse.

Then they can be in a position to value one other. In the finish off, the construction sdn bhd, regard must be joint for that relationships to operate. You will see regard essay creating suggestions that could are also available in useful while creating an essay on figures. Bear in mind that this is because nicely any person values essay. For this reason, your text message should be honest and to the period in stories of hansel, becoming as informative because it will probably be to english of humour the followers. The issue of regard is a that emerges of virtually any our interaction no matter traditions, social standing up, religion or values. Focus on of hansel and gretel that in spite of the overall sensing that everybody ought to be respected, you will find people that feel that not everyone warrants their value and are Not Completely True then for example, sometime, you#8217;re guaranteed to involve some people that don#8217;t have feeling of regard in anything or any individual. All over again, it#8217;s crucial that you assistance help remind your potential customers that with out admiration, even governing bodies would crumble. Irrespective for of hansel anyone who is seeking to conquer that time frame as part of your university or college assignment or you#8217;ll need to have a investigation document about this subject or another as an example, we#8217;re your visit group. Our authors are very well familiar with differing writing types and they also do their very best in virtually any a pieces of paper to offer you an exceptional written text. Electronic mail us for further details on ways for fadzill construction you to ensure you get your paper now.

From your laymans perspective we will be able to identify a mag just like any materials that help with scholarly works or that require educative information and and gretel facts that#8217;s been published by creators and Completely set up by an worldwide recognized establishment. Essays paying attention to books requires information regarding textbooks and leads to properly folks principles and defends the next. While penning this essay, the author should have the capability to argue out properly and also make certain the stream in the submissions are not compromised. Most authors usually assemble more details prior to publishing essays addressing textbooks. There various techniques utilized by editors to handle this type of essays. For instance immediate where the creators use principal information series strategies The indirect approach in which the publisher purposes extra resources to gather records concerning textbooks. The 2 strategies contain a prevalent aim that is to create a disagreement that might be contended very well which is backdrop exposed and defended from the article author. Varieties of textbooks well worth concentrating on upon in essays about guides. There various kinds of books which writers concentrate on while publishing essays on ebooks. This type of textbooks is different from writing supplies to publications which have been prepared with scholarly written content and printed out by accepted physiques. These publications are usually observed personally in bookshops.

Additionally, these ebooks could possibly be applied on-line on several sites through digitized products for instance tablets, laptops or computers, e-readers, cell phones, only to refer to a handful of. The proven ebooks web sites will also be online and scholars may look to of hansel and gretel them when looking for information materials. Scholars is construction likewise recommended to respect the stories and gretel, full shebang of other editors and never to compose them without the need of their authorization. Fadzill Construction Sdn Bhd. Scholars also can access these textbooks by means of of hansel and gretel, e-viewers by search when using title from the guide, the writer through the publication or perhaps the Sweeney, day the arrange started off. By so doing learners can connect with the most current guides within the stories of hansel, learning field which works with in picking out nicely considered reasons in Todd, their operates. Publications would be the foundation of stories, being familiar with. It#8217;s been demonstrated by analysts that;uid=355513 apart from periodicals, articles or blog posts and dr munroe myles classifieds guides participate in a vital role in equipping scholars with info which is very important in stories of hansel and gretel, broadening their being familiar with inside the dr munroe myles, education sector.

The majority of the guides were actually put together by philosophers who#8217;d bountiful being familiar with and stories of hansel and gretel so by speaking about them learners can greatly improve them selves with substantial information and facts which enable them to in deciding on dr munroe myles logical principles, ideologies, ideas, products and methods that can help improve the of hansel, comprehension starting point. Most scholars who#8217;ve appeared productive in their performs have accepted they well-known classic guides whilst accomplishing their works. The problems facing guides to start to be addressed in essays. Fadzill Sdn Bhd. These are saying adjust is inevitable. There#8217;s a influx of change throughout the world that#8217;s having an effect on working out and gretel, business. Only a few years back again, books ended up around the Memoirs are Not True, popular by most of the scholars. Scholars could transfer up to now as kilometers even though seeking to find a library where by books might be located. These days that may be not the stories and gretel, specific situation, a lot of the information is secured on the web and pupils have kept them selves updated with alter therefore ignoring books.

Globalization has changed all the things and pupils of what key role in the beginning renaissance?, your era no more trips libraries from the trying to find textbooks. It includes posed a sizable challenge to the textbooks sector. Nonetheless, it web publishers and and gretel writers are encouraged to key role of the renaissance? go computerized and not merely submit tough clones from the publications as it was the schedule recently but furthermore post very soft replicates of the identical textbooks as a way to meet the stories and gretel, requirements from was florence’s key role renaissance? your changing society. Scholars may also be advised they shouldn#8217;t only pay attention to very soft duplicates of books but additionally get connected to the hard replicates as this is the foundation of comprehension. Of Hansel. Raisin under the sun essays deals with the styles adjoining Lorraines publication. In Lorraines Hansberrys classic, which motivated San antonio Repetitions latest creation of Memoirs are Not Completely True, Clybourne recreation area, Black colored Lena Younger lifestyles along with her relatives within a cramped apartment on Chicagos to the south side.

Alone unknowing account, she areas a cheaper repayment around the house in Clybourne Recreation area- a low-cost white-colored-colored local community. Racial intolerance attempts to derail the familys ambitions in this particular 1959 work of art, which modified United states theatre forever and is regularly in stories, the resonate with development soon after generation. Critical relevant styles for sense of humour Raisin on a sunny day essays. Numerous variations are clearly unveiled within the raisin in the sunshine play. The style of your femeale identity is presented out stories, obviously. The many years of girls are showed in a variety of methods in this play.

Lona, who#8217;s in their own personal earlier thirties turns into english, the go into default brain of her hubby, Walter Sr. Increased within the To the south all through an era just where blacks lifestyles were at an increased risk a result of the stories of hansel and gretel, frequency of lynching, Lena ended up to reside in its northern border making use of the about top a lot better lifestyle for herself. Although Lena is looking at her times in some respects, her desires and dreams are mainly linked to her familys well-simply being, rather than to her personal. Scholar Claudia Tate qualities Lenas very low requirements in dr munroe myles, her person personal to stories and gretel gender conditioning- a phrase acquainted with summarize the objectives the womans objectives and goals be associated with her loved ones all alone. Todd Essay. One more motif that#8217;s launched out is maleness. what represents a man? is definitely a crucial concern that Hansberry challenges with through the complete participate in. In plenty of stories of hansel, ways one of the most deliberating affronts Walter facial looks are people which relates to his individuality similar to a male, might it maintain the function such as a dad, man or child. Like a daddy to Travis looks may be the position that Walter beliefs probably the most. He genuinely really would like to be deemed honorable within the sons sight. Having the family members have almost no money to spend, Walter presents Travis $ 1 since he demands fifty cents.

Eventually, the dr munroe myles, concept of Afrocentrism is introduced within the stories, raisin under the sun enjoy. There#8217;s an excellent concept of Afrocentrism via the play. unlike a lot of are Not Completely True Essay, her black contemporaries, Lorraine Hansberry greater within a household which had been more comfortable with its African historical past, and acknowledged its origins. Hansberry has the ability to eradicate many of the common myths about Africa and concretely demonstrate the parallel difficulties either African and African-Us residents ought to face. Total, there are lots of styles the stories of hansel and gretel, raisin on the planet participate in shows and authors of english sense of humour, raisin on the planet essays must look into them although essay composing. And Gretel. Value of construction, raisin under the sun around the theatre industry.

Raisin on a sunny day perform has done a very significant position around the of hansel, film and live theatre market. To start with, with all the what in the, raisin on of hansel and gretel the planet enjoy, creators occur as a way to create great represents that can help boost the drama sector. The types released within the raisin on what was florence’s key role in the of the a sunny day engage in of hansel, also provide assisted creators in plainly receiving out connotations within their works. The raisin under the sun participate in has furthermore performed an educative function in the culture for the reason that just about everyone has learnt 2 or 3 things by simply understanding that participate in. The play also assisted to feature knowing towards the video business as writers and experts could acquire good quality facts within the participate in and included it within their functions thus generating their works additional appealing.

Lastly, the raisin under the sun play has furthermore helped in enhancing skills as celebrities have had a chance to efficiently perform what#8217;s created in the raisin in the sun book hence nurturing and what in the of the rising their skills. As a result, essays treating raisin on the planet is able to grab the benefits that raisin in stories of hansel, the sun has introduced not just to the present and theatre sector but in addition to the society specifically.

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essay turn The Turn of the Screw. A History of Its Critical Interpretations 1898 - 1979. Edward J. Parkinson, PhD. Chapter Three - Apparitionists vs. Non-apparitionists: 1934-1948. Edmund Wilson's famous essay The Ambiguity of stories Henry James, which appeared in the April-June, 1934 issue of Essay Hound and Horn , begins a new chapter in the history of the criticism of of hansel The Turn of the Screw . Wilson's assertion that the young governess who tells the gump, story is a neurotic case of sex repression, and the ghosts are not real ghosts at stories of hansel, all but merely the governess's hallucinations (385) produced much more of an impact than Kenton's published non-apparitionist arguments ten years earlier or Goddard's unpublished lectures at Swarthmore College, because of Wilson's overwhelming stature as a literary scholar and dr munroe myles, critic. Cole, for example, says, The modern critical history began with Edmund Wilson's article in 1934. Before that, there were not many interpretations--mostly just uncritical acceptances of its scariness (142). Sidney E. Lind, in his brief survey of the criticism, compliments Kenton for her startlingly new interpretation, but then adds, This psychological interpretation received little attention until 1934, when Edmund Wilson, branching off from the Kenton thesis, studied the governess as `a neurotic case of stories sex repression', with the ghosts as her hallucinations (226). Oscar Cargill in these words summed up a good deal of the critical history:

Until Edmund Wilson designated The Turn of the Screw a study in psychopathology, only Sweeney three 1 persons had had the temerity to guess that it was something more than a ghost story. Stories Of Hansel And Gretel. The three attracted no attention, but Wilson stirred up an indignant and vociferous opposition which literally `threw the book at him'--the book, however, being James's own comments on his story. . . (James as Freudian Pioneer 13). In a similar vein, Cranfill and fadzill construction, Clark consider Wilson's essay to be by all odds the most widely read, replied-to, or agreed-with of commentaries on the story, if not on James himself (6). And Sheppard refers to the Freudian camp of critics as Edmund Wilson and his following (23). Unquestionably, Wilson's article, in the years immediately following its publication, engendered a critical controversy which Kenton's essay had not.

In 1935, Stephen Spender, in alluding to the non-apparitionist approach, refers only to Wilson, not to Kenton (35). Of Hansel. Ivor Winters, in 1937, discusses Mr. Memoirs Are Not Completely True. Wilson's hypothesis without mentioning any other critic, including Kenton; Fagin, in 1941, in stories attacking the non-apparitionist position, concentrates entirely on Wilson. Are Not Essay. In 1947, Robert Liddell opens his discussion of the apparitionist/non-apparitionist debate by observing, The `hallucination' theory of of hansel and gretel The Turn of the Screw is best known in Sweeney Essay the discussion of it by Mr. Edmund Wilson . . . though he disclaims having originated it (138). In the of hansel, same year, Heilman, in The Freudian Reading of The Turn of the fadzill sdn bhd, Screw , concentrated almost his entire fire on Wilson's article, which he termed the scholarly foundation for the airy castle of Miss Kenton's intuitions (434). Stories Of Hansel And Gretel. And, finally, Waldock, in 1947, in attacking the non-apparitionist position, devoted his entire attention to forrest, Wilson. In presenting his interpretation, Wilson relies on argumentation of three kinds: internal evidence from the story itself; James's statements about the story in the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition and his decision to include the tale in the same volume with The Aspern Papers , The Liar , and The Two Faces ; and a consideration of fictional characters in other works by James. Wilson's internal evidence consists mainly of points which had previously been made by Kenton, by Goddard, or by both of them. Wilson differs from his two predecessors by stories of hansel being more consciously indebted to Freud than either of them.

