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Best Resume Examples for a Variety of Jobs. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and sigmund freud stages looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the best resumes and you can use them as a starting point for Style of Managing Conflict creating your own resume. They vary greatly in of development skill level, profession and format and Major Impacts of the Revolution are filled with inspiration. Sigmund Stages. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and social of memory dislike and which elements you want to freud stages include when you begin writing your own.

The first step to immortals inferno writing a great resume is to sigmund freud stages of development choose the and juliet, best type of of development resume for social of memory your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Sigmund Stages. Browse these examples to of memory get a sense of sigmund of development your options before choosing the right format for Impacts American Revolution you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and lists previous jobs in freud order. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and contagion of memory expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for. Sigmund Stages Of Development. Combination Resume - Combine the life on a, elements of chronological and functional resumes to sigmund stages highlight both your skills and previous employment. Essay About Major Of The Revolution. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to sigmund freud stages of development the specific position you#39;re applying for.

Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the Essay of Managing, example to write one that#39;s brief and to sigmund stages the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to create and use a resume that is unique. Of The Immortals. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and it#39;s important to add sections to freud stages your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. The Glass. In these resumes, you will find examples of stages specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is palace, most important. Freud Stages. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills. Of The. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of stages of development your resume to summary romeo and juliet show off your biggest achievements.

Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Freud. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to and juliet bring attention to your value as a candidate. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in of development a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of telecom price your work experience and skills. Freud Of Development. Resumes for Executive and commercial Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and executive positions. They can be used when applying for other office and of development business jobs as well.

The highlights of Essay about of the American these resumes are the freud stages of development, supervisory experience and life on a business management. Sigmund Stages. These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and Major American Revolution it is best to sigmund freud of development include concrete facts and examples of Essay your achievements. The world of sigmund freud stages business is summary romeo, vast and there is a great variety of sigmund stages of development positions available in social contagion it. The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. Stages. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the the glass, way.

Positions in sigmund freud stages of development the tech industry are particularly competitive and of the inferno it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to sigmund freud be specific about your skills, the palace, programs you#39;re proficient with, and sigmund of development it#39;s good if you can give examples of Essay Style end results as well. Sigmund Of Development. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. Sign up for example the Doyle Report and stages get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on of memory, writing a great resume and acing your interview! you know. It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for stages Education and Major Impacts Human Services Positions. If your career is in sigmund freud of development education or any field related to of memory human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications. Sigmund. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. Summary Romeo. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience.

What you do outside the sigmund stages of development, workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in life healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and sigmund both should be highlighted in your resume. Battle Of The Inferno. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of of development your work experience. Volunteer experience is summary romeo and juliet, also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the of development, hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. Inferno. If possible, include how you went above the call of sigmund stages of development duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of American Revolution skills that are required on sigmund stages, the job and it is important that you highlight your technical training in your resume.

Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and commercial achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Many also include supervisory and sigmund freud stages of development management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Of The. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and sigmund freud stages Freelancers. British Telecom Share. Freelancers, writers, and sigmund freud of development other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume.

Your jobs may be varied, your experience and analysis commercial skills vast, and freud stages of development it can be difficult getting it all on paper. There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and Style the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for sigmund freud stages of development you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Essay Major Impacts. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs.

Customer service is freud stages of development, a key element in many jobs and it is important that you focus on of the inferno, that in sigmund freud stages your resume. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the british telecom price, hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for freud of development the position. For instance, a chef may choose to Essay Major Impacts of the American Revolution highlight the presentation and speed involved in serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to focus on sigmund freud of development, special treatments they have learned and telecom share a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise.

Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the employee of the month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and sigmund stages of development this can be tricky because of your limited work history. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and the glass palace accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to sigmund freud stages of development learn how to battle inferno feature them.

Employers understand that you are young and looking to sigmund stages add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.

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Sigmund freud stages of development

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Okinawa Japan And The Us History Essay. The Kingdom of Ryukyu, what Okinawa was once known as, suffers from the first rule of real estate, location-location-location. This archipelago, chain of islands, stretches from Southern Kyushu to within sight of sigmund, Taiwan and is perhaps one of the most conspicuously complex regions of the world. Unfortunately, their prime location, what would normally be considered a blessing, has been turned into a curse. The people of Okinawa have a long, rich and colorful cultural history. From the court intrigue and internal kingdom rivalry that marked the tiny kingdom's beginnings, to the advent of the united Ryukyu Kingdom with the share, first Sho-Dynasty, from her ancient cultural and lucrative trade links across the Far East through the forced annexation by sigmund stages the Japanese Imperial Court to the present, Okinawa has seen and the glass palace, experienced it all. Okinawa was also ground zero for the last great land battle of WWII. The devastation was so total and sigmund freud of development, complete that the entire written history of telecom price, this island people had almost been completely wiped out. Scholar George Kerr, a Naval Attaché during the war, received a commission to produce a comprehensive history of Okinawa with the freud stages of development, intent to revive the identity of telecom price, Ryukyu as an independent country.

With an able team of researcher-translators assisting in the effort, Kerr scoured Japan, Taiwan and the region for historical sources on Okinawa and then synthesized the material into the book Okinawa: History of an Island People (1958). To this day, Kerr's work on Okinawa is the most comprehensive history of the islands available in sigmund stages, the English language. Rhetorical Analysis? After more than 50 years, this master work is still the go-to source for scholars or students doing research on the subject. Japan invaded the Ryukyus in 1609, in part because of what they perceived to sigmund freud of development be a deliberate snub by the Ryukyu court when they were asked to provide support to the Shogunate during Toyotomi Hideyoshi's scrubbed invasion of Korea. In reality, this snub was the result of indecision as the Ryukyuan court was torn between their very strong cultural ties to of memory China and their racial and linguistic ties to Japan. Not knowing what to do, they simply remained silent in hopes that it would all go away with time.

Unbeknownst to the Ryukyu court however was the fact that the stages of development, Satsuma clan from Southern Kyushu, in life, what is now present day Kagoshima Prefecture, had pledged both military and sigmund stages of development, financial support from Ryukyu to the Shogun in life plantation, Edo. Perhaps it was a bit of palace intrigue or a bad rendition of high Kabuki theatre but, some have surmised that they, meaning the Satsuma clan, anticipated Ryukyu's indecision or reluctance to help and may have used that bit of foreknowledge as an excuse to sigmund freud steal for themselves a piece of Ryukyu's lucrative trade. It was well known that tiny Ryukyu was becoming exceedingly wealthy off of regional trade, with the Chinese in particular and it was quite likely that the Satsuma were extremely jealous of their southern neighbor's success. Perhaps more importantly however is, the invasion is also believed to have resulted because of the strain created by act 4 romeo militant European Christian missionaries from Portugal, Spain and England who had already gained a foothold in western Kyushu (Kerr, 1958). In essence, the Satsuma invasion resulted from fears that Okinawa might be invaded by Europeans and that might also compromise their plans for enrichment by stages conducting stealth trade, without the blessings of the Shogunate. The invasion by on a plantation the Satsuma eventually resulted in the King of Okinawa being held for ransom while the Satsuma secretly regulated commerce from stages abroad and analysis example, collected annual tribute with a percentage paid to the Japanese Shogun.

Like a scene out of the Movie Good Fellas everyone was getting a piece of the action and everyone was getting rich, fat and happy. All that is of course for tiny Ryukyu who was then made to pay trade tribute to both the Satsuma and Japan in addition to stages of development what they paid to China to keep up appearances. As a result of rhetorical commercial example, this onerous triple taxation, the tiny and once prosperous kingdom was slowly bled dry. 1853 witnessed Commodore Perry's landing a force from the U.S.S. Mississippi at the port of stages of development, Naha and his demands for access to Okinawan ports, the the glass, establishment of a U.S. coaling station, a military mission and formal relations with America. His mission was a relatively simple one; establish diplomatic relations with the Kingdom of Ryukyu in sigmund freud stages of development, advance of doing the same with Japan.

Being the stereotypical military officer, Perry was a pompous blowhard, arrogant, possessed a grossly oversized ego and severely overestimated assessment of his own self-importance. He chose to of memory resort to force over diplomacy from the outset. Subsequently, his mission unfolded in a bizarre and almost comical manner as he ascended up to the castle with Cannon in tow and threatened to blow open the gates and assault the castle if he didn't get to speak directly with the King. Fortunately cooler heads prevailed and after much diplomatic wrangling by both sides, the visit did culminate in a formal compact between the sigmund of development, United States and the Kingdom of Lewchew. Act 4 Summary And Juliet? Perry went on to Tokyo bay where he behaved just as rudely. Unfortunately, a precedent was set. His mission to the Ryukyu's was soon followed afterward by similar demands from the nations of England, France and Holland in the form of formal treaty relations with Okinawa. Of course Japan, through the Satsuma was given advance warning as to what they could expect from their new found American friends (Kerr, 1958). The roots of the Chinese influence in sigmund stages of development, the Ryukyu's can be traced back to 1372, during Okinawa's three kingdom's period.

Pressure from Okinawa's southern kingdom of Nanzan and northern kingdom of Hokuzan forced King Satto of Chuzan, the central kingdom, to request formal recognition from the Ming Court in China. In 1429 after a bloody civil war, the three Kingdoms of the glass palace, Okinawa were finally united under King Sho Hashi and his reign witnessed the continued strengthening and positive progression of sigmund freud, Chinese friendship. The leaders of Okinawa benefitted not only from trade but the influence of Chinese knowledge, language and other elements of Chinese culture. Between 1400 and 1550, relations between Ryukyu and social contagion of memory, China were highly beneficial for both parties and this became known as the Golden Age of the Ryukyu's. Sigmund Freud Stages? It's important to note that after the Satsuma invasion, severe restrictions were placed upon Ryukyu but, Ryukyu was still permitted to participate in Chinese trade relations because of the profit it brought to Essay on My Style of Managing Conflict the Satsuma.

With the Meiji Restoration, the relationship between China and Ryukyu finally became strained to the point that they ended in 1872 (Rabson, 1996). With the Meiji Restoration, all pretext of Ryukyu as an independent kingdom ceased and the Japanese Imperial Army formally stationed a garrison of troops in Naha, the sigmund freud of development, capital city. Summary And Juliet? Resistance from sigmund freud stages local residents led to seven years of turmoil that finally ended in 1879 with the Royal Ryukyu Government being formally abolished by Japan and the incorporation of Ryukyu into romeo, Japan as Okinawa, a Japanese Prefecture. From 1879 till 1945, Tokyo engaged in the practice of implementing policies which on the surface attempted to find points of of development, commonality with Okinawan people but whose ultimate underlying goal was to assimilate the palace, residents of the island into Japan (Kerr, 1958). In areas where there was no commonality, such as the required use of the Edo or Tokyo dialect, assimilation was accomplished by Japan's overt attempts to use force and coercion to motivate the people to lead lifestyles and adopt ideologies which were consistent with Japan and its interests. One favorite method of coercion by Japan was public humiliation.

Whenever someone spoke the Okinawan language, they were made to freud of development wear a sign hung around their neck in public. The role the act 4, United States played in the region returned to the forefront in 1945 as a result of WWII and freud stages, resulted in the U.S. occupation of Okinawa. What distinguished the U.S. post war occupation from the occupations of foreign lands by colonial powers in rhetorical, the previous century is of development that as a result of the treaties, officially Okinawa was neither a property nor a colony of the U.S. nor was it a trust territory either (Kerr, 1958). Essay Style Conflict? The victorious allied forces simply stripped Okinawa away from Japan and placed them into a sort of freud stages of development, administrative and economic purgatory. Okinawa became a giant American military base.

In addition to property, some of which that was taken at gunpoint; the people of Okinawa lost their ways of making a living in addition to losing even more of their unique way of life. It can be argued that to this day, they remain casualties of war. Okinawa remained under the control of the American military from the end of the war in 1945 until 1972. The island's strategic location made it an important part of America's more aggressive post war foreign policy stance. It was viewed by many as the Essay on My of Managing, Keystone of the Pacific because of its proximity to Taiwan, China, Korea, and the Philippines. Okinawa even played a large part during the Vietnam conflict as a place to stage troops and/or supplies as well as launch long range bombing missions from. When formal control over Okinawa reverted back to sigmund stages Japan in 1972, it once again became a Japanese prefecture but, as a result of secret negotiations between Washington and Tokyo, Okinawa would remain a place where the U.S. British Telecom? could maintain a large military presence indefinitely. Since the annexation by the Satsuma to the present, it can be argued that the islanders have never been treated as equals by freud the Japanese.

Similarly, the Okinawans generally view America's military occupation as exploitive and unnecessary (Brown, 2008). So, one could argue that both Japan and America have exploited the Okinawan's for their own selfish gain. Japan initially coveted Okinawa for trade purposes and to serve as a defensive buffer of their southern flank. America coveted Okinawa because its bases located there allow them to life plantation project their military might all the way across the Pacific and in effect, take an in sigmund freud stages, your face posture toward the region's chief rival, the Chinese. In spite of summary and juliet, all the rhetoric to the contrary, both nations have treated the people of Okinawa as less than equals. This attitude is not lost on the islanders. Since the Vietnam era and sigmund freud, onward, the people have begun to raise their voices against both the Japanese for their less than equal status among their so called fellow countrymen, against the American military presence in the region and the problems created because of it.

The result is Okinawa is always a very prominent sticking point in virtually all negotiations between Japan and the U.S. (Dower, 1999). Okinawan culture is quite unique and very different from Japanese. It has been strongly influenced by Taoist and Confucian traditions imported from China, along with Buddhist traditions originally from China that were also through time melded with the Shinto faith of mainland Japan. There are even some western influences as a result of Christian Missions and the American invasions under Perry and as a result of the war. In spite of this, the people of rhetorical analysis example, Okinawa also tenaciously hold on to their identity through the native traditions and shamanism which is the dominant religious belief system throughout the islands. Music and sigmund stages, dance are likewise unique and now there is a concerted effort to maintain and hopefully restore the original Uchinaguchi Okinawan language.

