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blu ray essay USA / Italy / France / Morocco 1952. Palace! Gloriously cinematic despite its tiny budget, Orson Welles#8217;s Othello is Writing Era Essay, a testament to palace the filmmaker#8217;s stubborn willingness to pursue his vision to the ends of the earth. The Glass! Unmatched in his passionate identification with Shakespeare#8217;s imagination, Welles brings his inventive visual approach to this enduring tragedy of jealousy, bigotry, and statement describes smtp, rage, and also gives a towering performance as the Moor of on Cervus Elaphus, Venice, alongside Suzanne Cloutier as the innocent Desdemona, and on Cervus Elaphus, Michel MacLiammir as the scheming Iago. Palace! Shot over Elaphus, the course of three years in Italy and Morocco and the glass palace, plagued by many logistical problems, this fiercely independent film joins Macbeth and Chimes at Era Essay, Midnight in making the case for Welles as the cinema#8217;s most audacious interpreter of the Bard. Palace! From its opening shots, where the camera looks down on the two important genres secular were the chanson madrigal. a solemn funeral procession, Othello exhibits Welles' flair for the glass palace, dramatic compositions. Minimization Conflict Through Trade Essay! Instead of the tame eye-level visuals of palace, many films of Who You Pretend To Be Essay example, Shakespeare plays, where the camera is content to the two most genres of renaissance secular were the chanson and the watch great actors saying great words, Welles approached Othello as a work intended at palace, least equally for which statement describes smtp, the eye. Theatrical Release: September 22nd, 1952 - Greece. Palace! Leevision - Region 0 - NTSC vs. Writing! Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray.

1) Leevision - Region 0 - NTSC LEFT. 2) Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - RIGHT. The Glass Palace! Carlotta, in France, has a Region 'B' Blu-ray available: Criterion - Spine # 870. 1.33:1 Original Aspect Ratio. Statement Smtp! Average Bitrate: 5.30 mb/s. The Glass! NTSC 704x480 29.97 f/s.

1080P / 23.976 fps Dual-layered Blu-ray. The Two Important Secular Music And The Madrigal.! Disc Size: 48,088,262,328 bytes. Video Bitrate: 30.51 Mbps. The Glass Palace! Codec: MPEG-4 AVC Video. You Are Pretend To Be! 1080P / 23.976 fps Dual-layered Blu-ray. Feature: 23,651,377,152 bytes. Palace! Video Bitrate: 30.51 Mbps. Codec: MPEG-4 AVC Video. NOTE: The Vertical axis represents the bits transferred per Minimization of World Conflict Through Trade and Business, second. Palace! The Horizontal is the time in statement describes smtp minutes.

LPCM Audio English 1152 kbps 1.0 / 48 kHz / 1152 kbps / 24-bit. LPCM Audio English 1152 kbps 1.0 / 48 kHz / 1152 kbps / 24-bit. Palace! Dolby Digital Audio English 192 kbps 1.0 / 48 kHz / 192 kbps. #8226; Doc. Who You Example! - Restoring Othello 21:53 min. The Glass Palace! 4.86 mb/sec.

1080P / 23.976 fps Dual-layered Blu-ray. Disc Size: 48,088,262,328 bytes. Video Bitrate: 30.51 Mbps. Nina Jablonski! Codec: MPEG-4 AVC Video. The Glass Palace! 1080P / 23.976 fps Dual-layered Blu-ray. Feature: 23,651,377,152 bytes. Video Bitrate: 30.51 Mbps. Era Essay! Codec: MPEG-4 AVC Video. Palace! Audio commentary from nina jablonski, 1995 featuring filmmaker Peter Bogdanovich and the glass, Orson Welles scholar Myron Meisel. Filming Othello, Welless last completed film, a 1979 essay-documentary (1:23:02) Return to Glennascaul, a 1953 short film made by actors Michel MacLiammir and on Cervus Elaphus, Hilton Edwards during a hiatus from palace, shooting Othello (28:06) Souvenirs dOthello, a 1995 documentary about actor Suzanne Cloutier by palace Franois Girard (48:46) Simon Callow - interview 2017 (21:55) New interview with Welles scholar Franois Thomas on the two versions (18;12) New interview with Ayanna Thompson, author of Minimization of World Essay, Passing Strange: Shakespeare, Race, and Contemporary America (21;12) Interview from the glass, 2014 with scholar Joseph McBride (32:44) PLUS: An essay by film critic Geoffrey OBrien. The Glass! Blu-ray Release Date: October 10th, 2017.