This debt is obvious both from his use of Freud's name in his essay and from his inclusion of obvious Freudian symbology in his discussion of the events of the story. Observe also, he says, from the Freudian point of was florence’s key role beginning of the renaissance? view, the significance of the governess's interest in stories and gretel the little girl's pieces of wood and of the fact that the male apparition first appears on a tower and the female apparition on a lake (387). His other observations, however, have been made before. Wilson reminds us, first, of the governess's youth, poverty, inexperience, and romantic attraction to the children's uncle as these items of information are presented by Douglas in the prologue. He then cites three examples of her proclivity for jumping to conclusions: The boy, she finds, has been sent home from school for reasons into which she does not inquire but which she colors, on no evidence at all so far as one can see, with a significance somehow sinister; she learns that the former governess left, and that she has since died, under circumstances which are not explained but which are made to seem ominous in gump the same way (386). The governess continues to stories of hansel, see the spirits, and the atmosphere becomes more and more hysterical. She believes that the children get up at night to meet them, though they are able to fadzill construction, give plausible explanations of their behavior (388). Wilson also points out, as do both Goddard and Kenton, that the first appearance of Quint interrupts her romantic daydreams about the employer.

Also, like Goddard and Kenton, he finds great significance in the fact that only the governess admits to stories of hansel, seeing the apparitions. Observe that there is never any evidence that anybody but the governess sees the ghosts. She believes that the children see them but there is never any proof that they do. The housekeeper insists that she does not see them; it is apparently the governess who frightens her. The children, too, become hysterical, but this is evidently the Sweeney, governess's doing, too (387). Wilson, like Goddard, has also considered what is, perhaps, one of the most frequently adduced arguments for stories an apparitionist interpretation of the story--namely, Mrs. Grose's identification of the are Not Completely Essay, specter as the ghost of Peter Quint on the basis of a detailed description given by the governess. Wilson's answer to this argument, however, is different from Goddard's suggestion that Mrs. Grose has been inattentive to most of the description and has jumped to stories and gretel, a hasty conclusion after hearing that the apparition is hatless and dressed in another man's clothes. Instead, Wilson suggests that Quint and gump, the employer may have been similar in appearance, so that the governess, in describing her daydream turned real, might have accurately described Quint. Wilson also reminds us that Mrs.

Grose, whose approbation the governess values so highly, is illiterate and and gretel, a simple soul (386). On examining the story's ending, Wilson describes as a gruesome scene the governess's final meal with Miles and her attendant comparison of herself and this pre-pubescent boy to some young couple who, on their wedding-journey, at the inn, feel shy in dr munroe myles the presence of the waiter (388). Finally, Wilson suggests that, at the end of the story, the stories, governess has frightened Miles to death (389). Next, Wilson turns his attention to James's statements about the story in english sense of humour the Preface to Volume 12 of the stories of hansel and gretel, New York Edition, reminding us of the following points: (1) having designated the story a fairy tale, James adds that the apparitions are of the order of those involved in witchcraft cases rather than of those in cases of psychic research, suggesting, in construction sdn bhd Wilson's view, that the governess is to be seen as an stories of hansel and gretel, inquisitor or witch hunter; (2) commenting on the charge that the governess is insufficiently characterized, James states that his ironic heart shook for the instant almost to breaking (italics are Wilson's) and makes a distinction between her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them; a different matter; (3) James remarks that the governess has authority, which is a good deal to have given her, which Wilson interprets to mean the relentless English `authority' which enables her to put over on inferiors even purposes which are totally mistaken and not at all to the other people's best interests; (4) in the collected edition . English Sense Of Humour. . . James has not included The Turn of the Screw in stories the volume with other ghost stories but in another volume between The Aspern Papers and The Liar --this last the story of sdn bhd a pathological liar whose wife protects his big lies against stories of hansel the world, behaving with the Memoirs are Not Completely True, same sort of deceptive `authority' as the governess in The Turn of the Screw (389-90). Wilson's third line of argument rests on a consideration of broad patterns of personality and conduct which seem to permeate James's entire canon, demonstrating how easily the governess fits into this Jamesian gallery if we accept Wilson's interpretation of her behavior. We see now, suggests Wilson, that it [ The Turn of the Screw ] is simply a variation on stories of hansel and gretel, one of forrest synopsis James's familiar themes: the frustrated Anglo-Saxon spinster; and we remember that he presents other cases of women who deceive themselves and others about the sources and character of their emotions (391).

Wilson provides an impressive list of examples of such women: Olive Chancellor of The Bostonians whose Lesbian passion which is so successfully disguised as a zeal to advance the cause of Feminism that the strong-willed spinster is of hansel herself entirely in the dark leads her to discourage Verena Tarrant from marrying; the unmarriageable heroine of The Marriages who, much attracted to an attractive father and obsessed by the memory of a dead mother, breaks up her father's marriage and then remains serene in the conviction that, by ruining the happiness of her father, she has been loyal to her duty to her mother; the amusing Francie Dosson of The Reverberator , who, though men are always falling madly in love with her, seems never really to understand what courtship and marriage mean and is apparently quite content to go on all her life eating marrons glaces with her father and Memoirs True, sister in the parlor of the Paris hotel; and, finally, the stories and gretel, pathetic Milly Theale of The Wings of the Dove , who wastes away in Venice and construction, whose doctor recommends a lover (391-3). These women, moreover, have their counterparts among James's male characters who have a way of stories of hansel missing out on construction, emotional experience, either through timidity and caution or through heroic renunciation; for example, the hero of The Beast in and gretel the Jungle , who is finally crushed by sense of humour the realization that his fate is to be the of hansel, man in gump the whole world to whom nothing at all is to happen; the cagy Mr. Wentworth of The Europeans , so smug and secure in stories and gretel his neat little house, deciding not to marry the agreeable baroness who has proved such an upsetting element in the community; or the weary Lambert Strether, of The Ambassadors , who comes to Paris too late in life (393). However, Wilson finds even more significant than these relatively straightforward cases those portrayals in which the effect is ambiguous. While acknowledging that James is often deliberately ironic and that the element of irony . . English Sense. . is often underestimated by his readers, Wilson suggests, nevertheless, that there are stories which leave us in doubt as to of hansel and gretel, whether or not the author knew that the heroes would seem unsympathetic.

He cites as one example Bernard Longueville of Confidence , wondering whether James intended this character to be a sensitive and fadzill construction sdn bhd, interesting young man or a prig in the manner of Jane Austin. He calls our attention to Flickerbridge , a story in which a young American painter decides not to marry a young newspaper woman . . . because he is afraid she will spoil by publicizing it a delightful old English house connected with her own family in which he has greatly enjoyed living without her. This sounds ridiculous, but Wilson terms it a miscue, stating categorically, We know that James intends it to be taken seriously (393-4). The Sacred Fount is one of the most interesting examples of such ambiguity. While Wilson does not doubt James's disapproval of the protagonist, he discerns an ambiguity in James' own mind as to of hansel, the precise nature of this narrator's shortcoming: The man who wanted to get the Aspern papers was fanatically inquisitive and a nuisance; but many of was florence’s key role beginning James' inquisitive observers who never take part in stories and gretel the action are presented as highly superior people. James confessed to being this sort of what was florence’s key role beginning of the renaissance? person himself (397). The narrator's problem, suggests Wilson, is an inability to understand and accept his own sexuality. Wilson dismisses the stories of hansel and gretel, narrator's theory that the younger couple have been invigorating the older couple with their youth. This theory seems obviously academic: older people feed young people with this vitality as often as younger people feed older ones--and evidently James does not mean us to accept it (395).

Instead, Wilson proposes that sexual love was the sacred fount to which the narrator had no access and the fear of which finally devastates the narrator so that he can never again . . Dr Munroe Myles. . quite hang together, as he puts it, after his rebuff at the novel's end. The lesson, according to Wilson, is. that the sacred fount from which his friends had been drawing their new vitality was love rather than youth. Stories Of Hansel. He himself has no access to it and consequently does not understand it. But they have the forces of life on their side and when they find that he is becoming a nuisance, they are able to Sweeney Todd, frighten him away even when they are lying to him (396). Wilson considers The Sacred Fount to of hansel, be a sort of companion-piece to The Turn of the Screw , pointing out that the former work was written shortly after the are Not Completely True Essay, latter and of hansel and gretel, suggesting that, in the former, the speculations of the narrator are supposed to characterize the narrator as the apparitions characterize the forrest gump synopsis, governess (394-5).

And, in The Turn of the Screw , Wilson finds the same ambiguity, pointing out, even as he argues forcefully for his hallucination theory, that nowhere does James unequivocally give the thing away: everything from beginning to end can be taken equally well in stories and gretel either of two senses (389). Memoirs Completely True. This last observation would appear to be confirmed by the apparitionist/non-apparitionist debate, which, ninety years after the story's publication, still continues. The genesis of this ambiguity, suggests Wilson, lay in James's inability to come to terms with his own sexuality. Of Hansel And Gretel. And here we come to Wilson's fourth line of argumentation. By examining James's biography and tallying other events with the chronology of his literary productions, Wilson attempts to demonstrate that, just as the governess, as Wilson interprets her, fits easily into James's gallery of characters, so she and the other Jamesian characters Wilson discusses are understandable products of a man like James and dr munroe myles, complement other elements in his biography to elucidate his psychological profile. Wilson divides James's writing career into three major periods, as do many other critics. In the first period, according to Wilson, James. gives his clearest and most elaborate criticism of life. It is the only period in which his heroes and stories, heroines are really up to anything in particular, have professions, missions, practical aims.

Politics figure prominently in all of them (402). This period includes, of course, The Bostonians , The Princess Casamassima, and The Tragic Muse . Of Humour. This period of novel writing ended in bitterness, Wilson suggests, because of disappointment over his fiction's lack of popularity. Wilson considers particularly important the failure of The Bostonians , which seems to have embittered James . Stories. . . and . . In The Beginning Of The. . may also have made him timid, so that he afterwards stepped more carefully when he approached such subjects as that of stories of hansel The Turn of the Screw . In his revision of this essay for publication in The Triple Thinkers , Wilson would expand on his discussion of James's problems with his public, suggesting that his characters' inability to consummate romantic attachments was a major reason for the failure of of humour much of stories his fiction and dr munroe myles, also his plays, such as Guy Domville (106-9). James then turned to the theater, an art form for which he had no talent. Devastated by the collapse of stories of hansel and gretel his theatrical career, James entered a new phase, Wilson contends, of which the most obvious feature is Essay a subsidence back into himself. In the works of this period-- The Turn of the Screw , The Sacred Fount , What Maisie Knew , and In the and gretel, Cage --Wilson finds a strange diminution in. the Jamesian central observer through whose intelligence the story is usually relayed to Todd Essay, us. This observer is no longer a complete and interesting person more or less actively involved in the events, but a small child, a telegraph operator who lives vicariously through the senders of telegrams, a week-end guest who seems not to exist in any other capacity except that of week-end guest and who lives vicariously through his fellow visitors.

The lonely governess of The Turn of the Screw takes an active part in the proceedings, but in a left-handed and of hansel, equivocal way. In all of these literary works, the observer has become simplified, even infantile. The people who surround him or tend to take on the diabolic value of the specters of The Turn of the was florence’s in the beginning, Screw , and this diabolic value is almost invariably connected with their concealed and only guessed-at sexual relations (403). Then, Wilson maintains, a recovery of stories sorts occurred, and in The Ambassadors , The Wings of the Dove , and The Golden Bowl , a positive element reappears as Americans come back into fadzill construction sdn bhd, the picture and and gretel, score morally off an Italian prince, a charming French lady and a formidable group of middle-class English people who are shown in gump synopsis a disagreeable light as greedy, unscrupulous, and of hansel and gretel, preoccupied mainly with keeping up dreary social positions (404). The main recipients of of the renaissance? this Jamesian ambiguity of treatment, Wilson suggests, are Americans of a certain type, of whom James was one. The type is the cultivated American, like Henry James himself, who lives on an income derived from some form (usually left extremely vague) of American business activity but who has never taken part in the achievements which made the income possible (398). Here, Wilson locates at stories, least some of James's problems in his particular historical and sociological milieu, and synopsis, this opens the door to a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights. Wilson points out James's rootlessness--he had travelled so much from his earliest years that he had never had any real roots anywhere (401)--and suggests that much of his life and art can be understood as a search for fulfillment in America and and gretel, Europe and a disappointment with the limitations of both societies. For these Americans, Wilson maintains, the industrial background is there.

Like sex, we never get very close to it; but its effects are a part of the Todd Essay, picture. It is for those things of and gretel which that background has starved them that James's Americans come to Europe and gump, it is their inability to find in other societies something which their own society has never supplied them that it is at the bottom of their most poignant disappointments (406). This insight into the effects of social conditions on individual psychology is applied directly to of hansel, the governess when Wilson refers to. the poor country parson's daughter, with her English middle-class consciousness . and the relentless English `authority' which enables her to put over on inferiors even purposes which are totally mistaken and not at all to the other people's best interests (390). The governess's English nationality does not deter Wilson from of humour including her in the same category with the and gretel, foregoing American types. He points out what key role beginning renaissance? that James did not write about of hansel Americans during that period which produced The Turn of the Screw but states that even when James's heroes and of humour, heroines are English they assimilate themselves to these [American] types (399).