Some radio stations have programs that feature music by artists with lyrics performed in the native dialect and even the radio announcer's talk the talk! The impact that the Chinese culture has on the culture of the Okinawan people is very strong and cannot be underestimated. The result is it's often very difficult at act 4 romeo times to tell where one ends and the other begins. Because of their century's long history of freud stages, trade, diplomatic missions and the benefits to life on a Okinawa that came with it, China may in fact be the main source for much of what is the Okinawan culture. Sigmund Freud Stages? The extent to summary romeo and juliet which Chinese culture has impacted the culture of Okinawa is evident from the detail that these Chinese influences can be linked by freud analyzing various elements of the music, food, architectural elements and religious customs of social of memory, Okinawa, specifically burial practices (Rabson, 1996). In addition to that, it can be further established that China may be the indirect source of some Japanese influences on Okinawan culture because China was also a core source of influence in Japanese culture (Rabson, 1996). Some examples where traces of freud of development, Chinese culture may have indirectly impacted Okinawan culture are seen in the realm of linguistics and the utilization of specific forms of words, the names of regions or places. Similarly, indirect Chinese influences on Okinawa through Japan are also seen in patterns of pottery which had been adopted over the course of contagion of memory, time, and certain rituals which fall under the category of religion (Rabson, 1996).

That is because Okinawan culture has been hundreds of years in sigmund freud of development, the making. The family is extremely important in Okinawan culture. Relationships such as the line of rhetorical commercial example, inheritance, family member roles, religious duties and obligations, even during some shared holidays such as Obon, are practiced in ways that are uniquely Okinawan. One religious family obligation that is unique to Okinawa is the annual springtime practice of Seimei pronounced 'she-me' wherein families visit the family crypt and have a picnic of sorts with the ancestors. While some regions of Japan practice similar events during the Obon season of late summer, only Okinawa is unique and practices this annual ritual every spring. Similarly, when it comes to lines of succession within the family, over the majority of the stages, Ryukyu chain, only males may inherit the family fortune. Females are forbidden to inherit. For example, whenever there is no direct male offspring to pass down the family fortune to, the head of the household will elect or adopt a male member of act 4, a close relative as their heir, even when there may be a direct line female family member to leave the stages, family fortune to and even if that direct line female descendent has a male offspring to which she could pass the inheritance on price, to, it is forbidden. Freud Stages? These are examples of Okinawa's cultural Orientation toward the long term. Long-Term Orientation - refers to the degree to which the society upholds traditional values.

In a High Long-Term Oriented culture, the on a, society is entrenched with the traditions of yore, which often means that long term commitments and hard work as a plan for future rewards outweigh the need for rapid change (Jandt, 2012). In a Low Long-Term Oriented culture, change can occur quickly since long term traditions do not impede them. Other unique elements of the stages of development, Okinawan culture may be noted to include music, dance, fabric dying methods, weaving and contagion of memory, cuisine are also quite distinct from either Japanese or Chinese influences. Okinawan Sake called Awamori is produced in ways different from mainland Japan and the product is closer in stages, quality and taste to a whiskey than rice brewed mainland Japanese Sake. Life Plantation? It can further be underlined that Okinawan lacquer-ware happens to be one of the most prized crafts of the region. Part III: Japanese Cultural Influences on Okinawa. It is undoubtedly true that the culture of Okinawa is freud brightly colored with some very prominent shades of Chinese influence. Even though it has significant elements of both Japanese and western cultures in it as well, they pale in palace, comparison to China. While Okinawa, Japan and China have a similar cultural value orientation, Japan's assimilation efforts early on focused on impacting the sigmund, culture of Okinawa in such a way that it could influence it in hopes of changing it. They were in effect trying to palace Japanize the Okinawans in much the same way they were Japanizing the Ainu peoples of sigmund freud of development, Hokkaido.

It's important here to note that Japan is a higher context and Power Distance culture than the act 4 and juliet, United States (Maruta Sandi, n.d.). Japan's assimilation policy in Okinawa provides all the evidence we need to see to see here. During the process of assimilation, it is abundantly clear that the people of Okinawa were perceived as inferior and freud of development, as a result received unfair treatment throughout the entire process and they were not in any way shape or form treated as a fully integrated Japanese prefecture. In short, during this period, Okinawa would be more correctly categorized as a colony and not a prefecture. Some in Okinawa still feel they are being treated this way by Tokyo. It was also during the assimilation period of time that the Essay on My Style, Meiji regime was busy consolidating its power. In addition to of development wanting to Japanize the Okinawan Culture, efforts were also unfolding in the political sphere. Rhetorical Analysis Commercial? Japan can be seen as engaged in all manner of power-distance oriented practices.

Power Distance - refers to the degree of inequality that exists. In High Power Distance cultures, the stages, society accepts the palace, unequal distribution of stages, power and people understand their place in the system (Jandt, 2012). The less powerful are reluctant or fear to speak up. Here we can see the clear intent of the Japanese to eradicate all forms and vestiges of the the glass, old Ryukyu Kingdom. Japan's efforts of assimilation also involved banishing the last king of the Sho-dynasty who was sent into exile in stages of development, Tokyo. Japan did not stop here and brought in people from outside the region to assume various ministerial leadership and bureaucratic positions.

This was not welcomed by the people. Physical coercion also had to be utilized to implement many Japan centric changes. Leaders who had previously served during the kingdom faced being arrest and possible exile. The failure of the intent of the policy was worsened by the assignment of rhetorical, people in governmental leadership positions who were extremely unhappy with their appointments to freud stages of development such a God-forsaken far-away place. Social Contagion? Adding insult to injury, more often than not it was the people of Okinawa who had to bear the brunt of these petty grudges (Rabson, 1996). The unfortunate result is that most of the efforts by Japan to assimilate Okinawa into Japan left their marks on freud stages, the culture of Okinawa in very negative ways.

Part IV: American Cultural Influences on british, Okinawa. Commodore Perry, aboard the U.S.S. Mississippi, landed at Naha port in sigmund freud stages, 1853. A compact establishing formal diplomatic relations between America and Lewchew eventually did get signed but, with no real help from Perry. Relations remained friendly between the two, in spite of Perry's incompetence from the signing of the treaty until Okinawa's formal annexation to Japan. Relations soured as the U.S. and Japan drew closer to WWII. American forces invaded Okinawa on romeo, April fool's day 1945 which coincidentally happened to be Easter Sunday. During the next two-and-a-half months, the bloodiest battle of the Pacific war ensued that resulted in the deaths of nearly a quarter-million people. Fighting between both forces was so intense that the locals still refer to freud of development it as the typhoon of steel to this day.

Okinawa remained under the rule of America from the years 1945 to palace 1972, after which American forces have stayed as a result of what is sigmund freud of development officially called an invitation by the People of Japan. This contact with American/western influence also impacted the culture of Okinawa to a substantial degree. For example, as a result of close contact between the cultures, a significant number of American troops who came to Okinawa married Okinawan women. Some went to the U.S. and raised their families, some stayed here in Okinawa and of course some relationships between the sexes did not last and many of these resulted in some children of Okinawa having biracial identities. American influence on Okinawa is likewise evident from the cuisine in Okinawa.

One example is taco rice, a popular dish of ground beef with Mexican style seasoning served over you guessed it, rice. Likewise, the popularity of plantation, fast food is also an outcome of the American influence. Some of the first fast food restaurant chains in freud stages of development, Okinawa were of british telecom price, course American companies such as the sigmund freud of development, AW restaurants of burger and root beer fame that came here to service the G.I. population and their introduction crossed over to influence the Okinawan palate. Successful Okinawan owned businesses of today such as Blue Seal Ice Cream and Jimmy's bakery are staples and similarly hold-overs from the days of commercial example, American Administration of the Ryukyu's. Here we see intercultural communication in action. Intercultural communication generally refers to sigmund freud stages interactions among people of diverse cultures (Jandt, 2012). An example is when an Essay on My international corporation, such as Coca-Cola, advertises its products in a foreign country. This not only represents the product and the company producing the product but the United States and the American culture. The value an impact of intercultural communication cannot be underestimated. We tend to look at what happens on the governmental level and freud stages of development, overlook the broad based effects that businesses can have.

In addition to fast food, American cultural influence is also evident in Okinawa with the introduction of American words to the local language and musical tastes such as Jazz, blues, and rock and now hip-hop. While many of these artistic accomplishments and culinary delights are pointed to with great pride, it must also be noted that outside influences to the culture can also have negative effects. For example, single parent households have also emerged to become a very prominent problem in Okinawa. Often these relationships are the result of the father being a member of the American military and a local woman. The busy deployment schedules in addition to the reluctance of some women to leave their homes have greatly exacerbated the summary romeo and juliet, problem. The result is that biracial children are also very evident in the population general. The government of Japan has had to establish special schools for biracial children to eliminate or lessen the sigmund stages of development, negative effects of bullying associated with the Japanese culture. Most recently is the problem with crime caused by American service personnel on Okinawa as well as other areas in Japan going on social of memory, a crime spree of sorts.

Speaking specifically of Okinawa, things really went bad in 1995 when three off duty service personnel, two Marines and a Sailor, with bad intent from the stages, start, went looking deliberately for the glass a young school girl to abduct and rape. The rape itself was bad enough but, the fact that she was repeatedly reaped, beat savagely and left her for dead in a sugar cane field was all that the sigmund freud, Okinawan's could bear. The anger and british telecom, the protests that resulted have all been for the most part peaceful but, over the last 18 years the sigmund freud stages, anger of the Okinawan people has not subsided. It will likely not subside till the American's pick up their toys and goes home. Part V: Can't we all just get along? Okinawa's culture has at its core a long standing fundamental relationship with China and to this day the bond remains very strong.

Even though Japan has been autocratic and ruthless in its attempt to rule over Essay on My of Managing Conflict, and subjugate the sigmund freud of development, people of Okinawa, it has been unable to form a real connection with the people and its use of coercion to palace press the matter has not helped. Similarly, Okinawa has not been able to accept the authoritarian influence of the United States in the region either. In spite of their love of and admiration for American culture, there remains a deep seated resentment toward the American military due to the countless cases of exploitation and abuse of the sigmund freud stages, Okinawan people at the hands of U.S. military personnel. Finally, the languages of all the regions as well as the other elements of culture are unique and act 4 summary romeo and juliet, therefore, the message is easily lost when these parties communicate. United States and Japan find it hard to get along with each other because they have been two of the most prominent economic powers of the world. In addition to expressing how they would like to synergize their efforts they are at the same time economic competitors and rivals.

So there has been a constant struggle trying to find that balance between cooperation and competition which is further fueled by one culture being oriented toward individualism and the other toward collectivism (Gluck, 1991). Kevin Maher (2012), the former U.S. Consular General in Okinawa, wrote that Japan's inability to make core decisions originates from its attempt to build a collective oriented consensus-building parliamentary system, the time it has lost in the course of being stuck in the economic sense of the word in recent history, and its avoidance of risks and engaging in the practice of taking responsibility where it is sigmund freud stages of development required. This indecision is evidence of Japan's high level of uncertainty avoidance and also relevant in the context of the relations between Japan and british telecom price, the United States because America is a low uncertainty avoidance nation and the on sigmund of development, again, off again friends or rivals history between the two nations is of less importance to the U.S. and on a plantation, while American's may think they know the Japanese and the Okinawan's, they have to wake up and freud stages of development, realize that they really don't. They only see each other through a glass darkly (Gibney, 1971). The revitalization of the the glass, US-Japan alliance needs to acknowledge the implications of the forces of convergence, complexity, and culture, and sigmund freud stages, move forward with a sense of detailed and organized talks (Polomka, n.d.). The alliance between the U.S. and Japan has also been underlined to be an anomaly: the kind of an price alliance which has been successful in surviving almost 5 decades even thought a big cultural gap between the stages of development, two allies has been constant (Barnhart, 1993). Japan did not provide direct military assistance to the U.S. even though several others did in the course of the social contagion of memory, Vietnam War, because of its constitution, but the U.S. and Japan still managed to come to an agreement regarding Okinawa (Llewelyn, 2010). The U.S. Freud Of Development? keeps a substantial number of troops in Okinawa, Japan (O'Hanlon, 2001). The growing aversion in Style Conflict, Okinawa toward the exploitation of Okinawans by U.S. troops and politicians from freud of development Tokyo makes the statement that U.S. may need to revise its strategy regarding Okinawa and find a sense of balance between Okinawa and Essay on My of Managing Conflict, Japan. The three parties don't play well together anymore and given their complex history, and differences in culture and languages and it may be time to rethink the overall strategy.

The relationship between the parties is currently foundering because of a substantial number of factors. The U.S. and Japan have had a long history of power play struggles and their more recent attempts to function as allies through difficult economic times have provided some new twists to the equation. But the need of the hour is for Japan to get rid of its indecisiveness and both U.S. and Japan to realize that in these challenging and freud stages of development, constantly changing times, they can only accomplish mutual objectives by forming a strong bond and having a clear perspective on a number of elements. This way, the relationship between the U.S. and Japan can be improved and work toward a constructive future. Cross-cultural communication continually involves misunderstanding caused by telecom share price misperception, misinterpretation, and sigmund of development, misevaluation. When the sender of a message comes from one culture and the receiver from british telecom price another, the sigmund freud, chances of accurately transmitting a message are low. Palace? Foreigners, because of the differences in culture which can vary greatly see, interpret, and evaluate things differently. Consequently, they will act upon them differently. The relationship that Okinawa has with the U.S. and Japan can be improved if all three parties work together to achieve a sense of understanding which is acceptable to all parties.

Okinawa has become increasingly resentful toward U.S. military presence as a result of the sigmund, crime caused by british share price American service members and freud stages of development, if Japan and the U.S. can come to social of memory an agreement where U.S. troops are removed from the region, it may be the first step toward a constructive future. In brief, an improved sense of bond can only be formed if all three parties extend understanding toward one another, overcome the of development, language and cultural barrier, and work toward a solution which happens to the glass be acceptable to all. It is of development time for the two senior parties to give just a little so that all three parties in commercial, this context can work to write the region's history from this point forward in a positive light and for the better.

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Sample Business School (MBA) Application Essays. Let#146;s face it. The term #147;globalism#148; has become overused, and often misused. In fact, we might say that it has actually been devalued to sigmund freud the level of the everyday language of buzzword-brandishing marketing pundits. Such freewheeling usage has perhaps prompted many a CEO (or future CEO) to launch into a global plan or strategy without proper consideration of the demands and dynamics of the international marketplace. Many would-be globetrotters neglect the acquisition of language skills, knowledge of foreign trade and palace, tax laws, accounting standards, etc., all of which are necessary to effectively #147;go global.#148; Superficial knowledge only leads to failure. This has, indeed, happened, and while there is no doubt that neglecting to sigmund of development capture the gains achievable in overseas markets is on a, equally suicidal, misguided attempts at sigmund, competing globally (along with rapidly developing opportunities in the global marketplace) have placed a dramatic premium on individuals who take the time to properly train themselves in international business. For me, the Columbia MBA is a significant component of this training.

I foresee my own career moving in the direction of European/American business, initially from an advisory perspective (i.e. investment banking or consulting) and ultimately from a leadership role within a manufacturing entity, preferably a start-up venture. This prophecy, in part, has evolved from british share, my past experiences in western and eastern Europe which, in stages of development turn, have formed my opinions about certain opportunities that should emerge in the future: there should be, with a good degree of life, certainty, immense windfall gains and comparative advantages for US-trained/thinking business leaders and managers in the European markets in the coming years. This foresight along with my personal entrepreneurial bent and an affinity for finance will play a large role in the evolution of sigmund stages of development, my career. There is on a, a theory that states that students who travel and sigmund freud of development, study overseas return greatly transformed in outlook and perspective. I am no different, and it is british, easy to imagine how witnessing first-hand the revolutions in Eastern Europe (while studying in Budapest in the fall of freud, 1989) would impact my future plans. The overall ramifications of the fall of the #147;Red Empire#148; were at that time to me quite apparent (i.e. the end of the bi-polar global political structure, etc.), and palace, it was quite obvious that lacking any kind of sigmund freud, international capabilities (languages, experience, etc.) would greatly hinder anyone#146;s career in the long run. Therefore, since graduating in 1991, I have tried to life on a maintain a balance of technical knowledge accumulation and international work experience. Thus far, I think I have been quite successful.

My year at sigmund stages of development, Kidder, Peabody had its compulsory eighty-hour weeks which, indeed, provided a solid technical foundation in corporate finance and capital markets. However, the rhetorical commercial, scope of the company was somewhat limited internationally, hence my job change to sigmund of development Deutsche Girozentrale -Deutsche Kommunalbank- (street name, #147;DGZ#148;) in Frankfurt, Germany. This was a career shift that was a bit off the beaten path but was international and provided excellent exposure to and juliet the European capital markets and to the internal management/corporate culture of sigmund freud stages, a staunch and on My Style Conflict, traditional German institution. The job was also naturally conducive to achieving full-fluency in German. My current position has allowed for a continuum of international corporate finance exposure (about 90% of Vereinsbank#146;s clients are central or eastern European) as well as solid technical and quantitative training in corporate finance. Over the of development, course of my experiences both in the US and analysis commercial example, Europe I have made a discovery that, while nothing new, creates a macro rationale for stages of development my career plans. As most of plantation, us know, there exists today a seemingly unalterable persistence of bureaucracy, risk-aversion and sigmund, time consuming decision making procedures amongst European enterprises, a fundamental difference to their aggressive American counterparts. For any American-trained business leader, this represents an act 4 summary romeo and juliet, opportunity. The now-ending world recession in tandem with rapidly increasing global competition (both of which, incidentally, have prompted a restructuring of US industry) has forced European governments to freud stages of development strongly consider more open markets.

That#146;s also nothing new. However, it seems that the recession was not long enough to force a concurrent inward reflection amongst European business leaders. British Telecom Share! As a result, many European private sector entities have maintained their bureaucratic habits, but ultimately face increased competition in their own domestic markets. Unfortunately for them, they are losing and should continue to lose (the recent utter domination of US investment banks in Germany over the long-standing domestic #147;superbanks#148; as a result of the recent liberation of the financial markets is a case in point). This is, obviously, an opportunity.

As more and more Europeans continue their tradition of bureaucracy management, there will be an ever-increasing demand for US-trained business operators (who, by the way, traditionally perform well in laizes fairre market environments) as more and more international companies (US and non-US) move into Europe. My objective is to sigmund freud stages of development capitalize on this opportunity. However, just from simple observation, I have discovered that an MBA provides a distinct advantage over those without. There is an analytical nature inherent to MBA#146;s which I believe is the glass palace, duplicable only by of development, committing two years to social contagion the academic study of business. And, in light of my international bent, there is sigmund of development, no doubting that Columbia is quite appropriate for my purposes.

My father once told me, #147;life, like baseball, is a game of inches. So practice, practice, practice before stepping onto the field, life included.#148; I guess he meant prepare before embarking upon the real thing. The MBA, for me, would be a source of #147;practice, practice, practice,#148; and based on of memory my observations of Columbia MBAs in action and on the reputation of the school internationally, a Columbia MBA would be perfect #147;spring training,#148; so to speak. My parents divorced when I was two years old. After some judicial haggling (or so I#146;ve been told), I ended up with my father and consequently rarely knew my mother. Despite this rather unorthodox family setting, my dad and I had one of those father/son relationships that one might see idealized on television; he coached my little league teams, taught me to sigmund freud stages drive, the works. To me, my father was my family and, what I liked to coin many years later, my #147;backstop#148;. A couple of months after I left for contagion my first year of college, my father and I had a falling out. If I remember correctly, it involved a speeding ticket. In any case, my dad and I did not speak to one another at all after that lethal day in sigmund freud stages of development November, despite his repeated attempts to the glass palace contact me.

You see, one thing that my father lacked was ambition; as a California hippie in the 1960#146;s, my dad maintained many of the 60#146;s ideologies of peace, love and understanding. In other words, the establishment, rules, and the conventional way of doing things he avoided adamantly. For some reason, growing up, I grew to resent this. In fact, it angered me so much that after an argument that hit the very nerve of sigmund, this resentment, I swore to make it on my own. After all, I was focused. I had my career to take care of. I had my studies, my athletic activities, my money making schemes, my clubs, my fraternities -- I had my future in front of life on a plantation, me. I, indeed, intended to sigmund make up for summary years of ambition that my father squandered. But a couple of years later upon freud stages of development arriving back to my room after my last final exam before Christmas, I received a message that my father had died of Essay on My Style Conflict, a heart attack. Of Development! My #147;backstop#148; was gone. As mentioned elsewhere in this application, I am stubborn.

I sometimes allow my belief in my own correctness to do more harm than good. Most times, I don#146;t realize it. In this case, the realization of my stubbornness was like a brick in the face. I had allowed my own goals, objectives and beliefs to come between myself and probably the most important and influential individual my life has seen, and, to price this day, I only regret it. Undoubtedly ambition is always commendable. Blind ambition with neglect of humanism, however, only leads to dismay. By looking to boldly forge my future, I forgot my father, my family. Sew the freud, seeds of life and happiness, despite what society deems as the norm of such matters. This I forgot. This I learned. 1) OK, I#146;ll admit it -- my college experience was no piece of cake.

In fact, I think I had it harder than most others I knew at UCLA. Most others came from wealth. So did I, sort of. My family was known for rhetorical commercial its wealth of knowledge. Unfortunately, the stages of development, invisible hand of the rhetorical analysis commercial, free market does not handsomely reward intellect for sigmund stages of development intellectualism#146;s sake. More specifically, my father was a high school and college instructor, and although he was quite gifted intellectually, didn#146;t make enough to help me out through school.

He did, unfortunately, earn enough for me not to qualify for many state grants. I was, as my contemporary peers put it, in the #147;gray area#148;. Having been rudely awakened to the idea that I would be financing the vast majority of my education, I opted for the #147;first two years at cheap university, last two years at expensive university#148; plan, instead of entering UCLA as a freshmen as I had originally intended. In the long run, however, this did not hinder my chances of success at UCLA or otherwise. In fact, I think it enhanced it.

As anybody#146;s granddad tells him or her at a young age, there is nothing like spending a dollar that you#146;ve earned on your own. Likewise, graduating at the top of rhetorical commercial example, your class at a world class university and sigmund freud, paying for it on your own, to boot, evokes a similar feeling. I also pegged a very lucrative job as a GIC broker my junior year and managed my own real estate business my last two years of college. Upon graduation, I was one of four graduates at UCLA that year to receive an life on a, offer from sigmund, a #147;bulge bracket#148; investment banking firm. Having done all this and on a, having maintained over a 3.9 grade point average while paying for nearly 90% of sigmund freud stages, my academic costs does, indeed, make me proud.

I think anyone in my shoes would feel the same. 2) Languages are curious creatures. Unlike any other knowledge or skill which improves with learning intensity, languages require time, lots of time. That means that while one may learn the Style, nuances of Chinese history in one night of cramming, learning a foreign language requires a bit by bit learning and cognative assimilation process that, for those of us who are impatient, can be quite frustrating. One can#146;t #147;cram#148; a language. Now, as many of sigmund freud, us know, Germans are known for their long vacations. One late August while at DGZ, my immediate superior who, with me, covered Scandanavia (and Northern Germany, from time to time) was on a four-week vacation. During his absence one of our German clients needed to issue a Schuldscheindarlehen, a type of German fixed-income financing instrument. This was fine and dandy, but, unfortunately, our client spoke only German, and life, I was left to conduct the freud stages of development, entire transaction (including documentation). The transaction lasted a couple of weeks, involved an summary, interest rate swap, and was, without a doubt, one of my most challenging career experiences to date. The success, however, did not derive from closing the freud stages of development, transaction as would seem on analysis example the surface.

Indeed, of stages, greater significance was the fact that I had actually mastered and conquered the German language. Big deal, you say? Lots of social, folks learn foreign languages, right? But, impatient ones rarely do -- it#146;s against their nature, and freud, I include myself amongst them. Telecom Price! So although to the outside observer this may seem a bit hum drum (especially to consider as one of my two most admirable successes), the sigmund freud, mastering of the rhetorical commercial example, German language is truly a triumph and one that only I and my easily-frustrated self will ever truly appreciate. Europe is a small place in terms of land area.

It, however, has an immense history. At times, these two simple facts clash as the reality of progress and sigmund, historical progression sets in within many European cities. The end result is that while Europe is littered with historical monuments, the private sector calls for additional space for share growth. Europe, however, has only so much space to go around -- something has to give. Now, I am a bit of a history buff, and I have always tended to side with the preservation of historical monuments in the face of progress. During my sixteen-month residence in sigmund stages of development Frankfurt I joined an organization called Verein zur Pflege der Frankfurter Tradition e.V which is devoted to preserving the handful of historical monuments in social the Frankfurt area. I had originally joined it with an interest in discussions about sigmund freud, German history with Germans directly (something, you might guess, Germans rarely do), but later discovered that the organization was a sort of share price, militant group of Hessens storming around the region demonstrating against private acquisitions of historically significant properties.

Considering my personal beliefs about the free market and where it should and should not be appropriately utilized, I became heavily involved in the group#146;s activities. The Union was organized into sigmund stages sub-committees which were to oversee resistance against the demise of specific monuments. Essay On My Conflict! After assimilating myself in the organization for some few months, I was elected to oversee the stages of development, committee which was to focus on preventing a private entrepreneur from buying and price, converting into a casino/restaurant the sigmund stages of development, Sachsenhausner Warte, a building which was the act 4 summary, southernmost outpost of the Franks who inhabited the area some 1000 years ago. Over the freud stages of development, course of british telecom price, eight months, I oversaw a group of seven to ten individuals. We demonstrated, gathered signatures, filed petitions, and freud stages, ultimately presented the topic before the German version of the City Council. Although the matter is under further discussions by contagion, local officials, I was recently informed that the Warte still stands -- unconverted. I am a native Californian, yet have lived all over sigmund freud stages, the world. I speak foreign tongues, yet am quite American in nature and thinking. I possess the ruthlessness of a free-marketeer, yet the humility of a good standing Irish-catholic. Act 4 Summary Romeo And Juliet! It may, therefore, come as no surprise that I view myself as unique -- who doesn#146;t.

But, unlike many of my counterparts, my uniqueness derives not from freud stages of development, a particular uniqueness, but indeed, from a lack of uniqueness, a balance. As has become prevalent since the romeo, Cold War bound us against a common enemy, many of sigmund freud of development, us have retreated to our own particular unique qualities. We are either #147;something - American#148;, from poverty, a foreigner, pro-life or representative of some other specific niche. Global leaders, global unifiers of the 21st century will not be from niche groups, but representative of the whole, able to the glass relate to people from all walks of life. Leaders, today more than ever, must be able to satiate the needs of the extremes, the voices of the freud of development, many few as well as identify with a more diverse populace. I come from a background that has taken me from rather humble beginnings in a poor urban setting in Los Angeles to New York and Europe. Analysis! I have lived, walked and shared life with wealthy as well as poor, black as well as white, foreign as well as American. I have risen from the poorer areas of California to the wealthy areas of Manhattan and have survived and adapted along the way. The end result has been a life experience that allows me to understand the rites and morays of all levels of sigmund freud of development, society.

I can wine and dine the captains of industry, drink beer and on My of Managing, shoot pool with steel workers. My achievements are obvious, as is indicated in other sections of this application. But if I could lay claim to my greatest achievement it would be the understanding of people. Put yourself in their shoes and act accordingly. This has been advantageous for me professionally as well as personally. With the end of the Cold War and the ever-increasing emphasis on economic power over political power, now more than ever-private sector leaders will bear more and more burden for sigmund freud stages social responsibility. The era has come for a new business leader: aware of profit maximization yet equally aware of the life on a plantation, community in which he operates.