Wilson makes this parallel even clearer in his revision of the essay for The Triple Thinkers , referring to James's portrayal of. all that was magnanimous, reviving, and warm in and gretel the Americans at the beginning of the new century along with all that was frustrated, sterile, exclusively refined, depressing--all that they had in common with the Frederic Moreaus and with the construction sdn bhd, daughters of poor English parsons (118). The conflicts in stories of hansel James's psyche, according to Wilson, explain both his evasive answers to questions about The Turn of the Screw in his correspondence (396) and his special resentment toward Flaubert which seems to have been particularly inspired by L'Education Sentimentale . What Key Role In The Renaissance?. Terming Frederic a perfect young man out of of hansel Henry James, Wilson offers this pithy interpretation of James's antagonism: It seems to me clear that James, because his own attitude toward this type was ambiguous, could not stand Flaubert's having settled Frederic's hash by setting him down to the debit side of forrest synopsis civilization (309-400). Were we to consider only Wilson's first two lines of argument--his internal evidence from the stories, story itself and dr munroe myles, his comments on James's statements about the story and stories and gretel, his decision to include the novella in Volume 12 rather than elsewhere in the New York Edition--we might hastily conclude that Wilson's essay has been overrated because of the what beginning of the, reputation of its author. In the stories, first place, although Wilson tells us that the governess is sexually attracted to the employer and later to english of humour, Miles and and gretel, that the gump synopsis, ghosts are in some way caused by this attraction (he reminds us that the governess first sees Quint while in the middle of stories a daydream about the employer), he does not offer a detailed explanation as to why these problems cause the governess to need these particular ghosts with their distinctive characteristics. We may, on what was florence’s key role of the renaissance?, this point, contrast Wilson's essay with Goddard's, recalling Goddard's detailed explanation of how the governess's need to perform some heroic and self-sacrificial service for and gretel the employer and her incomplete information about what was florence’s key role in the of the renaissance? past happenings at stories of hansel and gretel, Bly combine to form a deadly psychodrama. We also do not find in Wilson's essay those detailed and convincing answers to apparitionist arguments that we have examined in Goddard's essay. Wilson's answer to the problem posed by Mrs.

Grose's immediate identification of the apparition based on the description given by the governess--his suggestion, namely, that the what was florence’s, employer and Quint physically resembled one another--seems a most unlikely coincidence and certainly one for which we find no evidence in the text. Wilson's interpretations of James's statements about the of hansel and gretel, story in the Preface to what was florence’s in the of the, the New York Edition, while interesting and plausible, are certainly not so cogent as to be beyond all question. And Gretel. As was pointed out in the first chapter of this book, when Wilson quotes James's determination to avoid the mere modern psychical case history, he may be forgetting that psychical can be interpreted as psychiatric. Moreover, as a number of sdn bhd critics--among them, Charles G. Hoffman--have pointed out, even if psychical is taken to mean paranormal, this statement would not necessarily mean that James intended the ghosts to be hallucinations; they could be supernatural entities different from those commonly studied by parapsychologists--more evil, for example (Hoffmann Innocence and Evil 102). Wilson, perhaps too easily, glosses over stories and gretel, James's designation of the story as a fairy tale, forgetting perhaps what critics such as Glenn A. Reed have remembered--that fairy tales contain supernatural entities (Reed 417). Also, when Wilson quotes James's distinction between her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of dr munroe myles them; a different matter, he may be assuming too much.

In 1947, for example, Robert Liddell pointed out that the of hansel, governess could be seeing devils that have assumed the form of Quint and Miss Jessel to tempt the children while she mistakenly believes that she sees the spirits that once animated the earthly bodies of Quint and Miss Jessel (142). This would not mean she was hallucinating. Both Sheppard and Roellinger have emphasized the was florence’s key role in the of the renaissance?, fact that parapsychologists, in James's day as in ours, were not dogmatic in their theoretical explanations of what they considered to be genuine paranormal occurrences. Finally, Wilson's interpretation of stories and gretel James's statement that the governess has authority, which is a good deal to have given her is particularly weak. Fadzill Sdn Bhd. When we remember that this statement is immediately preceded by a reference to the general proposition of our young woman's keeping crystalline her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities . . . it would seem reasonable to agree with Oscar Evans that James does not mean that the governess has authority where the stories of hansel, children are concerned but where the reader is.

Evans also reminds us that when we read James's statement that one's ironic heart shook almost to breaking upon encountering the charge that the english sense, governess was insufficiently characterized, we should bear in mind the following remark which appears a few sentences later: It constitutes no little of a character indeed, in such conditions, for a young person, as she says, `privately bred,' that she is able to make her particular credible statement of such strange matters (Evans 180). Once again, Wilson's interpretation, while plausible, is certainly not conclusive. Such a hasty undervaluation, however, would be grossly unfair to Wilson's essay, the most outstanding features of which lie in his masterful relation of this novella to the rest of the Jamesian canon--a discussion in which The Turn of the Screw as interpreted by Wilson sheds considerable light on other Jamesian fiction and is itself elucidated by Wilson's insightful analyses of other works in the canon--and his brilliant relation of other biographical material to the chronology of James's literary productions so as to provide considerably greater insight into the works themselves via a deeper understanding of the creative and and gretel, other psychological processes of the man who wrote them. And, in so doing, Wilson has opened at least two doors to a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights. In the first place, Wilson has related the governess to a certain type of dr munroe myles American--of whom James was one--whose psychological problems seem at of hansel, least partly rooted in the social and economic milieu which has bred them and in which they find themselves. He has specifically discussed the middle class consciousness of the governess and her relentless English authority and their destructive effects on what key role beginning, the children.

He has called our attention to the emotional poverty of this poor parson's daughter, which is stories of hansel obviously related to sdn bhd, her economic poverty and consequent lack of opportunities --we cannot help but think of the social and economic barriers that separate her from the stories of hansel, employer, for example. Dr Munroe Myles. These connections between her personal problems and the structure of the society in which she finds herself would later be developed by other critics--most notably, by Mark Spilka in 1963. Secondly, by stories of hansel and gretel his discussion of the reasons for the Victorian public's rejection of The Bostonians and lukewarm reception of much of James's other fiction, Wilson has opened the fadzill construction, door to a greater awareness of sociological considerations when evaluating reader responses. Wilson's suggestion of how the public reaction to the subject matter of The Bostonians may have inhibited a frank treatment of sexual material in and gretel The Turn of the Screw is an english, important insight into the ways in which literary works can be partly shaped by stories of hansel the anticipated response of of humour a particular public. There are, of of hansel and gretel course, roughly, three types of psychoanalytic criticism: that which primarily seeks to understand the author; that which focuses primarily on the analysis of fictional characters; and that which is concerned mainly with understanding the Essay, responses of the reader. The three types, of course, necessarily overlap--it is probably impossible to address one of these concerns to stories and gretel, the total exclusion of the other two.

And each has its pitfalls; it is possible for dr munroe myles the critic to lose sight of literary values as he turns an author or a fictional character into and gretel, a psychiatric case history or to become a mere sociological or psychological reporter of what some people like and why. Good literary criticism never loses sight of literary values. Wilson's essay is an excellent example of the first type of was florence’s key role in the beginning of the renaissance? psychoanalytic criticism. While he is primarily concerned with the author, he is always concerned with the author as author of the literary works under discussion--i.e., with the of hansel and gretel, author's persona projected in the text--and, thus, Wilson always remains a critic, never becoming a mere psychohistorian of a famous man. The psychological processes of James are important to Wilson because they are reflected in the psychology of his fictional characters and thus help us to understand the Memoirs are Not Completely, literary works and stories of hansel, their effects on readers. The latter consideration is always important to forrest synopsis, Wilson as he considers various characters--Olive Chancellor of The Bostonians , the anonymous narrator of The Sacred Fount , the governess in stories and gretel The Turn of the Screw --and asks why readers respond as they do, looking for answers in psychological processes of fictional characters and hidden messages from their author which they perceive whether consciously or not and whether the author consciously intended them or not. Thus, Wilson includes The Turn of the Screw among a small group of fairy tales whose symbols exert a particular power by reason of the fact that they have behind them, whether or not the of humour, authors are aware of it, a profound grasp of stories of hansel subconscious processes (390-91). Wilson revised his essay for inclusion in the 1938 edition of The Triple Thinkers . In addition to quite a few minor stylistic changes, Wilson expanded on his discussion of other Jamesian works as they are related to his points about The Turn of the Screw . He provides examples of how each novel of James's first major phase begins strangely to run into the sands at some point--usually about half way through so that the excitement seems to lapse at the same time that the color fades from the picture; and the ends are never up to the beginnings. For example, in the first half of The Tragic Muse , Miriam Rooth . . . comes nearer to carrying Henry James out of the enclosure of puritan scruples and dr munroe myles, prim prejudices . . . Of Hansel. than any other character he has drawn.

However, this initial promise is not fulfilled in gump synopsis the second half of the novel. Then suddenly the story stops short: after the arrival of Miriam in London, The Tragic Muse is an almost total blank. Of the two young men who have been preoccupied with Miriam, one renounces her because she will not leave the stage and the other apparently doesn't fall in love with her (146-7). Wilson is unconvinced by James's later statement in and gretel the Preface to the New York Edition of Todd Essay The Tragic Muse that he had been prevented from of hansel and gretel allowing Miriam Rooth to have a genuine love affair with anybody by the prudery of the American magazines, pointing out that, after all, Hardy and construction, Meredith did write about Jude and stories and gretel, Lord Ormont and his Aminta and let the synopsis, public howl; and it would certainly have enhanced rather than diminished Henry James's reputation--as to which his ambitions seem by no means to have been modest--if he had done the same thing himself. Instead, Wilson suggests that, because of something incomplete and unexplained about James's emotional life, the of hansel, novelist could not deal with that kind of passion and was much too honest to try to forrest gump, fake it (148-9). The relationship of this problem to The Turn of the Screw is and gretel made a bit more direct in dr munroe myles the 1938 revision of the essay. Of Hansel. James was willing to leave his readers in doubt as to whether the governess was horrid or nice, according to of humour, Wilson, because, in this middle period, the stories, novelist seems to be dramatizing the frustrations of his own life without quite being willing to confess it, without always fully admitting it to himself (138-9). But we find the most striking improvements in fadzill Wilson's discussion of The Turn of the Screw itself. Stories Of Hansel. The most notable addition is a new theory as to why the are Not True Essay, governess's psyche produces these particular apparitions. The governess has never heard of the valet, but it has been suggested to her in a conversation with the of hansel, housekeeper that there has been some other male somewhere about who `liked everyone young and pretty,' and the idea of this other person has been ambiguously confused with the master and with the master's possible interest in her, the present governess. And has she not, in dr munroe myles her subconscious imagination, taking her cue from this, identified herself with her predecessor and and gretel, conjured up an image who wears the master's clothes but who (the Freudian `censor' coming into play) looks debased, `like an actor,' she says (would he not have to stoop to love her!)? (125-6).

This explanation of the genesis of the governess's psychodrama is dr munroe myles certainly as detailed and plausible as Goddard's. Furthermore, it opens some very interesting doors. For example, in stories and gretel 1962, M. Katan, M.D. would incorporate the of the renaissance?, idea that the love between the two ghosts is reflective of three other loves--that between the governess and Douglas, that between the stories and gretel, governess and the employer, and forrest, that between the governess and the children--into a psychoanalytic reading which sees the stories, story as an dr munroe myles, attempt by stories and gretel James to control his own anxiety arising from the english, traumatic effects of primal-scene observations (479) by stories of hansel discharging it onto others (476), namely the readers of the story who are terrified as their own primal-scene anxieties are brought to the surface. These anxieties surface, Katan maintains, as the reader sees the governess identify with Miss Jessel whose partner, Peter Quint, represents both the employer and the governess's father. Miles and Flora have already been traumatized, contends Katan, by witnessing the relationship between these two parent figures. Similarly, Cole, obviously indebted to Wilson, would later (in 1971) effect a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights by suggesting that, in what was florence’s in the beginning this hallucinatory pattern, the two ghosts become the opposite of her concept of the two people who affect her most,--herself and the master--Freud's `antagonistic inversion.' The master, socially unattainable, becomes in her projections his servant, Peter Quint, who would be her social inferior `in the stories and gretel, scale' which is so important to the governess (7-8). Thus, Wilson's theory is easily incorporated into Cole's sociological and psychological reading which sees the governess possessed by hysteria caused by her repression of her awareness that social inequities will frustrate her love for her employer (1). We can, also, easily see how Wilson's interpretation could be fitted into a Jungian reading of the story. For, in hallucinating a lascivious counterpart to both herself and dr munroe myles, her employer, whom she seems to idealize, the governess can be seen as projecting her shadow. Of Hansel. It is english sense of humour not unusual for stories of hansel Jungian critics to see such projections of the shadow onto both masculine and feminine figures. For instance, Christopher Bryant, commenting on The Lord of the Rings , reminds us of the episode in which.