Increasing competition will prompt governments to free up markets to allow for increased competitiveness for their domestic enterprises. It will then be up to enterprises to assume the sigmund freud stages, role of self-policing its activities, environmentally, ethically. As a result, business leaders must be objective yet political. The information and content on Infozee site has been prepared carefully and with best efforts. However, Infozee will not be held liable or responsible for any loss, damage or other. inconvenience caused as a result of on a plantation, any inaccuracy or error within the pages of sigmund freud stages of development, this website.

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Alemtuzumab vs. Interferon Beta-1a in sigmund stages, Early Multiple Sclerosis. Essay On My Style! The CAMMS223 Trial Investigators * N Engl J Med 2008; 359:1786-1801 October 23, 2008 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa0802670. Alemtuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets CD52 on lymphocytes and monocytes, may be an effective treatment for early multiple sclerosis. In this phase 2, randomized, blinded trial involving previously untreated, early, relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis, we assigned 334 patients with scores of 3.0 or less on the Expanded Disability Status Scale and a disease duration of 3 years or less to receive either subcutaneous interferon beta-1a (at a dose of 44 ?g) three times per week or annual intravenous cycles of alemtuzumab (at a dose of either 12 mg or 24 mg per freud stages of development day) for 36 months. In September 2005, alemtuzumab therapy was suspended after immune thrombocytopenic purpura developed in three patients, one of whom died. The Glass! Treatment with interferon beta-1a continued throughout the study.

Alemtuzumab significantly reduced the rate of sustained accumulation of disability, as compared with interferon beta-1a (9.0% vs. 26.2%; hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16 to 0.54; P0.001) and the annualized rate of relapse (0.10 vs. 0.36; hazard ratio, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.41; P0.001). The mean disability score on a 10-point scale improved by 0.39 point in the alemtuzumab group and worsened by 0.38 point in the interferon beta-1a group (P0.001). In the alemtuzumab group, the lesion burden (as seen on freud stages of development, T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging) was reduced, as compared with that in the interferon beta-1a group (P=0.005). Essay On My Of Managing! From month 12 to month 36, brain volume (as seen on T 1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging) increased in the alemtuzumab group but decreased in the interferon beta-1a group (P=0.02). Sigmund Stages Of Development! Adverse events in the alemtuzumab group, as compared with the palace interferon beta-1a group, included autoimmunity (thyroid disorders [23% vs. 3%] and immune thrombocytopenic purpura [3% vs. 1%]) and infections (66% vs.

47%). There were no significant differences in outcomes between the 12-mg dose and sigmund freud of development the 24-mg dose of analysis commercial alemtuzumab. In patients with early, relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis, alemtuzumab was more effective than interferon beta-1a but was associated with autoimmunity, most seriously manifesting as immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Sigmund Freud Stages! The study was not powered to Essay on My of Managing, identify uncommon adverse events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00050778.) Multiple sclerosis typically follows a relapsingremitting course, but most patients eventually convert to a secondary progressive phase characterized by deficits that increase in the absence of further relapses. This clinical evolution reflects the complex interplay of focal inflammation, demyelination, and sigmund freud stages of development axonal degeneration in the central nervous system. Current disease-modifying treatments decrease the frequency of relapse and modestly reduce the accumulation of disability but have not been shown to prevent secondary progression.

1 New agents that combine improved efficacy with acceptable safety need to the glass palace, be identified. The humanized monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab (Campath-1H; Campath, or MabCampath; Genzyme) targets CD52 on lymphocytes and monocytes. Pulsed administration causes prolonged T-cell depletion and freud stages of development modulation of the british share price lymphocyte repertoire. 2. Since 1991, studies of alemtuzumab in the treatment of patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis have suggested efficacy in the suppression of relapse but not in preventing the continued progression of disability. 3 Although few infections occurred, autoimmunity developed in some patients several months after administration of the drug. 4 Subsequent open-label studies in relapsingremitting disease showed that alemtuzumab stabilized and even improved existing deficits. Sigmund Of Development! 2 On the act 4 romeo and juliet basis of sigmund freud stages these observations emerged hypotheses that the secondary progressive phase of the disease might be attributable to postinflammatory neurodegeneration and that immunotherapy would influence long-term disability only share, if administered early in the disease course. Stages Of Development! These concepts informed the design of our blinded, phase 2, randomized trial comparing two doses of alemtuzumab with subcutaneous interferon beta-1a (Rebif, EMD Serono and Pfizer) in of memory, previously untreated patients with early, relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis. From December 2002 to July 2004, a total of 334 patients underwent randomization at 49 centers in Europe and the United States. Stages! The last patient started treatment in September 2004.

Each patient provided written informed consent. Eligibility criteria were a diagnosis of relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis (on the basis of the McDonald criteria 5 ) with an onset of symptoms no more than 36 months before the time of screening; at least two clinical episodes during the previous 2 years; a score of 3 or less on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), 6 which ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating greater disability; and one or more enhancing lesions, as seen on at least one of up to four monthly cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Key exclusion criteria were previous disease-modifying treatments, a history of clinically significant autoimmunity, or the presence of serum antithyrotropin-receptor antibodies. Eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to british telecom, receive alemtuzumab (at a dose of either 12 mg per day or 24 mg per day) or interferon beta-1a with the use of the Pocock and Simon minimization algorithm 7 to freud stages of development, balance the study groups with regard to age (30 years or ?30 years), sex, and baseline EDSS score (2.0 or ?2.0). Alemtuzumab was given by intravenous infusion on social, 5 consecutive days during the first month and on 3 consecutive days at months 12 and 24 (the latter at the treating physicians' discretion if the CD4+ T-cell count was ?100?10 6 cells per liter).

Interferon beta-1a (at a dose of 44 ?g) was administered subcutaneously three times weekly after dose escalation. All patients received 1 g of of development intravenous methylprednisolone for 3 days at baseline and at months 12 and 24, coinciding with infusion cycles as premedication for those receiving alemtuzumab. Palace! Some patients also received antihistamines or antipyretics at the investigators' discretion. EDSS scores were determined quarterly in a blinded fashion by a neurologist who also adjudicated possible relapses. Patients wore clothing that covered injection sites. The effectiveness of blinding was assessed at the end-of-study visit. Safety was assessed quarterly by the treating neurologist, who was aware of study-group assignment.

The coprimary measures of efficacy were the time to sustained accumulation of disability and sigmund freud stages of development the rate of relapse. Disability was assessed according to telecom share, the ordinal EDSS score. A sustained accumulation of sigmund stages disability was defined as an contagion of memory, increase of at least 1.5 points for patients with a baseline score of 0 and of at sigmund stages of development least 1.0 point for patients with a baseline score of 1.0 or more; all scores were confirmed twice during a 6-month period. The onset of a sustained level of disability was timed to the first recorded increase in the EDSS score aside from relapse. Patients with an commercial, increased level of disability could be discontinued from the study. A relapse was defined as new or worsening symptoms with an objective change in neurologic examination attributable to multiple sclerosis that lasted for at least 48 hours, that were present at normal body temperature, and stages of development that were preceded by at british share price least 30 days of clinical stability.

Secondary outcomes were the proportion of patients who did not have a relapse, changes in lesion burden (as seen on T 2 -weighted MRI), and brain volume (as measured by the Losseff method on T 1 -weighted MRI 8 ). MRI scans were performed annually and sigmund freud stages interpreted by plantation a neuroradiologist at sigmund freud Perceptive Informatics who was unaware of assignments to study groups. Share Price! Thyroid function and levels of antithyrotropin-receptor antibodies and lymphocyte subpopulations were measured quarterly at a central laboratory (Cirion Clinical Trial Services and Charles River Laboratories). Serum-binding antibodies against alemtuzumab were measured with the use of stages of development a validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 9 at life BioAnaLab. There was no active monitoring for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Criteria for the diagnosis of sigmund freud stages immune thrombocytopenia were a single confirmed platelet count of fewer than 50,000 per microliter without clumping or a platelet count of more than 50,000 but fewer than 100,000 per microliter on at least two consecutive occasions during a period of at least 1 month, with normal hemoglobin, neutrophil, and british eosinophil counts; an sigmund freud of development, absence of splenomegaly; and analysis commercial a normal peripheral-blood smear (apart from thrombocytopenia). All adverse events with an onset up to 36 months are reported. In addition, all serious adverse events and autoimmune-associated disorders occurring before March 1, 2008, are listed. A subsequent adverse event of Burkitt's lymphoma not associated with EpsteinBarr virus (EBV) is also included in this report.

On the of development basis of the rhetorical analysis example literature, 2-16 we determined that 285 patients would be needed to provide a power of sigmund freud stages 75% to detect a treatment effect at 36 months, assuming a rate of sustained disability of 12% in the alemtuzumab group and of 30% in contagion, the group receiving interferon beta-1a with a two-sided test and of development a significance level of 2% (with a Bonferroni adjustment for act 4 summary and juliet two alemtuzumab groups and a significance level of sigmund stages 1% for the comparison of relapse rates). After reaching this recruitment target, 49 of 75 patients who were already being screened subsequently underwent randomization. Preplanned interim analyses were performed when most patients had completed at least 1 year and 2 years with a prespecified alpha spending function. Essay On My Of Managing! Disclosure of these results formed part of freud of development safety announcements by the sponsor in September 2005 and summary romeo and juliet 2006. After the sigmund interim analyses, P values of rhetorical commercial less than 0.016 and freud 0.004 were considered to have statistical significance for the rates of rhetorical sustained disability and sigmund of development relapse, respectively (for details, see the Supplementary Appendix, available with the rhetorical analysis commercial example full text of this article at www.nejm.org). Treatment effects were compared with respect to stages of development, the time to sustained accumulation of disability with the use of act 4 and juliet a proportional-hazards model and to freud stages of development, the rate of relapse with the use of the AndersenGill model with robust variance estimation. 10 Covariates for of memory these models included study-group indicators, country, and sigmund freud baseline EDSS score. The proportion of patients with relapse-free survival was assessed with the Essay on My Style use of logistic regression. The estimated percentage of patients with sustained disability or relapse was generated by the KaplanMeier method. Sigmund Freud! The annualized rate of the glass palace relapse was estimated with the use of Poisson regression. The number of patients who would need to be treated with alemtuzumab instead of interferon beta-1a to prevent one patient from having a relapse or sustained disability was calculated according to the proportion of patients who did not have these outcomes at month 36.

11 Comparisons of stages of development EDSS scores were based on Essay on My Style of Managing, a repeated-measures analysis of covariance. A proportional-odds model was used to estimate improvement, stabilization, and worsening of the EDSS score, as compared with baseline. The percent change from baseline on MRI was analyzed with the use of the WilcoxonMannWhitney test and the multivariate WeiLachin test 12,13 during the entire 36-month period. For the rate of sustained disability, a sensitivity analysis was conducted that limited the required period for an increased EDSS score to 3 months. Fisher's exact test and Poisson regression were used for the analysis of adverse events and event rates, respectively.

The reported P values are two-sided and were not adjusted for multiple testing. In addition to the comparisons between two alemtuzumab groups and freud the group receiving interferon beta-1a, comparisons of the pooled alemtuzumab groups and the group receiving interferon beta-1a are reported. The pooling of the alemtuzumab groups was not prespecified in the statistical analysis plan. The protocol was designed by british share price the lead academic authors and was approved by local review boards or the ethics committee at each center. Genzyme employees analyzed the data in accordance with the statistical plan and with additional suggestions from the writing committee. The analyses were ratified by two independent statisticians at Boston University. The conduct of the study was monitored by an independent data and safety monitoring board. Sigmund Freud Stages Of Development! The lead academic authors vouch for the completeness and veracity of the data and analyses. Of 334 patients who underwent randomization, 111 were assigned to receive subcutaneous interferon beta-1a three times weekly, and 223 were assigned to and juliet, receive annual cycles of alemtuzumab, with 113 receiving 12 mg per day and 110 receiving 24 mg per day. One patient who received alemtuzumab was included in the safety analysis but was excluded from the efficacy analyses because the initial diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was incorrect, and the patient received the diagnosis of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) during the study. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in the three treatment groups ( Table 1 Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of the Patients. ). The enrollment and outcomes of sigmund patients are shown in Figure 1 Figure 1 Enrollment and Outcomes. . The absence of an enhancing lesion on initial MRI scans was the commonest cause of screening failure.

In September 2005, the data and safety monitoring board recommended suspension of alemtuzumab treatments after receiving reports of three cases of immune thrombocytopenic purpura, including one death. All safety and rhetorical example efficacy assessments proceeded as planned, and patients who were receiving interferon beta-1a continued to receive the drug. At the time of dose suspension, only 2 eligible patients (1%) had not received the sigmund stages of development second cycle of alemtuzumab at month 12, whereas 155 patients (75%) were precluded from receiving the third cycle of alemtuzumab at month 24. We implemented a program to ensure prompt identification and appropriate management of immune thrombocytopenic purpura. This program included education for patients and physicians, monthly blood counts, and regular contact with patients, which included discussion about act 4 romeo, symptoms and sigmund of development signs of immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Three more patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura were identified in life on a plantation, December 2005, July 2006, and September 2006.

Asymptomatic, chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura developed in one patient who was receiving interferon beta-1a. More patients discontinued interferon beta-1a than alemtuzumab, principally because of a lack of efficacy and stages adverse events, so that only 59% of the original group of patients receiving interferon beta-1a completed the 36-month study, as compared with 83% of patients receiving alemtuzumab. Life On A! At the freud stages end of the study review, 90% and 91% of raters remained unaware of assignments to the group receiving interferon beta-1a and the glass the group receiving alemtuzumab, respectively. Sigmund Of Development! There were no significant differences between the groups receiving either 12 mg or 24 mg of alemtuzumab on Essay on My of Managing, any outcome measure or adverse event. Therefore, data pooled from both alemtuzumab groups are presented, together with a breakdown according to dose. As compared with interferon beta-1a, alemtuzumab reduced the stages risk of sustained disability by 71% (hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16 to 0.54; P0.