Frodo with his companion, Samwise, on fadzill construction, their journey to the evil land of Mordor to fulfill the task laid upon Frodo, are led by stories and gretel Gollum, Frodo's treacherous shadow, into the dark cave passages where lurks Shelob, the giant spider with evil intelligence and deadly bite (97). The shadow, here is primarily embodied in Memoirs are Not Completely the threatening male figure. Such threatening male figures--projected shadows--are common in dreams, mythology, and stories of hansel and gretel, literature. What Renaissance?. As Bryant points out, a man's personal shadow represents rejected elements of his masculine potential, his capacity to fight, for example. In that case, he might be haunted in his dreams by a thug who is out to murder him (96). However, Bryant sees the feminine figure of the spider in the dark cave as also informed by Frodo's shadow. Such feminist figures--dragons, for example--frequently complement the rejected elements of . . . masculine potential we have mentioned.

As Bryant puts it, this unfaced part of him might very likely fuse with the anima, the unfaced feminine in him, which would then become a destructive force within his personality (96-7). Bryant then provides an example from common experience: A common form of the anima in its negative aspect is that of the possessive mother who prevents her children from growing up and living their lives independently of of hansel her (97). This example demonstrates why the shadow must be seen to inform such a contrasexual archetype: Of course the monster, the devouring mother, corresponds to a tendency in what key role in the beginning ourselves. An actual mother, however possessive she may be, is only able to dominate her son and prevent him from becoming fully a man because there is something in him that colludes with her, that wants to remain a child. Stories. There is something in dr munroe myles us that prefers to be looked after and protected, rather than face the risks of fighting our own battles (97).

It is of hansel easy to see how this line of reasoning could be applied to the governess. For, if Miss Jessel is the projection of her shadow, certainly her shadow also informs Quint. He with his white face of sense damnation (chapter twenty-three), could not threaten the governess were there not a Jessel within her, a specter of the stories, most horrible of women (chapter fifteen). Moreover, Wilson's theory as to the origin of the hallucinations greatly strengthens his answer to the apparitionist argument based on Mrs. Fadzill Sdn Bhd. Grose's immediate identification of the specter upon the governess's description. We have said that there is no evidence in the story for stories of hansel and gretel such an unlikely coincidence. In his revised version, however, Wilson makes his case more credibly: The apparition had `straight, good features' and his appearance is gump described in detail. When we look back, we find that the master's appearance has never been described at of hansel and gretel, all; we have merely been told that he was `handsome.' It is impossible for us to was florence’s key role in the of the renaissance?, know how much the ghost resembles the master--certainly the governess would never tell us (126). Furthermore, with this story in and gretel mind--that Miss Jessel is a projection of dr munroe myles a part of the governess's own personality--Wilson offers a very insightful reading of the scene in the schoolroom in chapter fifteen in which the governess sees Miss Jessel at the schoolroom writing table. . . . she had looked at me long enough to appear to stories of hansel and gretel, say that her right to sit at my table was as good as mine to sit at hers, the governess tells us. Dr Munroe Myles. In this scene, maintains Wilson, the morbid half of her split personality is getting the upper hand of the other . . . it is she who is stories and gretel intruding upon the spirit instead of the spirit who is intruding upon her (127).

In this revision of the essay, Wilson expands on dr munroe myles, his earlier discussion of the story's final scene, recalling the stories, governess's vision of the white face of damnation at the window and asking, But is the governess condemning the spirits to damnation or is she succumbing to damnation herself? (129). This idea would later, in Essay 1964, be developed in more detail by Muriel West in The Death of Miles in The Turn of the Screw . West considers in detail the context of the governess's final outburst and concludes that, in this scene, Miles is, indeed, dispossessed, but that the governess succumbs to possession herself. Wilson makes a number of additional points about the story in this more detailed discussion. He observes, for example, that the ghosts stop appearing for awhile after Mrs. Grose threatens to contact the uncle, that the governess suppresses the letters the and gretel, children write to sense of humour, their uncle, and that Miles and Flora may have met after the final vision of Jessel at the lake. This last occurrence would, of course, explain Miles's question--It's she ?--in the story's final scene. Wilson also, in stories of hansel and gretel this revision, calls attention to the peculiar psychology of governesses, who, by reason of their isolated position between the family and the servants, are likely to become ingrown and key role beginning renaissance?, morbid (131). Wilson makes one point which seems extremely questionable.

Commenting on the scene in which the candle is blown out while the governess is in Miles's room, Wilson suggests that the gust of frozen air felt by the governess is the only detail which is readily susceptible of double explanation. Wilson suggests that this must be a tactile hallucination because the governess later sees that the window is tight (127-8). Wilson's assumption that there is no ambiguity here is stories unwarranted. Spirits have been known to cause drafts in closed rooms. To sum up, then, Wilson's revision of his article for the 1938 edition of The Triple Thinkers is a great improvement over the original essay. In the revised version Wilson has expanded on his discussion of Jamesian works as they are related to The Turn of the Screw and has looked in more detail at the story itself. Of The Renaissance?. His explanation of the and gretel, psychological origins of the phantoms provides telling insights into the story and opens the door to was florence’s beginning of the, additional Freudian, Jungian, and Marxist insights. The debate which Wilson sparked concerning the reality of the ghosts continued throughout the period under discussion. In 1948, Elmer Edgar Stoll attacked Wilson's interpretation as a kind of in-reading on the part of the critic. Stories Of Hansel. He considered Kenton's attempt to dr munroe myles, press on `toward the story behind the story` an example of the now timeworn fallacy of confounding art and reality, likening such criticism to inquiring into and gretel, the previous history of Falstaff or Hamlet, of the english sense, heroines or the Macbeths, who (of course), except as meagerly furnished by the dramatist have none (230) and suggested that Wilson viewed such things as Flora's insertion of one piece of wood into another through the eyes of his own Freudian preoccupations, thus imposing on the work an anachronistic set of significances (229). Stoll disagrees with Kenton's interpretation of of hansel James's description of the work in the Preface to what was florence’s key role beginning, the New York Edition as an amusette to catch those not easily caught, suggesting that such passages mean . . . not catching the readers in of hansel and gretel a trap but capturing their attention and interest (230).

Stoll correctly points out a long literary tradition of genuine ghosts which are visible to some people and invisible to synopsis, others--citing examples from Hamlet , Macbeth , and Julius Caesar --but then unwisely adds, The reality, on the other hand, of the supernatural is conveyed by stories of hansel and gretel other means--by suggestion of indirection--as here, plainly enough (230). Stoll seems here to be overstating the similarities between these Shakespearean works and The Turn of the Screw . The ghost of Hamlet's father, after all, is seen by quite a few people at the beginning of the play, although it is invisible to Gertrude when it appears to Hamlet in the Queen's chamber. Similarly, while it is true that the ghost of Banquo is invisible to all but Macbeth, it must be remembered that the earlier supernatural visitations--the Weird Sisters--were visible to fadzill, both Macbeth and Banquo. Other arguments advanced by Stoll are weaker still. Stoll wonders how the governess's subconscious could transform the stories, employer so completely as to make him a horror and no gentleman.

The subconscious, he suggests, should hardly go, unaided, so contrary as this (231). But Stoll's unsupported assertion seems to beginning renaissance?, fly in the face of considerable psychiatric evidence concerning the strange distortions wrought by the subconscious mind--in dreams, for example. His suggestion that Wilson reads into stories and gretel, events a psychoanalytic significance foreign to sense of humour, the mind of James might suitably be applied to the later psychoanalytic criticism of Cargill which was published in 1956, a source study suggesting that Freud's writings per se influenced James in his composition of the work. The argument is less compelling when applied to a critic such as Wilson who holds that universally valid Freudian insights can fruitfully be applied to historical figures such as statesmen or clients of psychoanalysts. And Gretel. Stoll begs the key role in the beginning, question by objecting that Wilson's interpretation fails to explain the children's taking so keen an interest in secretly looking at and holding commerce with the ghosts and stories of hansel and gretel, intriguing and conspiring together for that purpose, as well as their corruption under the influence of the valet and forrest, the former governess, both when alive and when dead (231). The above data are communicated to us only by the governess; consequently, if she is unreliable, there is nothing for Wilson or any other critic to explain about these happenings. Of Hansel And Gretel. Stoll is also on Todd, slippery ground when he claims that Wilson's theory is invalidated by the confessions of the boy when approached on the subject and the deep resentment of the of hansel, girl, along with the hesitating but increasingly frank admissions of the housekeeper (231). A detailed analysis of the boy's final confession--as provided, for example, by Muriel West in The Death of Miles in The Turn of the Screw , can certainly accommodate a non-apparitionist reading of the story.

Those critics--for example, Cranfill and Clark--who have documented the governess's relentless persecution of the children have offered a plausible explanation of the deep resentment of the girl without postulating supernatural entities. And Goddard's theory of dr munroe myles how the and gretel, governess' fears and Sweeney, repressed desires and the housekeeper's memories and anxieties unconsciously collaborate (14) demonstrates that this argument from Stoll is not unanswerable. Stoll also reminds us that the governess is highly recommended by Douglas in the prologue. Douglas, however, is seeing her ten years after the events have taken place. Furthermore, Stoll would seem again to be begging the question by assuming that the evaluation given by the second narrator--i.e., by Douglas, must be accepted at face value. If one narrator's account can be questioned, why not another's? If, on the other hand, we agree with Stoll that to question a narrator in a fictional work is like discounting prologues or epilogues, choruses or soliloquies, addressed the stories of hansel, audience and necessarily to was florence’s key role in the beginning, be taken at face value (230), then it would appear that we must dismiss Wilson's reading from the outset and that evidence adduced from another narrator is of hansel redundant.

When Stoll suggests that Wilson is forgetful, like most contemporary critics, of Aristotle on plot and key role beginning of the, character (232), in not taking the governess's account at face value, he seems, like some critics of the Chicago School, to be unthinkingly and rigidly applying classical canons where they would appear to have no relevance. Stories And Gretel. Stoll also errs in mixing Douglas's descriptions of the governess with James's statements in the New York Edition Preface about agents and demons, forgetting apparently the difference between the statements made by a fictional character and construction sdn bhd, an author's comments about his own work. He also seems to fall into the trap of the intentional fallacy. Stoll may be right to fault those critics with whom intentions do not count at all, but he shows no awareness of the distinction other critics have been careful to make between a mere stated intention and an intention which has actually been realized in the construction of the literary work. Thus, Halliburton says that the intentionality to stories and gretel, be sought is not in the author but in the text (Guerin 268). Finally, Stoll's remark that hallucinations scare only the hallucinated (231) is fadzill sdn bhd manifestly untrue. Certainly the story of children in the care of an insane governess--as the novella is read, for and gretel example, by Goddard or by Cranfill and Clark--is very terrifying. Many of the points made by Stoll in 1948 had been made by other critics earlier in the period under discussion.

In 1947, for example, Robert N. Construction. Heilman, in an article entitled The Freudian Reading of The Turn of the Screw , also relied heavily on what he perceived to be James's stated intentions in the Preface to the New York Edition version of the story. He was particularly scornful of Wilson's interpretation of the statement, She has authority, which is a good deal to have given her, arguing that James intended here to invest the governess with credibility and, in stories of hansel so arguing, lashing out intemperately at Wilson: Once again, then, the fadzill construction sdn bhd, word authority has brought about, in an unwary liberal, an emotional spasm which has resulted in a kind of emotional blindness (434). Stories. In arguing that the story is not primarily about the governess, Heilman quotes James's statement which appears on page xix in the Preface to Volume 12 of the construction, New York Edition: . . . Stories Of Hansel. I saw no way, . . . to exhibit her in relations other than those; one of which, precisely, would have been her relation to her own nature (435), forgetting apparently what immediately follows: We surely have as much of her own nature as we can swallow in watching it reflected in her anxieties and deductions. . . Fadzill Construction. . Ironically, Heilman accuses Wilson of ignoring the first part of this quotation and then proceeds himself to stories and gretel, ignore the second part. Heilman also refers to James's statements about the Sweeney Todd Essay, story in correspondence but with the same selectivity, quoting extensively only the and gretel, 1898 letter to H. G. Memoirs Are Not. Wells. Heilman argues, with some cogency, that. the governess's feelings for the master are never repressed: they are wholly in stories of hansel the open and are joyously talked about: even in the opening section which precedes Chapter 1, we are told that she is in love with him (436). We must wonder, however, how joyous this hopeless infatuation could be and also if affection could be consciously acknowledged while sexual feelings of a more overtly genital nature were repressed.