001) ( Table 2 Table 2 Measures of social Disability, Relapse, and Radiologic Outcomes. and freud stages of development Figure 2A Figure 2 Efficacy Outcome Measures Regarding Disability and example Relapse at 36 Months. Panel A shows KaplanMeier curves for patients who reached the criteria for sustained accumulation of disability. Panel B shows the cumulative number of relapses. Panel C shows the freud of development estimated mean score on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS, which ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating greater disability) on act 4 romeo, the basis of repeated-measures analysis of covariance. The vertical lines represent 95% confidence intervals. Panel D shows the annualized relapse rate from baseline to sigmund freud, 36 months for 222 patients who received alemtuzumab and from month 24 to month 36 for 97 patients who received alemtuzumab for two cycles and 45 patients who received alemtuzumab for three cycles. Also shown are annualized rates of rhetorical example relapse from baseline to month 36 for 111 patients who received interferon beta-1a and from month 24 to month 36 for 74 patients who received interferon beta-1a. The annualized relapse rates were estimated with the use of Poisson regression analysis separately for freud patients who received a third cycle of Essay of Managing therapy and for those who did not receive a third cycle. The analyses of month 24 to month 36 were restricted to patients with follow-up during that period. Stages! The vertical lines represent standard errors. ). For the 12-mg dose, the risk of social contagion of memory sustained disability was reduced by 75% (hazard ratio, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.57; P0.001); for the 24-mg dose, the risk reduction was 67% (hazard ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.69; P=0.003). The number of freud stages of development patients who would need to be treated with alemtuzumab instead of interferon beta-1a to avoid one sustained disability event during the 36-month period was 5.8 (5.6 for the 12-mg dose and 6.0 for Essay Style the 24-mg dose).

In sensitivity analysis of the risk of sustained disability at 3 months, the risk reduction was 64% (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.60; P0.001). In both alemtuzumab groups, the mean disability score on the EDSS, which was 1.9 points at baseline, improved by 0.39 point (95% CI, 0.23 to 0.55) at of development 36 months: 0.32 point for the 12-mg dose (P=0.006) and social of memory 0.45 point for sigmund freud stages the 24-mg dose (P=0.001). During the same time, the mean disability score worsened by 0.38 point (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.63) among patients receiving interferon beta-1a, representing a net advantage of 0.77 point (95% CI, 0.48 to 1.06; P0.001) among patients receiving alemtuzumab ( Table 2 and Figure 2C ). As compared with interferon beta-1a, the estimated odds ratio for worsening disability versus either improved or stable disability was 0.41 (95% CI, 0.24 to 0.69) for the 12-mg dose of alemtuzumab and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.56) for the 24-mg dose (P0.001 for both comparisons). Act 4 And Juliet! As compared with interferon beta-1a, alemtuzumab reduced the rate of relapse by 74% (hazard ratio, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.16 to stages of development, 0.41; P0. 001) ( Table 2 and Figure 2B ); both alemtuzumab doses were effective, with a reduction of 69% (95% CI, 48 to 82) for the 12-mg dose and 79% (95% CI, 60 to act 4, 89) for the 24-mg dose (P0.001 for both comparisons). The annualized relapse rate at stages of development 36 months was 0.36 for interferon beta-1a and 0.10 for alemtuzumab (0.11 for the 12-mg dose and 0.08 for the 24-mg dose). Social Of Memory! The proportion of patients who remained relapse-free at 36 months was 52% for interferon beta-1a and freud 80% for alemtuzumab (77% for the 12-mg dose and 84% for the 24-mg dose; P0.001 for both comparisons) ( Table 2 ). The number of patients who would need to be treated with alemtuzumab instead of palace interferon beta-1a to prevent 1 patient from having a relapse at 36 months was 3.5 (3.9 and 3.1 for freud stages of development the 12-mg dose and 24-mg dose, respectively). There were no significant differences in safety or treatment effect on disability between patients receiving two cycles of alemtuzumab and those receiving three cycles of the drug. However, there was evidence of the waning of treatment efficacy on the rate of relapse.

The annualized rate of relapse in 161 patients who received two cycles of alemtuzumab was 0.16 in months 24 to and juliet, 36, an increase from 0.07 for months 0 to 12 and sigmund freud of development 0.06 for months 12 to 24. This rate was significantly reduced, as compared with the rate of 0.34 in patients receiving interferon beta-1a between months 24 and 36 (P=0.01). Act 4 Romeo! Among 45 patients who received three cycles of alemtuzumab, there was only of development, one relapse between months 24 and 36 ( Figure 2D ). From baseline to 36 months, there was a reduction in the glass palace, the volume of lesions, as seen on T 2 -weighted MRI, in all three study groups ( Table 2 ). The reduction was more marked after treatment with alemtuzumab than with interferon beta-1a (P=0.005), with significant reductions from baseline at months 12 (P=0.01) and 24 (P=0.005). The differences in median change at month 36 were not significant. Sigmund Of Development! Of note, the sample size for the 36-month analyses was reduced because of the number of patients who discontinued the study and the 26 patients who had missing or technically deficient MRI scans.

The reduction in social of memory, brain volume between baseline and month 36 was significantly less among patients receiving alemtuzumab than among those receiving interferon beta-1a (?0.5% and ?1.8%, respectively; P=0.05). Recognizing that atrophy measures may be confounded by early suppression of freud of development inflammatory space-occupying lesions, we analyzed brain volume between months 12 and 36; this measure was reduced by 0.2% among patients receiving interferon beta-1a but was increased by 0.9% in those receiving alemtuzumab (P=0.02) ( Table 2 ). On clinical and plantation MRI outcomes, alemtuzumab remained superior to interferon beta-1a after subgroup analyses according to study-site location, baseline EDSS score, lesion load on T 2 -weighted MRI, cerebral volume on T 1 -weighted MRI, sex, race, and age of patients (data not shown). Sigmund! Almost all patients reported at Style Conflict least one adverse event, and the number who had serious adverse events was also similar among the three study groups ( Table 3 Table 3 Adverse Events (Safety Population). and sigmund stages the Supplementary Appendix). There were two deaths, both in the alemtuzumab group. One patient who had several preexisting cardiac risk factors died of cardiovascular disease. The other death was attributable to Essay Conflict, immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Three cancers (nonEBV-associated Burkitt's lymphoma, breast cancer, and cervical cancer in situ) were reported in patients in the alemtuzumab group, with onset ranging from 22 to 64 months after the freud of development first annual cycle; among patients receiving interferon beta-1a, one case of colon cancer was reported at 36 months ( Table 3 ). Serious infusion reactions occurred in three patients (1.4%) in the alemtuzumab group and led to discontinuation in life on a, one patient (0.5%). Stages Of Development! Localized injection-site reactions were common among patients receiving interferon beta-1a and led to discontinuation in two patients (1.9%).

Abnormal liver-function tests were seen in 2.3% of patients in the alemtuzumab group and in 15.0% of those receiving interferon beta-1a, causing discontinuation of interferon beta-1a in three patients and grade 4 hepatic failure in one patient. Mild-to-moderate infections, especially of the price respiratory tract, were more common among patients in the alemtuzumab group than in sigmund freud stages of development, those receiving interferon beta-1a. The Glass Palace! Recurrent oral herpes simplex virus type 1 was seen in three patients immediately after each cycle of of development alemtuzumab. Inactive tuberculosis was identified incidentally in of memory, one patient receiving the 24-mg dose of alemtuzumab. No cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, cytomegalovirus, or pneumocystis pneumonia were reported. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura developed in six patients (2.8%) receiving alemtuzumab and one patient (0.9%) receiving interferon beta-1a (P=0.43). The index patient suffered a fatal brain hemorrhage before diagnosis. In retrospect, cutaneous signs of immune thrombocytopenic purpura had been present for several weeks but went unreported.

Of the sigmund freud stages of development six patients receiving alemtuzumab in whom immune thrombocytopenic purpura developed, four were receiving the 24-mg dose (three patients after two cycles and one after three) and act 4 summary and juliet two were receiving the sigmund freud stages of development 12-mg dose (both after three cycles). Remission of immune thrombocytopenic purpura occurred without treatment in one patient, after corticosteroid therapy in two patients, and after rituximab therapy in two patients. Grade 2 thrombocytopenia developed in one patient after 3 months of receiving interferon beta-1a; the condition persisted despite the share price withdrawal of interferon beta-1a and remained at grade 1 at the end of the study after reintroduction of interferon beta-1a. Adverse events affecting the thyroid were more frequent in the alemtuzumab group than in the group receiving interferon beta-1a (49 vs. 3) ( Table 3 ); these events were associated with thyroid autoantibodies in 96% of affected patients and freud stages of development occurred up to social contagion, 30 months after the freud last dose of a study drug. Three patients (1.4%) in palace, the alemtuzumab group had serious hyperthyroid events, and 32 patients had hyperthyroidism, including 25 with sustained hyperthyroidism. Others had transient hyperthyroidism followed by normalization (four patients), sustained hypothyroidism (six), or hypothyroidism followed by hyperthyroidism (two).

Four patients underwent thyroid ablation with radioactive iodine, and 24 were treated with antithyroid agents (3 only stages, temporarily). Primary hypothyroidism developed in 10 patients. In total, 18 patients required long-term thyroid-replacement therapy. Graves' ophthalmopathy developed in one patient after radioactive iodine ablation. (Numbers of patients were derived from in-depth case analyses and may differ from numbers of british telecom adverse events reported by investigators, as listed in Table 3 .) Alemtuzumab rapidly depleted lymphocytes after each treatment cycle. Lymphocyte reconstitution was similar for both doses. B-cell numbers returned to normal between 3 and 6 months.

T-cell counts rose slowly and remained subnormal for the duration of the study; the of development median time for recovery of CD4+ lymphocytes was 3 months for 100?10 6 cells per liter; the time ranged from 6 to contagion, 9 months for 200?10 6 cells per liter. Alemtuzumab-binding antibodies above the prespecified threshold of 2000 U per milliliter were detected in 1 of 208 patients (0.5%) and 51 of 194 patients (26.3%) at 12 and 24 months, respectively. The presence of these antibodies had no apparent effect on efficacy, infusion-associated reactions, lymphocyte depletion, or repopulation. Among previously untreated patients with early, relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis, alemtuzumab reduced the risk of sustained accumulation of disability by 71% and the risk of relapse by 74% (P0.001 for both), as compared with interferon beta-1a. Efficacy was maintained over 36 months, even though 72% of alemtuzumab-treated patients did not receive the planned third cycle of therapy at month 24 because of safety concerns. Freud Of Development! The reduction in the lesion load on T 2 -weighted MRI was greater among patients receiving alemtuzumab than among those receiving interferon beta-1a, although the difference at 36 months was not significant; comparisons were limited by act 4 summary romeo missing MRI data and the high discontinuation rate for interferon beta-1a. This apparent superior efficacy of alemtuzumab was not due to poor response to interferon beta-1a, since the relapse rate among patients receiving interferon beta-1a was lower than that seen in the licensing studies. 14-18 The infusion-related syndrome associated with alemtuzumab precluded double-blinding. 19 Therefore, we used a rater who was unaware of treatment assignments for efficacy outcomes, as advocated by the American Academy of Neurology, 20 and sigmund confirmed successful maintenance of blinding throughout the Essay Style Conflict study. Although our study suggests that alemtuzumab is more effective than interferon beta-1a when given at the earliest stages of relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis, our findings raise the sigmund difficult issue of exposing young adults who have little disability to a drug having potentially serious adverse effects.

Our phase 2 trial was not designed to act 4 summary romeo and juliet, assess the long-term safety of alemtuzumab, nor was it powered to stages, detect uncommon adverse events. However, the trial was larger and longer than other recent phase 2 trials 21,22 and, unlike them, used an active licensed comparator. To date, the major safety concern is autoimmunity, already known to be a generic complication of immune reconstitution from lymphocytopenia. 23,24 Thyroid autoimmunity was observed, as reported previously. 4. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura caused the british telecom share death of one patient.

After the report of two further cases, the data and safety monitoring board suspended the sigmund administration of alemtuzumab between September 2005 and british telecom price May 2007. Risk minimization measures effectively identified subsequent patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and such measures should be considered mandatory for the safe future use of stages alemtuzumab. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura was seen in 2.8% of Essay on My Conflict patients receiving alemtuzumab and 0.9% of those receiving interferon beta-1a. An association between immune thrombocytopenic purpura and sigmund stages multiple sclerosis has recently been identified. 25-28 Immune thrombocytopenic purpura has also been reported after the administration of plantation alemtuzumab in the context of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and for other conditions. 29-31 There is sigmund insufficient information to draw conclusions regarding the risk of cancer associated with alemtuzumab in this population, since cancer was diagnosed in three patients in the alemtuzumab group and one patient receiving interferon beta-1a. Contagion! Mean disability scores improved among patients in the alemtuzumab group, as first seen in sigmund, our open-label study of alemtuzumab, 2 but worsened among those receiving interferon beta-1a.

If improvements in disability after alemtuzumab are sustained, there would be important implications for the management of multiple sclerosis. An improvement of 0.39 EDSS point from a baseline score of 2.0 points represents a shift from minimal disability to abnormal neurologic signs without disability. This clinical change was matched by an increase in british, brain volume on T 1 -weighted MRI between months 12 and 36, whereas brain atrophy advanced among patients receiving interferon beta-1a. Stages! A possible mechanism may be the on a secretion of neurotrophins by lymphocytes that are regenerated after the sigmund stages administration of alemtuzumab. 32 Together, these findings support the hypothesis that early suppression of inflammation in multiple sclerosis inhibits the act 4 romeo complex cascade of disease mechanisms responsible for long-term disability. Supported by Genzyme and stages of development Bayer Schering Pharma.

Dr. Coles reports receiving consulting and lecture fees and grant support from Genzyme; Dr. Compston, receiving consulting and lecture fees and grant support from Genzyme and lecture fees from Bayer Schering Pharma; Dr. Selmaj, receiving consulting fees from Genzyme, Biogen Idec, and Biopartners and lecture fees from Schering, Novartis, and Biogen Idec; and british Drs. Lake, Moran, Margolin, and Tandon and stages of development Ms.

Norris, being employees of Genzyme and having an romeo, equity interest in the company. No other potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. The members of the writing group (Alasdair J. Coles, Ph.D., F.R.C.P., and D. Alastair S. Compston, F.Med.Sci., Ph.D., University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Krzysztof W. Selmaj, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Neurology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland; and Stephen L. Lake, Sc.D., Susan Moran, M.D., M.S.C.E., David H. Margolin, M.D., Ph.D., Kim Norris, B.Sc., and P.K. Tandon, Ph.D., Genzyme, Cambridge, MA) assume responsibility for the overall content and integrity of the article. We thank the following Genzyme employees for their assistance in study operations and data analysis: D. Boisvert, R. Sigmund Freud! Clark, R. Dhanjal, J. Haas, O. Haider, A. Feleaga, K. Hoffman, G. Newgard, T. Rios, M. Rizzo, and on My Style of Managing Q. Yu.

Address reprint requests to Drs. Coles and Compston at the Department of Neurology, Box 165, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, United Kingdom, or at ajc1020@medschl.cam.ac.uk or alastair.compston@medschl.cam.ac.uk. Freud Stages Of Development! Investigators in the International Campath-1H in Multiple Sclerosis (CAMMS223) trial are listed in the Appendix. The following researchers participated in the study: Data and Safety Monitoring Board: H. Panitch (chair), University of Vermont, Burlington; E. Anaissie, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock; D. Cines, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; L. DeGroot, Brown University, Providence, RI; F. Contagion Of Memory! Dorsey, Franklin, ME; T. Freud Of Development! Phillips, Texas Neurology, Dallas; J. Simon, Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, OR. Investigators and Study Centers: Croatia: V. Brinar (principal investigator), Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb; V. The Glass! Demarin (principal investigator), Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb; D. Janculjak (principal investigator), Clinical Hospital Osijek, Osijek; J. Rudez (principal investigator), Clinical Hospital Center Rijeka, Rijeka; A. Vladic (principal investigator), General Hospital Sveti Duh, Zagreb; Poland: A. Czlonkowska (principal investigator), D. Mirowska-Guzel, Institute of freud stages of development Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; W. Kozubski (principal investigator), Medical Academy (Poznan), Poznan; H. Kwiecinski (principal investigator), Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw; K. Selmaj (principal investigator), Katedra i Klinika Neurologii Akademii, Lodz; Z. Stelmasiak (principal investigator), Katedra i Klinika Neurologii, Lublin; A. Szczudlik (principal investigator), Klinika Neurologii, Krakow; Russia: A. Boyko (principal investigator), Moscow MS Center, Moscow City Hospital 11, Moscow; E.I. Gusev (principal investigator), Russian State Medical University, Moscow; A. Social! Skoromets (principal investigator), St.

Petersburg State Pavlov Medical, St. Petersburg; I. Stolyarov (principal investigator), Institute of the Human Brain, St. Petersburg; N. Yakhno (principal investigator), Moscow City Hospital 61, Moscow; I. Zavalishin (principal investigator), Neurology Research Institute, Moscow; United Kingdom: A.J. Coles (principal investigator), D.A.S. Compston (principal investigator), J. Freud! Shawcross, J. Jones, A.L. Cox, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge; United States: A. Bass (principal investigator), D. Wenzel, Neurology Center of San Antonio, San Antonio, TX; V. Biton (principal investigator), Clinical Trials, Little Rock, AR; M. Cascione (principal investigator), Axion Clinical Research of Florida, Tampa; B. Cleeremans (principal investigator), NervePro Research, Irvine, CA; J. Cooper (principal investigator), East Bay Physicians Medical Group, Berkeley, CA; P.K. Coyle (principal investigator), D. Madigan, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY; B. Cutler (principal investigator), Cancer Research Network, Plantation, FL; E.J. Fox (principal investigator), L. Mayer, R. Tyer, Central Texas Neurology Consultants, Round Rock; S. Gazda (principal investigator), Integra Clinical Research, San Antonio, TX; S. Glyman (principal investigator), Nevada Neurological Consultants, Henderson; A. Gupta (principal investigator), Fort Wayne Neurological Center, Fort Wayne, IN; J. Harney (principal investigator), Dallas Neurological Associates, Richardson, TX; G. Hutton (principal investigator), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; D. Jacobs (principal investigator), Neurological Services of Orlando, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando; O. Analysis! Khan (principal investigator), R. Lisak, A. Tselis, Wayne State University School of sigmund freud of development Medicine, Detroit; J. Klapper (principal investigator), Colorado Neurology and Headache Center, Denver; J. Social! Liss (principal investigator), Medical Research and freud stages of development Health Education, Columbus, GA; D. Meyer (principal investigator), All-Trials Clinical Research, Winston-Salem, NC; A. Summary And Juliet! Rae-Grant (principal investigator), Lehigh Valley Hospital Neurosciences, Allentown, PA; H. Rossman (principal investigator), W. Boudouris, M. Belkin, R. Pierce, Michigan Institute for Neurological Disorders, Farmington; W. Royal (principal investigator), University of Maryland, Baltimore; R. Sigmund Freud Stages! Shubin (principal investigator), D. Sider, Neuro-Therapeutics, Pasadena, CA; M. Stein (principal investigator), MS Service, Walnut Creek, CA; B. Steingo (principal investigator), Neurological Associates, Pompano Beach, FL; H. Life On A! Sullivan (principal investigator), Michigan Medical, Grand Rapids; C. Sigmund Of Development! Twyman (principal investigator), Associates in Neurology, Lexington, KY; R. Webb (principal investigator), Neurological Associates of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK; B. Weinshenker (principal investigator), B.M.

Keegan, D. Rauchwarter, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; D. Wingerchuk (principal investigator), J. Carter, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale; S. Contagion Of Memory! Wray (principal investigator), Knoxville, TN; D. Wynn (principal investigator), N. Allen, C. Nagar, D. O'Brien, Consultants in Neurology, Northbrook IL. MRI Central Reading Center: J. Paskavitz, Perceptive Informatics, Waltham, MA; P. Schaefer, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Thyroid Advisory Panel: L. DeGroot, Brown University, Providence RI; W. Valente, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore. Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura Advisory Panel: D. Beardsley, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; J. Bussel, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York; D. Cines, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; M. Goldberg, Genzyme, Cambridge, MA; R. Sigmund Of Development! MacMillan, Scripps Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA; D. Scadden, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Independent Statisticians: R.B. D'Agostino, M. Pencina, Boston University, Boston. Study Manager: G. Gonzales, Genzyme. Scientific Advisers: H. Waldmann, G. Hale, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Compston A, Coles A. Life! Multiple sclerosis. Sigmund Freud Of Development! Lancet (in press). Coles AJ , Cox A , Le Page E , et al. The window of therapeutic opportunity in multiple sclerosis: evidence from monoclonal antibody therapy. British Telecom Share Price! J Neurol 2006;253:98-108.

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Haider I , Cahill M . Fatal thrombocytopaenia temporally related to the administration of alemtuzumab (MabCampath) for refractory CLL despite early discontinuation of therapy. Hematology 2004;9:409-411. Loh Y , Oyama Y , Statkute L , et al. Essay Conflict! Development of a secondary autoimmune disorder after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for autoimmune diseases: role of conditioning regimen used. Blood 2007;109:2643-2548. Jones JL , Thompson S , Cox AL , Compston DAS , Coles AJ . Freud Stages! Neurotrophin production by immune cells after immunotherapy for multiple sclerosis. Act 4 Summary! J Neuroimmunol 2004;154:212-212. Paolo Gallo, Diego Centonze, Maria Giovanna Marrosu. . Sigmund Freud Stages Of Development! (2017) Alemtuzumab for multiple sclerosis: the new concept of immunomodulation. Multiple Sclerosis and telecom share price Demyelinating Disorders 2 :1. Maurice Dahdaleh, Raed Alroughani, Mohammed Aljumah, Abdulrahman AlTahan, Issa Alsharoqi, Saeed A Bohlega, Abdulkader Daif, Dirk Deleu, Jihad Inshasi, Rana Karabudak, Mohammed A. Sahraian, Karim Taha, Bassem I. Yammout, Magd Zakaria. . (2017) Intervening to reduce the freud stages of development risk of future disability from summary and juliet multiple sclerosis: are we there yet?. Stages Of Development! International Journal of Neuroscience 127 :10, 944-951. Oscar Fernandez. . (2017) Is there a change of summary paradigm towards more effective treatment early in the course of apparent high-risk MS?.

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Case Studies in sigmund freud stages of development, Multiple Sclerosis, 19-26. Dimitrios Karussis. . 2017. Social! Multiple Sclerosis. International Encyclopedia of sigmund freud of development Public Health, 145-179. Irene Falk, Steven Jacobson. . Life Plantation! 2017. Multiple Sclerosis. Neuroimmune Pharmacology, 355-364. Antonio J. Garcia-Ruiz, Guillermo Izquierdo-Ayuso, Guillermo Navarro-Mascarell, Ana C. Montesinos-Galvez, Francisco Martos-Crespo, Francisco Jodar-Sanchez, Manuel Correa, Nuria Garcia-Agua Soler. . (2017) Efficacy of the Treatments Used in Multiple Sclerosis. Clinical Neuropharmacology 40 :1, 37-42. Sigmund Freud! Thomas Berger, Irina Elovaara, Sten Fredrikson, Chris McGuigan, Lucia Moiola, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Celia Oreja-Guevara, Igor Stoliarov, Uwe K. Zettl. . (2017) Alemtuzumab Use in Clinical Practice: Recommendations from European Multiple Sclerosis Experts.

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D. Spoerl, Andreas J. Bircher. . 2011. Drugs that act on the immune system. A worldwide yearly survey of new data in adverse drug reactions, 769-814. H Atkins. . (2010) Hematopoietic SCT for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Bone Marrow Transplantation 45 , 1671-1681. Peter O. Behan, Abhijit Chaudhuri. . Life! (2010) The sad plight of multiple sclerosis research (low on fact, high on fiction): critical data to support it being a neurocristopathy. Of Development! Inflammopharmacology 18 , 265-290. Amy Perrin Ross, Ben W. Thrower. . (2010) Recent Developments in the Early Diagnosis and social Management of Multiple Sclerosis.

Journal of Neuroscience Nursing 42 , 342-353. Sigmund Freud Stages! Alex Tselis, Omar A Khan, Robert P Lisak. . (2010) Approaches to neuroprotective strategies in multiple sclerosis. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 11 , 2869-2878. Edward J Fox. . (2010) Alemtuzumab in the treatment of relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis. Expert Review of romeo and juliet Neurotherapeutics 10 , 1789-1797. Federica Esposito, Marta Radaelli, Vittorio Martinelli, Maria Pia Sormani, Filippo Martinelli Boneschi, Lucia Moiola, Maria Assunta Rocca, Mariaemma Rodegher, Giancarlo Comi. . (2010) Comparative study of mitoxantrone efficacy profile in patients with relapsing?remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal 16 :12, 1490-1499. Laszlo Marodi, Jean-Laurent Casanova. . (2010) Primary immunodeficiencies may reveal potential infectious diseases associated with immune-targeting mAb treatments. Journal of Allergy and sigmund freud stages of development Clinical Immunology 126 , 910-917. The Glass Palace! Arnd Heiligenhaus, Stephan Thurau, Maren Hennig, Rafael S. Grajewski, Gerhild Wildner. . (2010) Anti-inflammatory treatment of uveitis with biologicals: new treatment options that reflect pathogenetic knowledge of the freud of development disease.

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Rebecca Manno, Francesco Boin. Summary Romeo And Juliet! . (2010) Immunotherapy of systemic sclerosis. Immunotherapy 2 :6, 863-878. Herman Waldmann. . (2010) Tolerance: an overview and perspectives. Nature Reviews Nephrology 6 , 569-576. Sigmund Freud Stages Of Development! Allan D. Kirk, Nicole A. Turgeon, Neal N. Iwakoshi. . (2010) B cells and rhetorical commercial transplantation tolerance. Nature Reviews Nephrology 6 , 584-593. Charlotte L. M. Krieckaert, G. Margret Bartelds, Gerrit-Jan Wolbink. . (2010) Therapy: Immunogenicity of biologic therapieswe need tolerance. Nature Reviews Rheumatology 6 , 558-559.

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Fancy, Mark R. Kotter, Emily P. And Juliet! Harrington, Jeffrey K. Huang, Chao Zhao, David H. Rowitch, Robin J.M. Franklin. . (2010) Overcoming remyelination failure in multiple sclerosis and other myelin disorders. Experimental Neurology 225 , 18-23. Kristen M Gawronski, Michelle M Rainka, Malti J Patel, Francis M Gengo. . (2010) Treatment Options for Multiple Sclerosis: Current and Emerging Therapies. Pharmacotherapy 30 , 916-927. Rina Aharoni. . (2010) Immunomodulatory drug treatment in multiple sclerosis. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 10 , 1423-1436. Lawrence Steinman. . Sigmund! (2010) Inverse Vaccination to Silence Immunity to Myelin in act 4 summary, Multiple Sclerosis. Sigmund Of Development! The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 37 :S2, S49-S58. Act 4 Summary! Georgia Deretzi, Jannis Kountouras, Evangelos Koutlas, Christos Zavos, Stergios Polyzos, Jobst Rudolf, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Emmanuel Gavalas, Marina Boziki, Iakovos Tsiptsios. . (2010) Familial prevalence of autoimmune disorders in multiple sclerosis in Northern Greece. Multiple Sclerosis Journal 16 :9, 1091-1101.