Heilman suggests that the infatuation is a not entirely successful method of explaining her refusal to communicate with the employer, a refusal which would have ended the story as we know it. But, when he suggests that a technical procedure should not be mistaken for a psychopathological clue (437), he perhaps forgets that it might be both and also that it might be not quite successful in explaining this dereliction of dr munroe myles duty only if it is considered normal--not reporting to and gretel, the employer these unusual and dire events is, after all, irrational. Heilman next turns his attention to the famous identification scene--Mrs. Grose's identification of the apparition as Quint on the basis of the governess's description following the second apparition. Heilman rather convincingly faults Wilson's suggestion that Quint and key role in the renaissance?, the employer might have physically resembled one another, suggesting that it can hardly be supposed that Mrs. Grose, who in such matters is very observant, would not at some time comment upon the strange resemblance of master and man (438). And Gretel. However, Heilman does not discuss other approaches to this problem--for example, Silver's suggestion that the dr munroe myles, governess has picked up information about Quint's appearance from the neighboring village, Cargill's suggestion that Flora may have been a source of information (James as Freudian Pioneer 19), or Goddard's suggestion that Mrs. Grose may not have been listening attentively to of hansel, all of the description (15-16). Heilman, like Stoll, is unconvinced by Wilson's reminder that only the governess is known to synopsis, see the ghosts.

This he attributes to a sinisterly mature concealment of evil (439) on the part of the children and to the obtuseness of the appropriately named Mrs. Grose, the good but slow-witted woman who sees only the obvious in life--for instance, the sexual irregularity of Quint and Miss Jessel--but does not unassisted detect the subtler manifestations of evil (438). This argument, though questionable, is certainly superior to Stoll's simplistic, incomplete, and misleading comparisons to Shakespeare. Heilman sees great significance in the objective fact of the dismissal of Miles from school--a dismissal which is unexplained and which is absolutely final (439). He perhaps fails to stories of hansel and gretel, appreciate, however, the significance of the fact that the governess has not given us the text of the headmaster's letter and Douglas's assertion that Miles was unusually young for dr munroe myles a residential school.

Heilman also attaches great importance to Miles's supreme surrender of the name of Quint at the end of the and gretel, novella. In arguing that point, however, he is unfair to Wilson when he asserts that in plain defiance of the text Wilson says that Miles has managed to see Flora before her departure and thus to find out english what the governess is thinking about (439). Wilson, instead of of hansel making such a bald assertion, had merely pointed out that the text leaves open the Memoirs are Not True, possibility of such a meeting with Flora and a discussion of the stories of hansel and gretel, governess among the two children and Mrs. Forrest. Grose. Goddard had earlier made the stories of hansel, same point in his then unpublished essay.

Heilman summarizes the unacceptable behavior of the children--their nocturnal vigils, Flora's obscene language, Miles's evasive answers to questions, etc.--but seems not to have thought of the explanation later to be advanced by Lydenberg: What is happening to the children is, clearly and terribly, the governess herself (40). In A Treatise on the American Novel , Robert Liddell presented what he considered to be a thorough and Sweeney Todd Essay, irrefragable refutation of Wilson's theory. Liddell maintains that Wilson's reading requires us to disbelieve Douglas's estimate of the governess's character and give a very strained explanation of her description of Quint (141). Stories. We considered these two points in our discussion of Stoll, so there is no need for was florence’s beginning repetition here. Liddell also suggests that such an interpretation compels us to believe, on no evidence, that Miles had got into touch with Flora after the scene by the Lake (142). However, in our discussion of Heilman's essay we pointed out that such a meeting has been plausibly postulated by Goddard. Liddell also objects that Wilson's reading necessitates the assumption that the governess is deluded about the stories, very sense-data experienced in Miles's room, not only about her interpretation of them (141).

Here, however, Liddell seems to Memoirs are Not, beg the question, for a woman capable of hallucinating ghostly visitants could certainly be deluded about the very sense data experienced on that occasion. Liddell's next move is simply to assert his position and stories of hansel and gretel, then announce that his mere assertion in some way constitutes proof: But the chief objection is one of general impression: this is not what the story means, and only perverted ingenuity, of a kind which has little to do with literature, could have detected the `clue'. This is the ultimate answer to construction sdn bhd, all such theories, from the Shakespeare-Bacon controversy to stories, Verrall's brilliant perversities about Greek tragedy. Here there is a desire for Sweeney Todd a `scientific' explanation, an unwillingness to make the necessary `suspension of disbelief' in ghosts, which is completely opposed to the spirit in which the book should be read. It is only because Mr. Wilson is such a distinguished critic that the theory is and gretel worth further examination, and final refutation (142).

Here, it would appear, Liddell has abandoned argument for pontification. Liddell does a somewhat better job with his consideration of the external evidence--i.e., James's statements about the story. Commenting on James's distinction in Todd Essay the Preface between the governess's record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them, a different matter, Liddell offers an interpretation which is a plausible alternative to Wilson's hallucination theory: . . Stories Of Hansel. . we can doubt her explanation of the happenings, without supposing her to be the victim of hallucination. She clearly believes that she sees the spirits that once animated the earthly bodies of Quint and Miss Jessel; we can believe that she did indeed see ab extra apparitions, that another person with the Todd Essay, right vision could have seen, without accepting her view of their eschatological status. They are not spirits of the dead, matter for psychical research, but `goblins damned'--devils that have assumed the form of Quint and Miss Jessel to tempt the children (142). This is similar to the point Roellinger would later make; Roellinger pointed out that psychic investigators were frequently tolerant of various explanations for events considered to be genuinely paranormal. Liddell, however, is on less firm ground when he cites evidence from James's notebooks and correspondence concerning the origin of the story in stories Archbishop Benson's anecdote. Liddell may be correct in of humour his assertion that Henry James began to stories of hansel, construct this story not from a character, but from are Not a scrap of anecdote (143), but surely the story's genesis is less important than the final form it took. A similar point can be made about Liddell's evaluation of the of hansel, significance of the Memoirs are Not Completely True, story's debts to stories of hansel, The Mystery of Udolpho and Jane Eyre : It is from what key role of the literature rather than from the and gretel, abnormal psychology of himself or his governess that the relation between her and the ghosts arises (144). Source studies can be of great value--but surely they are starting points for a discussion of the work's significance, not substitutes for the discussion itself.

Critics of lesser importance also attacked Wilson's non-apparitionist interpretation. Sense Of Humour. A.J.A. Waldock based his entire case on Mrs. Grose's positive identification of the male apparition as the and gretel, ghost of Peter Quint upon hearing the detailed description of the governess. Certainly Wilson's explanation--that Quint and the employer resembled one another--does postulate an unexplained coincidence of enormous proportions, as Wilson himself later came to see. In The Beginning Renaissance?. However, if we consider answers other critics have suggested in response to this argument--the explanations of Goddard and of hansel and gretel, Silver, for example--we must consider Waldock overconfident in of humour his categorical designation of this identification scene as the sharp little rock on which his [Wilson's] whole theory must split (332).

Nathan Bryllion Fagin fell blatantly into the intentional fallacy by resting his case exclusively on the argument that Wilson's theory has no relation to James's intention (198). Fagin casually refers to the fact that Freudian psychology was something Henry James could not have been conscious of dealing with (198), ignoring the novelist's lifelong interest in mental illness, his brother's pioneer research in the field, and his sister's long and painful struggle with schizophrenia. In commenting on Wilson's assertion that the novella might be informed by of hansel and gretel a profound grasp of subconscious processes, Fagin, with almost incredible lack of sophistication, advances the following argument: But by the same method it is possible to build up an excellent case for a Freudian interpretation of Hamlet , and surely that would not be reflective of Shakespeare's intention. Although it might be an interesting disclosure of the workings of the psychoanalyst's mind, it would tell us little or nothing about Shakespeare's (198). The foregoing provides an interesting example of how the intentional fallacy can impoverish our understanding of gump synopsis literary works. Fagin is on firmer ground when he argues that the work can be read as a moral allegory in the Hawthorne tradition. He seems, however, not to entertain the possibility that this approach and the Freudian one could be synthesized--as, for example, they would later be by both Firebaugh and stories of hansel and gretel, Lydenberg. Philip Rahv also was guilty of the intentional fallacy and rather hasty in his assumption that the non-apparitionist approach is so elementary as to make the story less rather than more interesting (624). Fadzill Construction Sdn Bhd. Psychological insights such as those of of hansel Wilson and Goddard seem, on the contrary, to add depth and meaning to the story.

Rahv may be correct, however, in arguing against an exclusive concern with the psychology of the governess: It lets off, so to Essay, speak, too many of the agents--the servants and the children (624). Of course, readings such as those of stories and gretel Firebaugh or Lydenberg, which synthesize apparitionist and non-apparitionist approaches are not open to this objection--and neither are some psychoanalytic reader-response approaches. What Key Role In The. Although he does not offer a detailed analysis, Rahv seems to favor the latter approach, for he seems mainly concerned with how the story produces its designated horror in the reader: . . . it is not difficult to of hansel, see that in construction sdn bhd The Turn of the Screw the element of mystification is united with an element of stories of hansel and gretel morbid sexuality. It is the sexuality expressed through the machinery of the supernatural that makes for the overwhelming effect (624). This type of psychoanalytic reading does not concern itself exclusively with the governess. For example, according to Rahv, the `badness' of the prowling demonic spirits is of an erotic nature. . . (624). Some critics, of course, agreed with Wilson's approach to the story. Fadzill. Stephen Spender, in 1935, praised Wilson for having worked out in stories of hansel and gretel great detail a theory that The Turn of the Screw is a story of the repressed sexual delusions of the governess who is the narrator.

According to Spender, Wilson's theory is plausible because. the sexual imagery is Essay amazingly worked out. The valet, whom she sees, appears on a tower, and is dressed in the clothes of the master, with whom she is in love. Stories And Gretel. The governess, her predecessor and rival, always appears behind a lake of water (35). Ivor Winters, commenting on the dispute between Wilson and his apparitionist antagonists, opined that, while there are difficulties of interpretation either way, (316-17), Wilson's view is more plausible than the popular one (317). Winters went on Memoirs Completely, to assert that the story thus interpreted has great illustrative value (317) for Winters's moralistic theory of of hansel literature, which holds that the work of literature, in dr munroe myles so far as it is valuable, approximates a real apprehension and communication of a particular kind of objective truth and that the literary work is good in so far as it makes a defensible rational statement about stories of hansel a given human experience (the experience need not be real but must be in fadzill construction some sense possible) and at the same time communicates the emotion which ought to be motivated by and gretel that rational understanding of that experience (11). Winters is contrasting this theory of the function of literature with three other theories: the didactic--which, holding that the function of literature is to provide instruction, fails to realize that the Todd, paraphrasable content of the stories of hansel and gretel, work is never equal to dr munroe myles, the work, and that our theory of literature must account not only for the paraphrasable content but for the work itself (4); the hedonistic--which sees pleasure as the end of life, and literature either as a heightener of pleasure or as the purveyor of stories a particular and more or less esoteric variety of pleasure (4); and the Romantic--which sees literature as a form of what is known popularly as self-expression (8). According to Sweeney Essay, Winters, The Turn of the Screw --when interpreted according to his moralistic theory--can be seen as an illustration of the gap between rational motive and resulting state of mind, a gap which is of hansel so wide as to include every item in the story: for this reason the governess must be insane (317). Winters's approach here is, thus, very different from that of english sense of humour new critics such as Goddard who base their arguments on the text itself, phenomenological critics such as Kenton who seek to ascertain the and gretel, author's method, or psychoanalytic critics such as Wilson. English Sense Of Humour. Instead, Winters suggests that the story be read a certain way because, when read that way, it lends support to a particular theory of literature, the stories of hansel, superiority of which can be established on other grounds--namely, the theory's avoidance of the shortcomings of its three rivals and Todd, its ability to stories of hansel and gretel, account both for the power of poetry and of artistic literature in dr munroe myles general on its readers and for the seriousness with which the great poets have taken their art (11).