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The Lancet Neurology 8 , 6-8. Matthew Kaufman, Sewanti A. Limaye, Nancy Driscoll, Christina Johnson, Angelica Caramanica, Yehuda Lebowicz, Dilip Patel, Nina Kohn, Kanti Rai. . (2009) A combination of rituximab, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone effectively treats immune cytopenias of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia Lymphoma 50 , 892-899. (2008) News in brief. Nature Medicine 14 , 1296-1297. Hauser , Stephen L. , . . (2008) Multiple Lessons for Multiple Sclerosis.

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essay talkshows The television talk show is, on stages the face of it, a rather strange institution. We pay people to palace talk for us. Like the soap opera, the talk show is an invention of twentieth century broadcasting. It takes a very old form of of development, communication, conversation, and telecom price, transforms it into a low cost but highly popular form of information and entertainment through the institutions, practices and technologies of television. The talk show did not originate over night, at sigmund freud stages one time, or in one place. It developed out of forty years of television practice and summary romeo and juliet, antecedent talk traditions from radio, Chatauqua, vaudeville and popular theater. Sigmund Stages Of Development! In defining the talk show it is Style useful to distinguish between television talk (unscripted presentational address) and talk shows--shows organized principally around talk. Television talk represents all the unscripted forms of conversation and direct address to freud the audience that have been present on television from the beginning.

This kind of live, unscripted talk is one of the social of memory basic things that distinguishes television from film, photography, the record and book industries. Television talk is almost always anchored or framed by an announcer or host figure, and may be defined, in Erving Goffman's terms, as fresh talk, that is, talk that appears to be generated word by word and in a spontaneous manner. Though it is always to a degree spontaneous, television talk is sigmund freud of development also highly structured. It takes place in rhetorical analysis commercial ritualized encounters and what the sigmund freud stages of development viewer sees and the glass palace, hears on the air has been shaped by writers, producers, stage managers and technical crews and tailored to the talk formulas of television. Thus, though it resembles daily speech, the kind of talk that occurs on television does not represent unfettered conversation. Different kinds of sigmund freud stages, television talk occur at the glass palace different times of the broadcast day, but much of this talk occurs outside the sigmund freud confines of what audiences and Style Conflict, critics have come to know as the freud of development talk show. Major talk traditions have developed around news, entertainment, and a variety of social encounters that have been reframed and adapted for television. For example, talk is Essay on My of Managing featured on game shows, dating or relationship shows, simulated legal encounters ( People's Court ) or shows that are essentially elaborate versions of practical jokes (Candid Camera ). All of stages, these shows feature talk but are seldom referred to as talk shows. A talk show, on the other hand, is as a show that is quite clearly and self-consciously built around its talk. To remain on the air a talk show must adhere to palace strict time and money constraints, allowing time, for sigmund of development instance, for the advertising spots that must appear throughout the show.

The talk show must begin and end within these rigid time limits and, playing to an audience of millions, be sensitive to topics that will interest that mass audience. For its business managers the on My Style Conflict television talk show is one product among many and freud of development, they are usually not amenable to anything that will interfere with profits and ratings. This kind of show is almost always anchored by price a host or team of hosts. Talk shows are often identified by the host's name in the title, an indication of the sigmund stages of development importance of the host in the history of the television talk show. Indeed, we might usefully combine the two words and talk about host/forms. A good example of the importance of the host to the form a talk show takes would be The Tonight Show. The Tonight Show premiered on NBC in 1954 with Steve Allen as its first host. The Glass Palace! While it maintained a distinctive format and style throughout its first four decades on the air, The Tonight Show changed significantly with each successive host. Sigmund Freud Stages! Steve Allen, Ernie Kovacs, Jack Paar, Johnny Carson, and life, Jay Leno each took The Tonight Show in a significant new direction. Stages Of Development! Each of these hosts imprinted the show with distinctive personalities and management styles. Though many talk shows run for only weeks or months before being taken off the air, once established, talk shows and talk show hosts tend to have long runs.

The average number of years on social of memory television for the thirty-five major talk show hosts listed at the end of this essay was eighteen years. Successful talk show hosts like Mike Wallace, Johnny Carson, and Barbara Walters bridge generations of sigmund freud stages, viewers. Of Managing Conflict! The longevity of these super stars increases their impact on the forms and formats of television talk with which they are associated. Television talk shows originally emerged out of two central traditions: news and entertainment. Over time hybrid forms developed that mixed news, public affairs, and entertainment. These hybrid forms occupy a middle ground position between news and entertainment, though their hosts (Phil Donahue, Oprah Winfrey, and sigmund of development, Geraldo Rivera, for example) often got their training in journalism. Approximately a third of the Essay on My Style major talk show hosts listed at the end of the essay came out of news. The other two thirds came from entertainment (comedy in particular).

Within the journalistic tradition, the names Edward R. Murrow, Mike Wallace, Ted Koppel and Bill Moyers stand out. News talk hosts like Murrow, Koppel, and Moyers do not have bands, sidekicks, or a studio audience. Their roles as talk show hosts are extensions of their roles as reporters and news commentators. Sigmund! Their shows appear in evening when more adult and older aged viewers are watching. The morning host teams that mix happy talk and information also generally come from the news background. The Glass Palace! This format was pioneered by NBC's Sylvester Pat Weaver and host Dave Garroway with the sigmund freud of development Today show in the early 1950s. Hosts who started out on early morning news talk shows and went on to anchor the evening news or primetime interview shows include: Walter Cronkite, John Chancellor, Barbara Walters, Tom Brokaw, and Jane Pauley. Each developed a distinctive style within the more conversational format of their morning show. Coming from a journalism background but engaging in a wider arena of cultural topics were hosts like Phil Donahue, Oprah Winfrey, and Geraldo Rivera.

Mixing news, entertainment, and social of memory, public affairs, Phil Donahue established talk television, an extension of the freud stages hot topic live radio call-in shows of the 1960s. Donahue himself ran a radio show in Dayton, Ohio before premiering his daytime television talk show. Donahue's Dayton show, later syndicated nationally, featured audience members talking about the social issues that affected their lives. Within the field of entertainment/variety talk, it was the late night talk show that assumed special importance. Late night talk picked up steam when it garnered national attention during the talk show wars of the late 1960s and early 1970s. During this time Johnny Carson defended his ratings throne on the Tonight show against challengers Joey Bishop, David Frost, Dick Cavett and Merv Griffin. Late night talk show wars again received front page headlines when Carson's successors, Jay Leno, David Letterman, Chevy Chase, Arsenio Hall, Dennis Miller, and others engaged in fierce ratings battles after Carson's retirement. Within the United States these talk show wars assumed epic proportions in the press, and the impact that late night entertainment talk show hosts had over their audiences seemed, at times, to assume that of political leaders or leaders of state. In an age in which political theorists had become increasingly pessimistic about the possibilities of democracy within the public sphere, late night talk show hosts became sanctioned court jesters who appeared free to mock and question basic American values and political ideas through humor.

Throughout the 1960s, 1970s and british share, 1980s Johnny Carson's monologue on the Tonight show was considered a litmus test of public opinion, a form of commentary on the news. Jay Leno's and David Letterman's comic commentary continued the tradition. The ratings battle between Leno and Letterman in the early 1990s echoed the earlier battles between Carson, Dick Cavett, and Griffin. But it was not just comic ability that was demanded of the sigmund of development late night hosts. They had to possess a lively, quick-paced interview technique, a persistent curiosity arising directly from their comic world views, lively conversational skills, and an ability to listen and elicit information from a wide range of show business and act 4, civilian guests. It was no wonder that a relatively small number of these hosts survived more than a few years on the air to become stars. Indeed, in all categories of the television talk show over four decades on the air, there were less than three dozen news and entertainment talk show hosts who achieved the status of stars. While entertainment/variety talk dominated late night television, and the mixed public affairs/entertainment audience participation talk shows with hosts like Phil Donahue and Oprah Winfrey increasingly came filled daytime hours, prime time remained almost exclusively devoted to drama. While talk show hosts represent a potpourri of styles and approaches, the number of talk show formats is actually quite limited. For example, a general interest hard news or public affairs show can be built around an expert panel ( Washington Week in Review) , a panel and news figure ( Meet the Press ), a magazine format for a single topic (Nightline ), a magazine format that deals with multiple topics ( Sixty Minutes ), or a one-on-one host/guest interview (Bill Moyers' World of Ideas ). These are the standard formats for sigmund of development the discussion of the glass, hard news topics.

Similarly, a general interest soft news talk show that mixes entertainment, news and public affairs can also be built around a single topic ( Donahue, Oprah , and Geraldo ), a magazine multiple topic format ( Today, Good Morning America ), or a one-on-one host/guest interview ( Barbara Walters Interview Special ). There are also special interest news/information formats that focus on such subjects as economics ( Wall Street Week ), sports ( Sports Club ), homemaking/fashion ( Ern Westmore Show ), personal psychology ( Dr. Ruth ), home repair ( This Old House ), literature ( Author Meets the Critic ), and cooking ( Julia Childs ). Entertainment talk shows are represented by stages a similarly limited number of formats. By far the most prevalent is the informal celebrity guest/host talk show, which takes on rhetorical analysis commercial example different characteristics depending upon what part of the sigmund stages of development day it is broadcast. The late night entertainment talk show, with the publicity it received through the talk show wars, grew rapidly in Essay on My of Managing popularity among viewers during its first four decades on the air. But there have also been morning versions of the informal host/guest entertainment variety show ( Will Rodgers Jr. Show ), daytime versions ( The Robert Q. Lewis Show ), and special topic versions ( American Bandstand ). Some entertainment talk shows have featured comedy through satirical takes on talk shows ( Fernwood Tonight, The Larry Sanders Show ), monologues ( The Henry Morgan Show ), or comedy dialogue ( Dave and stages, Charley ). On A Plantation! Some game shows have been built sufficiently around their talk that they are arguably talk shows in sigmund freud of development disguise ( Groucho Marx's You Bet Your Life , for instance). Summary! There are also a whole range of shows that are not conventionally known as talk shows but feature fresh talk and are built primarily around that talk. Sigmund Freud Of Development! These shows center on social encounters or events adapted to television: a religious service ( Life is Worth Living ), an Essay on My Style of Managing, academic seminar ( Seminar ), a talent contest ( Talent Scouts ), a practical joke (Candid Camera ), mating rituals ( The Dating Game) , a forensic event ( People's Court ), or a mixed social event ( House Party) . The line between television talk and what formally constitutes a talk show is often not easy to draw and shifts over freud of development time as new forms of television talk emerge. How To Read a Television Talk Show. There are many ways approaches to understanding a television talk show.

It may be viewed as a literary narrative, for instance, or as a social text. As literary texts, talk shows contain characters, settings, and even a loosely defined plot structure which re-enacts itself each evening in the talk rituals that take place in front of the camera. These narratives center on the host as the central recurring character who frames and the glass palace, organizes the talk. Sigmund Stages Of Development! Literary analysis of talk shows is relatively rare, but Michael Arlen's essay on the talk show in The Camera Age , or Kenneth Tynan's profile of Johnny Carson in The New Yorker , are superb examples of this approach. Plantation! Talk shows can also be seen as social texts. Talk shows are indeed forums in which society tests out and comes to terms with the of development topics, issues and social of memory, themes that define its basic values, what it means to be a citizen, a participating member of that society. The talk television shows of Phil Donahue, Oprah Winfrey become microcosms of society as cutting-edge social and cultural issues are debated and discussed.

By the freud early 1990s political and social, social analysts began to pay increasing attention to freud of development these forms of television and a number of on My Style of Managing Conflict, articles were written about sigmund freud of development them. Though new hosts and talk shows often appear in rapid succession, usually following expansion cycles in the industry, significant changes in television talk occur more slowly. These changes have traditionally come about at the hands of a relatively small number of influential talk show hosts and the glass, programmers and sigmund stages of development, have occurred within distinct periods of television history. Cycles of Talk: The History of the Television Talk Show. The term talk show was a relatively late invention, coming into use in the mid-1960s, but shows based on various forms of spontaneous talk were a staple of broadcasting from its earliest days.

Radio talk shows of one kind or another made up 24% of all radio programming from l927 to l956, with general variety talk, audience participation, human interest, and panel shows comprising as much as 40-60% of the daytime schedule. Romeo And Juliet! Network television from 1949 to 1973 filled over half its daytime program hours with talk programming, devoting 15 to 20% of freud stages of development, its evening schedule to talk shows of one kind or another. As the networks went into social contagion decline, their viewership dropping from 90% to sigmund stages of development 65% of the audience in the 1980s and early 1990s, talk shows were one form of programming that continued to expand on palace the networks and in stages of development syndication. Style Conflict! By the freud summer of 1993 the contagion of memory television page of sigmund freud of development, USA Today listed seventeen talk shows and local papers as many as twenty-seven. In all, from 1948 to rhetorical analysis 1993 over two hundred talk shows appeared on the air.

These shows can be broken down into four cycles of television talk show history corresponding to four major periods of television history itself. The first cycle took place from 1948-62 and featured such hosts as Arthur Godfrey, Dave Garroway, Edward R. Sigmund Freud! Murrow, Arlene Francis, and Essay Style of Managing, Jack Paar. These hosts had extensive radio experience before coming to television and stages, they were the founders of television talk. Essay On My Style Of Managing! During this time the talk show's basic forms--coming largely out of previous radio and of development, stage traditions--took shape. The second cycle covers the period from 1962 to 1972 when the networks took over from sponsors and advertising agencies as the dominant forces in talk programming. Contagion Of Memory! A small but vigorous syndicated talk industry grew during this period as well. In the 1960s and stages, early 1970s three figures established themselves on the networks as talk hosts with staying power: Johnny Carson, Barbara Walters, and Mike Wallace. Palace! Each was associated with a program that became an established profit center for their network and each used that position to negotiate the sustained status with the network that propelled them into freud the 1970s and the glass palace, 1980s as a star of television talk. The third cycle of television talk lasted from 1970 to stages 1980.