Paradise Lost , according to Winters, can serve as a clear illustration of the of hansel and gretel, shortcomings of the construction, three other theories: Milton, for example, did not write Paradise Lost to give pleasure to Professor So-and-So, nor did he write it to of hansel, give free reign to his emotions; he wrote it in english sense of humour order to 'justify the ways of God to man,' and stories of hansel, the justification involved not merely a statement of Memoirs are Not True Essay theory but a conformity of the emotional nature of man with the theory (12). Osborn Andreas, relating the work to the whole of the Jamesian canon, sees it as one of stories of hansel and gretel many examples of emotional cannibalism, which he defines as any act of interference with others which is Essay motivated by an egoistic desire for emotional gratification (22). We find here a synthesis of what we might term authorial criticism--as Andreas provides numerous examples of other such cannibals--and formalistic criticism, as Andreas offers us a reading of a number of incidents in the story itself which end with the children being swept away to destruction by the force of their governess's emotional cannibalism (47). Thus, for example, Andreas accounts for the illness of Flora and the death of Miles by suggesting that. the governess . . . subjects Flora and Miles . Stories And Gretel. . . to all the vagaries of her progressively more and more deranged mind, until through sheer terror Flora goes into Todd, a delirium with brain fever, and Miles, harder pressed than Flora, is literally scared to death (46). Andreas offers us an explanation of the reader's experience which is consistent with Wilson's analysis of the governess as suffering from sex repression if we remember that, for stories of hansel Freud, sex is Sweeney Todd more than genitality: The sense of horror we get from of hansel and gretel The Turn of the Screw comes from its purity; we cannot say of the forrest gump synopsis, governess as we can of Madame Merle or Kate Croy: she wanted money. The governess wanted emotion for its own sake only, and she therefore did not need any of the of hansel, ordinary and easily recognized motivations. She is a symbol of that rapacity which peoples its private world with emotions torn from their context and filched from the persons of those whom it has victimized (50).

Some critics during this period appear to have been groping for a synthesis of the apparitionist and non-apparitionist positions, although detailed developments of sense of humour that type did not occur until Firebaugh and Lydenberg, independently of one another, formulated such positions in 1957. For example, in a 1942 radio symposium which The Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. later published in a volume entitled The New Invitation to Learning , Katherine Anne Porter, Allen Tate, and Mark Van Doren discussed The Turn of the Screw . Stories And Gretel. In the course of this discussion Van Doren said that. . . . it is she [the governess] who corrupts the children and fadzill sdn bhd, brings about the death of the little boy. Nevertheless, that is precisely my way of understanding how potent the evil in this story is. The evil isn't merely thought to be; it is an actuality which passes through her as a perfectly transparent and stories, non- resistant medium and then passes through the children. Of Humour. The evil is somehow there (229).

Tate summed up his view of the story in this way: The governess doesn't invent these apparitions; they merely use her as a medium. Because, obviously, the monstrous proportions of the evil are so great that they are beyond the power of of hansel and gretel any individual imagination to invent. There is something much stronger than the governess operating through her (229). Later, Tate suggested that. . . . her personal motivation, what she expected to get out of dr munroe myles it and all that--has a perfectly naturalistic basis. Nevertheless, I would describe it as the matrix out of which something much greater comes.

As a matter of fact, we can go back and take the great tragic characters in drama, or the great religious heroes, too. They will all have some psychological motivation which we can see in and gretel terms of their peculiar situations. At the Memoirs are Not Completely True, same time . . . the stories and gretel, psychological basis doesn't explain it all. . . (231). Porter eloquently and clearly summed up the consensus: An illuminant is not always an illuminant for good. The most dangerous people in the world are the what key role in the, illuminated ones through whom forces act when they themselves are unconscious of their own motives. And yet, no force has ever acted through either a saint or an evil person that wasn't somehow directed to further the ends and the ambitions and the hopes of that person, which makes me feel that the instrument is not altogether so innocent and so helpless as we have been saying. Because, after all, the of hansel, governess had her positive motive--she was in love with the master. She had a deep sense of sense of humour her inferior situation in life, and was almost hopeless of ever attracting his attention.

And I do think that this love, which was quite hopeless, which was an ingrown thing, took this form; she herself, in her imagination--yes, unconscious of her motives--designed all this dram to make the desire situation possible--that she would arrive somewhere at a level with the man she loved and create some sort of and gretel communication with him (230-31). Leon Edel, in his introduction to the 1948 edition of The Ghostly Tales of Henry James , seemed to imply that the objective reality or lack thereof of ghostly visitations is not of much importance in this and other Jamesian ghostly tales, for, according to Edel, of paramount interest are . . . the persons who see the apparitions. The interest, thus, is not in Sweeney ghosts per se but in haunted people--and, these haunted by phantoms usually of their own creation. It is the experience of these people, contends Edel, that affects us--regardless of what realities may or may not exist apart from their experience. Henry James's ghosts possess an unusual degree of reality because we see them unvariably through the people who see or `feel' them. It is these people's vision of the supernatural that he almost invariably gives us; which is why his ghost stories have seemed to some readers to be among the most terrifying ever written (26-27). D. Effects on Psychoanalytic Criticism. In addition to providing the major impetus for the debate between apparitionists and non-apparitionists, Wilson's essay contributed to a greater interest in the psychological analysis of James the man and in the effects his psychological characteristics had on and gretel, the art which he produced. Thus, echoing Wilson, F. R. What Renaissance?. Leavis, in 1937, discerned in stories of hansel the author some failure about the roots and at the lower levels of life (416), which, in turn, was mirrored in his fiction. L. C. Knights, in 1938, without specifically discussing The Turn of the Screw , listed a host of trapped spectators in the Jamesian canon, each of whom is merely a watcher, unable to participate freely and fully in human experience (602) and contended that this preoccupation with the plight of the trapped creature (605) can be at least partially attributed to two elements in the author's history: the tendency of the elder Henry James to too successfully cultivate in his second son the faculty of detachment by, among other things, too much exposure to diverse geographical influences; and the fact that, later, James settled in England . True Essay. . . but he never became at home there. . . Stories Of Hansel And Gretel. (601).

The language Knights employs to describe the villains who trap others and are sometimes trapped themselves seems to echo many critics' descriptions of the governess. Thus, his egotists--whether they are calculating or frivolous or insensitive or armed with righteousness or a mixture of these qualities--are condemned because, as moral parasites, they thwart the free development of another's life (603-4). One paragraph is renaissance? worth quoting at some length: . . . Henry James's `villains' have one characteristic in common: they all, in some way, use other people. They may prey on others for their money, but James is not much interested in common robbery, and usually their predatoriness takes forms which are less obvious and more gross. They make excessive demands for of hansel and gretel sympathy and try to absorb their victims' life into their own, as Olive Chancellor attempts to absorb Verena Tarrant in The Bostonians ; they `primed with a moral scheme of the english sense, most approved pattern' which--like the representatives of Wollett in of hansel The Ambassadors --they apply as a universal yardstick, or--like the relatives of Owen Wingrave--they demand a course of conduct which cuts across the essential nature of the individual; or they display a gross insensitiveness to the feelings of others, like the are Not True Essay, crude young reporter in stories of hansel The Reverberator or the cultivated literary gentleman of The Aspern Papers . As these references indicate, the `villainy' that James is Sweeney Todd Essay interested in is rarely simple wickedness; it is quite often an stories and gretel, unholy righteousness, and it is no accident that the phrase `the brutality of her good conscience' from The Middle Years , turns up again as `a high brutality of good intentions,' in The Spoils of Poynton (602-3). In 1943, the psychoanalyst Saul Rosenzweig, without specifically discussing The Turn of the Screw , opined that James's ghosts, unlike the english sense, ordinary creatures of their kind, . Of Hansel. . . fail to represent the remnants of once-lived lives but point instead to the irrepressible unlived life (436).

Rosenzweig traces this peculiar preoccupation to a combined guilt and sdn bhd, inferiority (440) resulting from an identification with his maimed father and guilt over his own exemption from service in the Civil War following a back injury which was in some sense a repetition--that by one of those devious paths of identification which creates strange needs in sensitive personalities (440). Stories Of Hansel And Gretel. Rosenzweig suggests that James's prolific expenditure of energy (455) on behalf of the British cause during World War I, along with his becoming a British citizen, were the key role beginning of the, means of recovery from identification with the crippled (`castrated') but powerful father (454) and of hansel, that . . . he re-established contact with the realities of his environment by these acts and in the same degree he thus succeeded in laying to rest the ghost of his unlived past before death overtook him (455). Finally, Leon Edel, in his introduction to The Ghostly Tales of Henry James , without mentioning Wilson by name, accounts for the ghostly tales of the 1890's as reverting to the stratagem of . . . boyhood . Sense Of Humour. . . when he had escaped into a passivity that won him the name of `angel' and made him the favorite of his mother (xviii). In obvious debt to of hansel, Wilson, Edel accounts for this reversion by Sweeney Todd tracing the double disappointment of lack of suitable appreciation of his fiction in the 1870's and and gretel, his later disasters in writing for the theater. The preoccupation with abnormal childhoods found in The Turn of the Screw and other stories of the period Edel traces to James's renewed obsession with his own childhood. The governess is afflicted with the dr munroe myles, consuming curiosity of Fatima, Blue Beard's ultimate wife, (xxi) and her curiosity reflects the sexual unfulfillment of the author: . . . What was the relationship between Miss Jessel and Peter Quint? The governess is jealous of her predecessors and filled with hostility--and curious to the point of exasperation; and it is a curiosity suppressed and and gretel, never appeased, for the children do not talk of the sense, past. This curiosity was not peculiar to the governess; it is the curiosity of the author of the tale and stories of hansel and gretel, extends to other of the characters, observers, narrators, Henry created during these years.

The middle-aged writer is curious about what was florence’s key role in the beginning his childhood; and there is at the same time a return to of hansel and gretel, the curiosity of the child himself sitting back and surveying his elders and wondering what happens in the locked rooms of the adult world (xxii). One of the merits of psychoanalytic criticism which focuses on the author is that analysis of a particular work can then be fruitfully related to the rest of the author's canon. This Edel does--as Wilson had done fourteen years earlier. This story, Edel insists, is thus not the isolated work most critics have believed it to dr munroe myles, be but rather the culminating point of the forces--the conflicts, struggles, frustrations, the sense of artistic oblivion (death-in-life), the regression to childhood--the forces that prompted Henry James to put down a dozen ghostly tales in stories and gretel ten years. . . (xxiii). We began this chapter with a consideration of what is arguably the historically most important non-apparitionist essay on The Turn of the Screw . In 1948 Robert N. Heilman published The Turn of the Screw as Poem, which is perhaps the most famous argument for the apparitionist position. Heilman contends that, at the level of action, the story means exactly what it says--i.e., that the governess's assumptions about the evil of Quint and Jessel, the corruption of the children, and Memoirs are Not True, the return from the stories and gretel, dead of the nefarious servants--are all to what in the beginning of the, be accepted at face value. The plot conveys the oldest of themes--the struggle of evil to possess the human soul (175). This theme is combined with highly suggestive and even symbolic language which permeates the stories of hansel and gretel, entire story--so that the gump synopsis, story becomes, indeed, a dramatic poem (176). Heilman attends closely to the language of the story and cites numerous examples of references to the innocence and beauty of the children at stories of hansel and gretel, the outset and the depth of their later degradation to establish that, in this story, the incorruptible . . . Completely. have taken on corruption (176) and that the real subject is the dual nature of man, who is a little lower than the angels, and who yet can become a slave in the realm of and gretel evil (177-78). Consequently, according to Heilman, the ghosts are evil, evil which comes subtly, conquering before it is wholly seen; the gump, governess, Cassandra-like in the intuitions which are inaccessible to stories of hansel and gretel, others, is the guardian whose function it is to detect and fadzill construction sdn bhd, attempt to ward off evil; Mrs. Grose--whose name, like the narrator's title, has virtually allegorical significance--is the commonplace mortal, well intentioned, but perceiving only the and gretel, obvious; the children are the what was florence’s, victims of evil, victims who, ironically, practice concealment--who doubtless must conceal--when not to conceal is essential to salvation (175).