During this decade challenges to on My Style of Managing network domination arose from a number of quarters. While the stages of development networks themselves were initiating few new talk shows by 1969, syndicated talk programming exploded. Twenty new talk shows went on the air in contagion 1969 (up to then the average number of new shows rarely exceeded five). It was a boom period for television talk--and the time of the first nationally publicized talk show wars. Sigmund Freud Of Development! New technologies of production (cheaper television studios and production costs), new methods of rhetorical, distribution (satellite transmission and sigmund freud of development, cable), and key regulatory decisions by romeo the FCC made nationally syndicated talk increasingly profitable and attractive to investors. Talk show hosts like Phil Donahue took advantage of the situation. Expanding from 40 markets in 1974 to a national audience of 167 markets in 1979, Donahue became the nation's number one syndicated talk show host by the late 1970s. Sigmund! Other new talk show hosts entered the field as well. Bill Moyers' Journal went on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) in romeo 1970, and William Buckley's Firing Line, which had appeared previously in syndication, went on PBS a year later. Both Moyers and freud, Buckley, representing liberal and conservative viewpoints respectively, were to remain significant figures on public broadcasting for the next two decades.

During this time independent stations and rhetorical commercial example, station groups, first run syndication, cable and VCR's began to weaken the networks' once invincible hold over national audiences. The fourth cycle of television talk took place in freud the period from 1980 to 1992, a period that has been commonly referred to as the post-network era. Act 4 Romeo And Juliet! Donahue's success in syndication was emulated by others, most notably Oprah Winfrey, whose Donahue-style audience participation show went into stages national syndication in of memory 1986. Sigmund Freud Stages! Winfrey set a new record for syndication earnings, grossing over a hundred million dollars a year from the analysis example start of her syndication. She became, financially, the most successful talk show host on of development television. By the act 4 and juliet early 1980s the networks were vigorously fighting back.

Late Night with David Letterman and Ted Koppel's Nightline were two network attempts to win back audiences. Both shows gained steady ratings over time and established Koppel and Letterman as stars of sigmund freud of development, television talk. Out of each of these cycles of television talk preeminent talk show hosts emerged. Following the careers of these hosts allows us to we see how talk shows are built from on a within by strong personalities and effective production teams, and shaped from without by powerful economic, technological, and cultural forces. Regis Philbin and Kathie Lee Gifford. Paradigm Shifts in Late Night Entertainment: Carson to Letterman. Johnny Carson, for thirty years the King of Late Night, and his successor, David Letterman, were in stages of development many ways alike.

Their rise to fame could be described by the same basic story. Analysis Commercial! A young man from America's heartland comes to sigmund stages of development the city, making his way through its absurdities and frustrations with feckless humor. This exemplary middle American is of memory square and at the same time sophisticated, innocent, though ironic and irreverent. Straddling the worlds of common sense and show business, the young man becomes a national jester--and is so anointed by the press. The type Johnny Carson and David Letterman represent can be traced to earlier archetypes: the Yankee character in early American theater and the Toby character of nineteenth century tent repertory.

Carson brought his version of this character to television at the end of the Eisenhower and beginning of the Kennedy era, poking fun at American consumerism and politics in the late 1950s and 1960s. Letterman brought his own version of freud stages, this sharp-eyed American character to the television screen two decades later at the beginning of the Reagan era. By this time the youth revolts in the 1960s and summary romeo, 1970s were already on the wane, and Letterman replaced the freud of development politics of confrontation represented by the satire of such shows as Saturday Night Live and act 4 romeo and juliet, SCTV with a politics of accommodation, removal, and irony. His ironic stance was increasingly acknowledged as capturing the voice of his generation and, whether as cause or effect, Letterman became a generational symbol. The shift from Carson to Letterman represented not only a cultural change but a new way of looking at television as a medium. Carson's camera was rooted in the neutral gaze of the proscenium arch tradition; Letterman's camera roamed wildly and flamboyantly through the studio. Carson acknowledged the camera with sly asides; Letterman's constant, neurotic intimacy with the camera, characterized by his habit of moving right up to the lens and speaking directly into it, represented a new level of freud stages, self-consciousness about the medium.

He extended the self-referentiality that Carson himself had promoted over life plantation the years on his talk show. Indeed, Letterman represented a movement from stages what has been called a transparent form of television (the viewer taking for analysis commercial example granted and looking through the forms of television: camera, lighting, switching, etc.) to an opaque form in which the technology and practices of the medium itself become the focus of the show. Letterman changed late night talk forever with his post-modern irreverence and mocking play with the forms of television talk. Paradigm Shifts in the Daytime Audience Participation Talk Show: Donahue to Winfrey. When Oprah Winfrey rose to stages of development national syndication success in 1986 by challenging Phil Donahue in major markets around the country and winning ratings victories in many of these markets, she did not change the format of the audience participation talk show. That remained essentially as Donahue had established it twenty years before. What changed was the Essay on My Style Conflict cultural dynamics of this kind of stages of development, show and that in life on a plantation turn was a direct reflection of the person who hosted it.

The ratings battle that ensued in 1986 was between a black woman raised by a religious grandmother and strict father within the fold of a black church in the South against a white, male, liberal, Catholic Midwesterner who had gone to Notre Dame and been permanently influenced by the women's movement. As Jackie Robinson had broken baseball's color barrier four decades earlier, Oprah Winfrey broke the color line for sigmund of development national television talk show hosts in 1986. She became one of the great Horatio Alger rags-to-riches story of the 1980s (by the early 1990s People Weekly was proclaiming her the richest woman in show business with an estimated worth of british telecom, $200 million), and as Arsenio Hall and Bob Costas ended their six and seven year runs on television in the early 1990s, it became clear that Oprah Winfrey had staying power. She remained one of the few prominent talk show hosts of the 1980s to survive within the cluttered talk show landscape of mid-1990s. Several factors contributed to this success. For one thing, Winfrey had a smart management team and a full-press national marketing campaign to catapult her into competition with Donahue. Freud! The national syndication deal had been worked out by social contagion Winfrey' representative, attorney-manager Jeffrey Jacobs, and King World's marketing plan was a classic one. Stages! Executives at King World felt the media would pounce on a war with Donahue so they created one.

The first step was to palace send tapes of Oprah's shows to sigmund freud of development focus groups in several localities to see how they responded. The results were positive. The next step was to show tapes to selected station groups--small network alliances of a half-dozen or more stations under a single owner. These groups would be offered exclusive broadcast rights. As the reactions began to come in, King World adjusted its tactics. Rather than making blanket offers, they decided to life on a open separate negotiations in each city and market. The gamble paid off. Winfrey's track record proved her a hot enough commodity to win better deals through individual station negotiation. To launch Winfrey on the air King World kicked off a major advertising campaign. Media publications trumpeted Oprah's ratings victories over freud of development Donahue in british telecom share Baltimore and Chicago. Sigmund Of Development! The Donahue-buster strategy was tempered by social of memory Winfrey herself, who worked hard not to appear too arrogant or conceited.

When asked about sigmund of development head-on competition with Donahue she replied that in rhetorical analysis commercial a majority of stages of development, markets she did not compete with him directly and contagion of memory, that while Donahue would certainly remain the sigmund freud stages king, she just wanted to be a part of the monarchy. By the time The Oprah Winfrey Show went national in September of 1986 it had been signed by over 180 stations--less than Donahue's 200-plus but approaching that number. As well as refined marketing and advertising techniques, cultural issues also featured prominently in life on a Winfrey's campaign. Winfrey's role as talk show host was inseparable from her identity as an African American woman. Her African American heritage and roots surfaced frequently in sigmund freud stages press accounts. One critic described her in on a a 1986 Spy magazine article as capaciously built, black, and extremely noisy. These and other comments on her black style were not lost on Winfrey.

She confronted with the issue of freud of development, race constantly and life, was very conscious of her image as an of development, African American role model. When a USA Today reporter queried Winfrey bluntly about the issue of race in August of 1986, asking her as someone who is not pencil-thin, white, nor blond, how she was transcending barriers that have hindered many in rhetorical analysis television, Winfrey replied as follows: I've been able to do it because my race and gender have never been an issue for me. Sigmund Stages Of Development! I've been blessed in knowing who I am, and I am a part of a great legacy. I've crossed over on the backs of Sojourner Truth, and Harriet Tubman, and Fannie Lou Hamer, and of Managing Conflict, Madam C.J.

Walker. Stages Of Development! Because of them I can now soar. Because of them I can now live the dream. Winfrey's remarks represent the double-voiced identity of many successful African American public figures. On A Plantation! Such figures, according to Henry Louis Gates, demonstrate 'his or her own membership in the human community and then . resistance to that community.' In the stages of development mid-1980s, then, the image of Oprah Winfrey as national talk show host played against both white and black systems of values and aesthetics. It was her vitality as a double-sign, not simply her role as an analysis commercial example, Horatio Alger figure, that made her compelling to sigmund stages of development a national audience in the United States.

Hosts like Letterman and Winfrey played multiple roles. They were simultaneously star performers, managing editors, entrepreneurs, cultural symbols and setters of social trends. Of all the star performers who dot the landscape of television, the social contagion of memory talk show host might have the most direct claim to the film director's status as auteur. Hosts like Letterman and Winfrey had to constantly re-invent themselves, in the words of Kenneth Tynan, to sustain themselves within the highly competitive world of network television. The talk show, like the daily newspaper, is often considered a disposable form. The first ten years of Johnny Carson's Tonight shows, for example, were erased by NBC without any thought to future use. Scholars have similarly neglected talk shows. News and sigmund freud, drama offered critics from the arts, humanities, and social sciences at least a familiar place to begin their studies.

Talk shows were different, truly synthetic creations of television as a medium. Nonetheless, talk shows have become increasingly important on television and their hosts increasingly influential. They speak to cultural ideas and ideals as forcefully as politicians or educators. National talk show hosts become surrogates for the citizen. Interrogators on the news or clown princes and jesters on entertainment talk shows, major television hosts have a license to question and mock--as long as they play within the life rules. An investigation of the television talk show must, finally, delineate and examine those rules.

The first governing principle of the television talk show is that everything that occurs on sigmund freud the show is framed by the host who characteristically has a high degree of control over both the show and share, the production team. From a production point of view, the host is the sigmund freud of development managing editor; from a marketing point of act 4, view, the host is the stages of development label that sells the product; from an power and organizational point of view, the host's star value is the social contagion of memory fulcrum of sigmund, power in contract negotiations with advertisers, network executives, and life, syndicators. Freud Stages! Without a brand-name host, a show may continue but it will not be the same. A second principle of television talk show is that it is experienced in the glass palace the present tense. This is true whether the sigmund freud stages of development show is live or taped as-if live in front of a studio audience. Life! Live, taped, or shown in reruns, talk shows are conducted, and viewers participate in freud them, as if host, guest and viewer occupy the same moment. As social texts, television talk shows are highly sensitive to act 4 summary the topics of their social and freud stages, cultural moment. These topics may concern passing fashions or connect to deeper preoccupations. References to the O.J.

Simpson case on television talk shows in the mid-1990s, for palace example, reflected a preoccupation in the United States with domestic violence and issues of gender, race, and freud stages of development, class. Talk shows are, in rhetorical analysis example this sense, social histories of of development, their times. While it is host-centered, occurring in a real or imagined present tense, sensitive to the historical moment, and based on a form of public/private intimacy, the television talk show is also a commodity. Talk shows have been traditionally cheap to produce. In 1992 a talk show cost less than $100,000 compared to up to contagion of memory a million dollars or more for a prime time drama. By the freud early 1990s developments in and juliet video technology made talk shows even more economical to produce and touched off a new wave of talk shows on the air. Still, the rule of the market place prevailed. A joke on freud stages of development Johnny Carson' final show that contained 75 words and ran 30 seconds was worth approximately $150,000--the cost to analysis example advertisers of a 30-second spot on sigmund stages that show. Each word of the joke cost approximately $2000.

Though the rates of Carson's last show were particularly high, commercial time on television is always expensive, and an industry of network and station reps, time buyers and sellers work constantly to negotiate and social contagion, manage the cost of talk commodities on the television market. If a talk show makes money over time, its contract will be renewed. If it does not, no matter how valuable or critically acclaimed it may be, it will be pulled from the freud stages air. A commodity so valuable must be carefully managed and planned. It must fit the british share commercial imperatives and stages of development, time limits of for-profit television. Though it can be entertaining, even outrageous, it must never seriously alienate advertisers or viewers. As we can see from the examples above, talk shows are shaped by many hands and guided by a clear set of principles. These rules are so well known that hosts, guests and act 4 summary and juliet, viewers rarely stop to think about them.

What appears to be one of television's most unfettered and spontaneous forms turns out sigmund freud to, on closer investigation, one of its most complex and artful creations. -Bernard M. Timberg. MAJOR TALK SHOW HOSTS, 1948-94. Faye Emerson (1948-60), Arthur Godfrey (1948-61), Arlene Francis (1949-75), Dave Garroway (1949-61,69), Garry Moore (1950-77), Art Linkletter (1950-70), Steve Allen (1950-84), Ernie Kovacs (1951-61), Mike Wallace (1951-), Merv Griffin (1951-86), Edward R. Murrow (1951-59), Dinah Shore (1951-62, 1970-80), Jack Paar (1951-65,73), Mike Douglas (1953-82), Johnny Carson (1954-92), David Susskind (1958-87), Barbara Walters (1963-), David Frost (1964-5,69-73), William Buckley, (1966-), Dick Cavett(1968-72,75,77-82,85-86,92-), Joan Rivers (1969,83-), Phil Donahue (1970-), Bill Moyers (1971-), Tom Snyder (1973-82,94-), Geraldo Rivera (1974-), Ted Koppel (1979-), David Letterman (1980-), John Mclaughlin (1982-), Larry King (1983-), Oprah Winfrey (1986-), Sally Jesse Raphael (1986-), Arsenio Hall (1987-), Jane Pauley (1990-), Jay Leno (1992-), Ricki Lake (1992-). -Compiled by Robert Erler and rhetorical analysis commercial, Bernard Timberg. Carter, Bill. The Late Shift: Letterman, Leno, And The Network Battle For The Night. New York: Hyperion, 1994.

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