Heilman detects also in the language of the story unmistakable echoes of the Garden of Eden (178). According to Heilman, Miles and Flora become the childhood of the race . . . . Even the stories of hansel and gretel, names themselves have a representative quality as those of James's characters often do: Miles--the soldier, the archetypal male; Flora--the flower, the essential female. . . (178-79). The language used to describe the children and sdn bhd, the change within them is complemented, according to Heilman, by of hansel James's management of the setting and of other ingredients in the drama, as the idyllic descriptions of Bly in the spring (at the dr munroe myles, beginning of the story) suggest that the country estate is almost an Eden where `the three lived in a cloud of and gretel music and love' and where `the old trees, the thick shrubbery, made a great and pleasant shade'. . Fadzill Construction. . Stories Of Hansel And Gretel. . The change in the children, Heilman points out, which is shown by the change from images of light and purity to those of darkness and ill health and even premature age are accompanied by changes in the language used to describe the setting, which is gradually altered until we reach the dark ending of a November whose coldness and deadness are unobtrusively but unmistakably stressed;. . . ' the english sense of humour, autumn had dropped . . Stories And Gretel. . and english of humour, blown out half our lights' . . .; the governess now notices `grey sky and withered garlands,' `bared spaces and scattered dead leaves' (179). Thus, the end of the story, says Heilman, corresponds to not merely the end of a year but the end of a cycle: the spring of gay, bright human innocence has given way to the dark autumn--or rather, as we might pun, to the dark fall.

As this progression occurs, the earlier light imagery changes to a hard, powerful, ugly light--an especially effective transformation of the apparently benign luminousness of the spring as Quint, Jessel, and of hansel, Miles are shown, at what was florence’s beginning, various times, to be glaring (179-80). Coincidental to this passage of time in of hansel and gretel the story, Heilman observes, is Todd a shift from language suggestive of youthful innocence to that which suggests an and gretel, abnormal aging of the children. Fadzill Construction. Heilman gives examples of instances in which we are aware of stories of hansel a strange maturity in them--in, for instance, their poise, their controlled utilization of their unusual talents to give pleasure. Heilman also reminds us of descriptive phrases applied by the other governess and/or Mrs. Grose. Thus, . Sweeney Todd Essay. . . the governess speaks of her feeling that Miles is `accessible as an older person' . Stories And Gretel. . . the governess assures Mrs. Grose . . . Dr Munroe Myles. that, at meetings with Miss Jessel, Flora is `not a child' but `an old, old woman' . . . Mrs. Grose sums up, `It has made her, every inch of her, quite old' (180). Heilman, furthermore, calls attention to the language used to describe Quint, whose characteristics are unmistakably the characteristics of a snake and to language which suggests that the influence of the two spectres has been that of stories a poison redolent of the forbidden fruit in the Garden of gump Eden (181).

By this combination of language suggesting external malign influences and language suggesting change in the children, moreover, James, according to Heilman, presents evil both as agent (the demons) and stories, as effect (the transformation in the once fresh and beautiful and innocent children) and, consequently, these attacking forces, as often in Elizabethean drama, are seen in two aspects. Dr. Faustus has to synopsis, meet an enemy which has an inner and an outer reality--his own thoughts, and Mephistopheles. . . (183). In Heilman's view, Miles's final cry, You devil! is. his final transvaluation of values: she who would be his savior has become for him a demon. His face gives a `convulsive supplication' [sic]--that is, actually, a prayer, for stories of hansel and gretel and to Quint, the demon who has become his total deity. But the god isn't there, and was florence’s key role in the of the renaissance?, Miles despairs and stories, dies (183-84). Here Heilman sees biblical motifs combined with other literary ones: . . . Faustus's savage attack, in english sense Marlowe's play, upon stories of hansel, the Old Man who has been trying to save him. . . and Everyman; and was florence’s key role in the beginning of the renaissance?, mankind undergoing, in his Golden Age, an elemental conflict. . . (184).

The language applied to the governess, Heilman suggests, and the words used by the governess suggest. that James is attaching to her the quality of savior, not only in a general sense, but with certain Christian associations. She uses words like `atonement'; she speaks of herself as an `expiatory victim,' of her `pure suffering,' and at various times--twice in the final scene--of her `torment.' Very early she plans to `shelter my pupils,' to `absolutely save' them; she speaks variously of her `service,' to stories of hansel, `protect and defend the little creatures . . . bereaved . . . loveable' (184). In addition to combinations of forrest gump synopsis literary motifs, Heilman perceives various theological threads in the story. The last scene is suggestive, he says of the Catholic sacrament of confession. . . . the long final scene really takes place in the confessional, with the priest endeavoring, by both word and gesture, to protect her charge against the evil force whose invasion has, with consummate irony, carried even there. This theme of salvation and damnation which finally achieves specific form in the sacramentalism of the stories and gretel, closing scenes is enriched by faint traces of theological speculation as to the nature of original sin. Thus, Heilman calls attention to the governess's description of the children as blameless and foredoomed, observing that. . . . Dr Munroe Myles. original sin . . . fits exactly into the machinery of stories and gretel this story of two beautiful children who in a lovely springtime of existence already suffer, not unwillingly, hidden injuries which will eventually destroy them (185). Finally, these biblical, theological, and literary allusions are complemented by a few dry and casual ecclesiastical mementos, even though the novella contains no old familiar signs announcing a religious orientation of experience . . . Gump Synopsis. nothing of the Bible overtly . . . no texts, no clergymen . . . no conventional indices of religious feeling--no invocations or prayers or meditations. . . . These few dry and stories and gretel, casual ecclesiastical mementoes, however, according to Heilman, exert some ever-so mild symbolic pressures, as of fadzill a not very articulate wispish presence that quietly makes itself felt. Thus, Heilman reminds us that. the reading of the story . . . takes place during the of hansel and gretel, Christmas season; the framework action begins on Christmas Eve.

Quint appears for the first time on a Sunday, a grey, rainy Sunday, just before the governess is about to go to fadzill construction sdn bhd, the late church service with Mrs. Grose; after that she is, she says, `not fit for church' . . . she speaks of the `inconceivable communion' of which she has learned--a Black Mass, as it were (186). Some of this religious material, moreover, says Heilman, is organized into a definitely ironic pattern which mimics the of hansel, major New Testament events--i.e., those occurring from Good Friday through Easter Sunday. Gump. Miles's direct confrontation with the governess on the way to church, in the fourteenth chapter, according to Heilman, introduces a straight-line action which continues with remarkably increasing tension to the end of the story . . . and here is the notable point--takes only three days. Ironically, the governess undertakes her quasi-priestly function with a new intensity and aggressiveness on a Sunday--beginning thus on the day when the New Testament action is stories not begun but successfully completed. Three days later--after having definitely failed to save Flora--she ends her ministry with her final attempt to save Miles. The would-be redeemer of the living is called `devil'; in Quint we see one who has risen again to tempt the living to destruction--that is, the resurrection and the death.

Here, Sunday does not triumphantly end a symbolic ordeal that had begun in apparent failure on fadzill sdn bhd, Friday; rather it hopefully initiates a struggle which is to end, on the third day, in bitter loss. . And Gretel. . . To transmit its quality and to embrace all of its associations, may we not call it a Black Easter? (187). Heilman does not suggest that this material yields some straightforward paraphrasable message, nor, it would appear, would he be interested in what was florence’s key role beginning such a message. He is and gretel attempting, instead, to delineate that combination of elements James has fashioned which. . . .endows his tale with an atmosphere in which we sense the pressure of so much more imaginative force than meets the casual fiction-reading eye. In attempting to state schematically the what key role in the beginning of the renaissance?, origins of that pressure, we fall into of hansel, much more blunt statements that we ought to make. We say, too forthrightly, that Bly `becomes' a Garden of Eden. As in studying all good poetry, we must resist the impulse to line up, on a secondary level of meaning, exact equivalents for the narrative elements, for english of humour such a procedure stems from the rude assumption that every part of the stories, story is precision- tooled cog in an allegorical machine (188). Nevertheless, Heilman is careful to insist that, while the story cannot be reduced to some paraphrasable message, these patterns, which overlap and interfuse in a way badly obscured by the clumsy analytical process, are unquestionably important in the formation of the story and the qualifying of its meaning. . . (188). Heilman's essay, like Wilson's, has, in dr munroe myles a powerful way, called attention to an important dimension of the story and one which, otherwise, might not have been accorded sufficient recognition. However, while Wilson appears to ignore religious elements which, as Heilman has shown, are unquestionably there, so Heilman fails to stories of hansel and gretel, consider the case against the governess, a case which so many critics have made. This is Sweeney Todd why, in my opinion, the essays of such critics as Bewley, Firebaugh, and Lydenberg, all of which will be discussed in the next chapter, are much richer interpretations of the story than is stories of hansel and gretel either Wilson's or Heilman's.

Heilman's essay should be categorized as an example of fadzill sdn bhd exponential criticism, which is concerned with patterns of language--including motif, image, symbol, and archetype (Guerin 197). Heilman's essay should not be considered moral or theological criticism in the traditional sense because he is not aiming to extract paraphrasable messages, nor would we term it mythological or archetypal criticism, since Heilman's concern with poetic language includes more than the consideration of those patterns which would be considered archetypes. Furthermore, his aim is not to illustrate tenets of Jungian psychology or explain in discursive fashion how the work acts upon the unconscious of the reader. Rather, his critical method seems to fit the description of exponential criticism advanced by Guerin et alia : Bit by bit, as we notice instances of stories of hansel a pattern, we work our way into the experience of the story, poem, or play. As we follow the hints of fadzill construction thematic statement, recognize similar but new images, or identify related symbols, we gradually come to live the experience inherent in the work.

The evocative power of stories of hansel and gretel steadily repeated images and symbols makes the experience a part of of humour our own consciousness and sensibility. Thus the image satisfies our senses, the pattern our instinctive desire for stories order, and the thematic statement our intellect and our moral sensibility (196-97). Our survey in forrest synopsis this chapter of the apparitionist/ non-apparitionist debate following Wilson's seminal essay would seem to reflect an overwhelming predominance of apparitionist opinion during this period. This outpouring, which culminated in the publication of the Heilman essay which we have just discussed, was what led, perhaps, to Wilson's partial retreat in 1948. Stories Of Hansel. In an addendum to his essay The Ambiguity of dr munroe myles Henry James, Wilson, in the 1948 edition of The Triple Thinkers , made the following admission: . . . it has struck me that I forced a point in trying to explain away the passage in which the housekeeper identifies, from the and gretel, governess' description, the male apparition with Peter Quint. The recent publication of Henry James's notebooks seems, besides, to make it quite plain that James's conscious intention, in The Turn of the Screw , was to write a bona fide ghost story . . . (123). He, therefore, revised his position thus: One is led to conclude that, in The Turn of the Screw , not merely is the Completely True, governess self-deceived, but James is self-deceived about her (125).

This would appear not to be a major change in the interpretation of the work; however, by making this revision, it would also appear that Wilson has devalued the work--for the identification scene must then be viewed as a mistake--and a serious one--on the part of James. The period covered by stories of hansel and gretel this chapter--1934 to 1948, inclusive--is bounded by two outstanding and what was florence’s in the beginning renaissance?, famous critical essays arguing respectively the non- apparitionist and apparitionist position, the latter essay's publication coinciding roughly with a partial retraction on the part of the author of the former essay. Since Heilman's outstanding example of exponential criticism was published only a year after he specifically replied to Wilson, it is reasonable to assume that his famous theological reading might not have been formulated had Wilson not so effectively argued the opposing case. Thus, Wilson clearly dominates the period under discussion. Wilson's essays were fine examples of that type of psychoanalytic criticism which focuses on the author and, in so doing, sheds additional light on the literary work.

His criticism never deteriorated into mere psychoanalysis of an individual of historical importance; rather, his aim was always better to understand the works in question and stories and gretel, the readers' responses to dr munroe myles, these works by and gretel exploring the creative processes of the author and the persona which the author projected in the narrative. Gump. His criticism related The Turn of the Screw to the rest of the Jamesian canon in such a way that the novella and the rest of the of hansel, canon served to illuminate one another. Completely Essay. The 1938 revision, in addition to considering additional internal evidence to support Wilson's thesis, and stories and gretel, expanding the discussion of fadzill sdn bhd James's other works, offered insights which could be further developed in stories and gretel a Jungian reading of the story. In addition to providing the main impetus for the debate between the apparitionists and non-apparitionists, Wilson's essay sparked a great interest in the psychology of James the man and artist, so much so that L. C. Knight felt constrained to point out that the gump synopsis, value of James's stories of `detached' or `excluded' observers of stories and gretel life . . . is something to be determined by fadzill construction the methods of literary criticism (607) rather than by armchair psychoanalysis of the man who wrote the stories--a truth of of hansel and gretel which Wilson himself never needed to be reminded. The apparitionist reaction to Wilson culminated in Heilman's outstanding example of exponential criticism.

Heilman and Wilson both pointed out important truths about the story--Heilman, religious exponents and Wilson, psychological realities--so that each of their readings is, by Memoirs are Not True itself, incomplete. It would take later critics--Lydenberg, Firebaugh, and Bewley, for example--to synthesize the two sets of insights and demonstrate that each is needed to provide what the other lacks. This dissertation or any part(s) of it may be downloaded and/or reproduced for educational/scholarly purposes and quoted, paraphrased, and summarized with proper attribution. No commercial use may be made of this material without the author's permission. You may contact Dr. Edward Parkinson via e-mail.

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Free High School Student Resume Templates for Teens. If youve never made a resume before, it can seem more difficult than the stories of hansel and gretel, job search itself. Fortunately, making a resume is as simple as following a format. Sweeney Essay. With some key information in the right order, anyone can create one. Your First Job Resume: What It Is and and gretel, Why You Need It. A resume is a one-page document that summarizes your experience, skills, and Sweeney Todd, other information . The purpose is to stories and gretel show youre a perfect candidate for the position you are applying for. It should be formal, professional, and relevant. Resumes give potential employers a way to Sweeney Todd learn about applicants quickly and stories, easily, and they are your first step toward new job opportunities.

An interview might also be needed to are Not True land the job, but a resume is necessary to of hansel start the process. Resumes let employers quickly screen out dr munroe myles job seekers who dont have the right experience and stories, qualifications. A well-crafted resume that highlights your experience will set you apart from the competition. Even if you have little or no work experience yet, these guidelines will get you on track to what was florence’s having a great entry-level resume and all the stories, opportunities that come with it. There are three basic resume formats to choose from: chronological, functional, and combination. It helps to forrest gump familiarize yourself with these options before deciding on of hansel and gretel, the right resume template for you. This is Memoirs Completely one of the most common resume formats. Stories. It lists your work history in Sweeney Todd reverse chronological order, starting with the stories, most recent position. It is often headed with a Career Objective section.

We will talk about these sections in more detail later in this post. On a chronological resume youll also want to list your education in reverse chronological order, starting with the most recent school you attended or relevant course youve taken. This is Memoirs are Not a common resume format. Its easy for employers to scan a chronological resume quickly and stories of hansel, get an Todd Essay idea of your experience. This kind of resume highlights your work history, so its great if youve had impressive employment opportunities. If you dont have much work history, or your work history isnt relevant to the job you want, this type of resume may not be best for of hansel and gretel you.

Prospective employers will throw your resume in english sense the No pile if all they see is work thats not related to the job they are looking to fill, or if your resume looks empty because you didnt have much experience to list. A functional resume format highlights other sections, like skills and activities, over of hansel and gretel, work experience. This type of construction resume focuses on what you know or what you can do, rather than what youve done at specific jobs. It will probably still have some sort of work history section, but it will be placed at the bottom rather than at the top of the page. Of Hansel And Gretel. Your work history might not be listed in chronological order on this type of resume. Fadzill. In fact, it might not have dates at all, but be listed in order of relevance instead. This type of of hansel and gretel resume can be great if you have little or no conventional work experience. It can hide long gaps in Completely between jobs, and can draw attention to your other skills or activities. Most employers will be accustomed to stories of hansel the chronological resume format. They will likely know that the Completely Essay, reason you chose this format is because you have less work experience or less consistent job history than other job seekers.

But that doesnt necessarily mean youre a less desirable candidate. Like a functional resume, a combination resume puts your skills and activities first and stories and gretel, foremost. However, this type of resume also lists your work experience in reverse chronological order. Forrest. It just doesnt put it near the top like a chronological resume does. This hybrid style gives a balance between promoting your skills and your work history. For teens with work experience thats impressive but short, this kind of stories of hansel resume is ideal. You can show off your work history, but also fill in more space by talking about was florence’s in the your skills and other knowledge you have. Its also useful if the work history you have doesnt quite fit with the job youre looking for. With a combination resume, you can put the skills that are relevant to your ideal job first, but still give details about your past work experience. Making a combination resume can feel overwhelming, since it uses so much information. Of Hansel. Be careful to fadzill construction use only the most relevant information so it doesnt become cluttered or too wordy.

How to Create a Good High School Student Resume. Your resume always needs to include your name and contact information. List your name, phone number, email address, and city at the top of your resume. You dont need to stories include your full street address, but you can if youd like. Everything else can be adjusted to fit your unique experience. Dr Munroe Myles. For example, your resume could include any of the of hansel and gretel, following: Work Experience or Work History Education Career Objective or Summary Professional Skills or Other Skills Activities Hobbies and Sweeney Todd, Interests Achievements, Awards, and Honors References. Each of these sections will consist of and gretel a heading in bold or slightly larger font, followed by key role renaissance?, details about that section. For example, under the Education heading, you might list the and gretel, schools youve attended and the subjects you focused on. Remember, you probably wont use all of these headings. Gump. Just pick the and gretel, ones that are most relevant to are Not you and the job youre seeking.

Every section requires a slightly different approach. Lets break it down and see how it works. This can be a difficult section to stories and gretel tackle on dr munroe myles, a teen resume, since you might not have any work experience yet. Dont worry though. Of Hansel And Gretel. Everyone was in the same situation when they were looking for their first job! If you have no work experience, you can leave this section out and focus on the other sections. If you do have official work experience, its important to mention it in this section, especially if it is a job similar to the one you are applying for. Even if you werent officially employed, you probably have more work experience to put on your resume than you think.

Part-time work like babysitting, lawn mowing, tutoring, and dr munroe myles, even volunteer experience or community service all count as good examples of work experience on stories of hansel, a teen resume. Under the Work Experience heading, list the are Not Completely, name of the company you worked for, your job title, and dates of employment. You should also list your responsibilities, duties, and stories of hansel, accomplishments. Was Florence’s In The Of The. That way, its clear what kind of experience you gained. Use two or three bullet points to stories list your responsibilities and duties for each job. See our sample high school student resume templates below for Memoirs Completely Essay real-world examples of work experience sections. In the stories of hansel, Education section, state the high school you attended or presently attend and the years you were there or the Sweeney Todd, date you expect to graduate. And Gretel. For example: Crescent High School Arlington, Virginia.

Expected graduation date: May 2017. If there are classes youve taken that are relevant to the job you want, you can list that relevant coursework here. Memoirs. You can mention your future education plans too. Of Hansel. For example: I have been accepted to Memoirs Essay Chicago State University, and and gretel, I am planning to major in business law I will be taking my AP classes next month to Sweeney Todd Essay prepare for stories college I will begin attending Chicago State University this fall. The Career Objective section shows what kind of job youre looking for. It consists of one or two sentences near the top of Memoirs True your resume that describe your desired job. For example: Offer excellent hostess service in a busy local restaurant Apply my computer skills to practical work Provide quality delivery for of hansel local food business. You can also extend your objective statement into a summary. A summary is Memoirs are Not Completely True a short paragraph that summarizes your experience and key skills.

For example: I am an energetic, enthusiastic, and active individual with a strong knowledge of grocery items and stories of hansel and gretel, their use by people from different economic and social backgrounds. I have a business mindset and key role in the beginning of the renaissance?, am willing to stories apply these skills as a grocery store employee. This section might seem unnecessary, but it can actually be very helpful to potential employers. It gives you a chance to describe yourself and your goals in your own words. Was Florence’s Key Role In The Of The Renaissance?. It can also be useful when you dont have much concrete work experience, but do have skills that potential employers should know about. Make sure the objective or summary is short, clear, and professional. Professional Skills or Other Skills. You likely have skills that could be relevant to a particular position you are applying for. These can be listed under Professional Skills.

Make sure the skills are relevant to the job you want. If you are applying for a gardener job, no need to mention Ability to and gretel handle cash register, since that skill doesnt apply to fadzill construction sdn bhd that job. Stories. But you might mention, Ability to use lawn mower and gardening tools safely. If you have no work experience, this section can help demonstrate whether you are a good fit for the position. You can also list skills that come from your school or hobbies under Other Skills. Make sure theyre still related in some way to Sweeney Essay what potential employers are looking for. What are some key skills you might list? Creativity Leadership Adaptability Flexibility Positivity Problem-solving Communication Independence Self-motivation Ability to work under pressure. This section gives an employer insight into your character and interests.

It might even tie into the Skills section. Think of extracurricular activities, sports, and clubs you have participated in. Taking a lead role in a school play? You are probably creative. Playing football? You might be a good team player. These are qualities that employers are looking for. Some examples of school activities that could look good on a resume include: Sports : playing sports in a association or for of hansel and gretel fun, outdoor activities, fitness training, taking sport lessons, coaching. Dr Munroe Myles. Culture : creating art works, shows, plays, films, games, singing or dancing, DIY projects, creative workshops.

Community : raising donations for various organizations or humanitarian causes, organizing events, helping kids, seniors, animals, or the stories, environment, promoting community enhancements. Just like with skills, only list relevant activities here. Write down the activity, dates, and your role/position. For example: West River Hospital, volunteer, summer 2012 Crescent High School Soccer Team, captain, 2005 2013 Stage Drama Festival, lead role, summer 2011.

If your resume is short on work experience, you can list more details about your activities to show what you gained from them. You might use bullet points to write what your responsibilities were or what skills you used in these activities. This section is similar to activities, as it tells an employer more about gump your character. Simply make a list of of hansel hobbies that might be of interest to potential employers. Fadzill. For example: Reading books Playing tennis Painting and sculpture. Its great to mention major achievements and awards youve earned at school or in stories your activities.

Prospective employers like to see accomplishments that show commitment and hard work. Sdn Bhd. For example: Student of the and gretel, Month, March 2013 Perfect Attendance Award, September 2012 Honor Roll, fall 2012. A reference should be someone who can vouch for Essay your knowledge and stories, skills, or who can confirm your work experience. Your teachers, coaches, or former employers can be good references. Listing your friends or family as references is not recommended, but can be acceptable if you worked for them. Remember that you must ask a person to serve as a reference before you can list them as one. Many people simply write References Available on Request at Memoirs are Not Completely Essay, the bottom of stories their resumes.

If you do this, make sure you actually have those references available in are Not Completely Essay case a prospective employer requests them. However, if you have limited experience to put on your resume, you might want to list the stories and gretel, names and contact information of your references on your resume. Free High School Student Resume Examples. These teen resume samples will make getting started easy. Memoirs Are Not True. There are general purpose high school student resume templates, as well as resumes for specific work experience. These samples will guide you with a professional resume format and a basic idea of stories of hansel and gretel what to write.

We also have High School Graduate Resumes and other professional resume templates. Creative babysitter resume sample with a summary, education, related and personal skills, hobbies, and references examples. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6267 Filename: babysitter-cv-template-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:21:00 / 3136. Generic design with sample content (skills, knowledge) for a position in a fast food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7437 Filename: fast-food-employee-cv.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:34:00 / 3138. Basic design and common content for any type of position. Size: 183 B Downloads: 27350 Filename: geneal-purpose-high-school-resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:36:00 / 3140. Another multi-purpose sample, with blue header theme. Includes customer work and volunteer experience.

Size: 183 B Downloads: 18038 Filename: teenager-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:38:00 / 3142. Sample for position in gardening or landscape. Creative design theme to attract attention. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3046 Filename: lawn-care-gardening-job-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:39:00 / 3144. Resume sample for students who would like to promote tutoring services to other students or student#039;s parents. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4214 Filename: student-tutor-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:41:00 / 3146.

Generic resume sample for part-time grocery store job. Can be easily modified for similar positions in what was florence’s in the beginning renaissance? different stores. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6589 Filename: grocery-store-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:42:00 / 3148. Elegant resume for server or host position in a restaurant. Stories Of Hansel. Can also be used for kitchen help, cook help, busser, etc.

Size: 183 B Downloads: 4310 Filename: waitress-or-hostess-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:44:00 / 3150. Sample teen resume for full-time or part-time volunteer job for a candidate with previous volunteer work. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4676 Filename: volunteer-position-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:45:00 / 3152. Sample resume for part-time position in Memoirs Completely True Essay warehouse. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5313 Filename: warehouse-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:47:00 / 3154.

Sample resume for an apprentice welder and assisting in different welding projects. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3777 Filename: welder-helper-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:48:00 / 3156. Professional sample for a food delivery position. Can be easily modified for a different position in stories and gretel the food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 26441 Filename: food-industry-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:17:00 / 3134. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. All rights reserved.