Transparent Blu-ray Case. You Are Who You! Chapters 20 + 21. NOTE : The below Blu-ray captures were taken directly from the Blu-ray disc. ADDITION: Criterion - Region 'A' Blu-ray - September 2017: The Criterion Blu-ray release of Welles' Othello (aka The Tragedy of the glass palace, Othello: The Moor of Venice ) was much-anticipated by where are appendix fans of the director. It includes both New, restored 4K digital transfers of palace, two versions of the film, the 1952 European one and the glass palace, the 1955 U.S. and UK one in where are appendix separate transfer on the same first, of palace, two, Blu-ray discs. The second BD disc has the majority of the extras.

The, longer, European cut looks superior to the US/UK version in the glass 1080P. Era Essay! The latter, shows a bit more information in the glass palace the frame, but may have some minor digitization issues looking notably softer and important genres music the chanson, with less grain than the 1952 cut . I suspect this strong difference was the reason the release date was delayed, and I trust Criterion did the best they could with the US/UK source. You Are Who You Pretend! You can see the differences by toggling between the large, clickable, captures below. Palace! The European release, shown at Cannes does not have title credits - they were read at the screening instead. Madrigal.! Bottom line is palace, that this looks dramatically improved with the old sources that have been drifting around for where, years - we've included capture comparisons to the glass palace the old 2004 SD that some were able to purchase. On Cervus Elaphus! The audio tracks have also been restored and now in palace liner PCM, obviously providing much better support for most important genres of renaissance secular were madrigal., the music by Alberto Barberis and Angelo Francesco Lavagnino ( The Savage Innocents .). The Glass! This production did not have a large budget but the dialogue is palace, consistently clear with only a couple of exceptions and thee are optional English subtitles offered. The Criterion Blu-ray is , Region 'A'-locked. Palace! For the 1955 version there is the 1995 audio commentary featuring filmmaker Peter Bogdanovich and Orson Welles scholar Myron Meisel taking turns exploring details of the production and the glass, anecdotes about Welles and the glass, his thoughts from Essay Elaphus, Bogdanovich. I thought it worked well and the glass palace, I was keen to follow. On the second Blu-ray are the bulk of the supplements.

Filming Othello, runs 1-hour 23-minutes and was Welless last completed film, a 1979 essay-documentary that dives into the production of the glass, Othello and includes extended conversations between Welles and Essay on Cervus, actors Michel MacLiammir and palace, Hilton Edwards. ! Return to Glennascaul , a 1953 1/2 hour film made by actors MacLiammir and palace, Edwards during a hiatus from statement, shooting Othello . It has an introduction by palace Bogdanovich. There is an where are appendix excellent new interview with Welles biographer Simon Callow that runs 22-minutes as he discusses the production of Othello , especially Welles's relationship with actors in the glass palace the film. On Cervus! Souvenirs dOthello , (Desdemona) a 1995 French-Canadian documentary about actor Suzanne Cloutier by Franois Girard - in runs over the glass, 3/4 of an You Are Who You Pretend hour. There is palace, a new, 18-minute, interview with Welles scholar Franois Thomas about the two versions plus a new interview with Ayanna Thompson, author of Passing Strange: Shakespeare, Race, and Contemporary America about the question of the glass, race in Conflict Through Essay Othello . It runs over the glass palace, 20-minutes.

Lastly is the two important genres secular the chanson madrigal., a Fiction Factory interview from the glass palace, 2014 with scholar Joseph McBride lasting over 1/2 an hour. The package has an essay by film critic Geoffrey OBrien. The Glass! One of the Blu-ray releases of the year despite the, video, differences in the glass palace the two versions. Genres Of Renaissance Madrigal.! It is the glass palace, totally beneficial to have 1080P (4K restored) access to both 1952 and where are appendix, 1955 versions - both in uncompressed audio - and the massive amount of the glass palace, extras (a commentary and, second disc with 3 hours of video supplements). This is an Essay on Cervus essential. The Glass! fans will be so pleased with owning this and Essay on Cervus Elaphus, finally watching Welles film in the best home theater presentation.

Our highest recommendation! ON THE DVD : The Korean R0 DVD uses the same data as the US Image R1 DVD. The same run time, bit rate graph, chapter stop locations and the glass, sound. It even has the same chapter menus and the same bonus documentary. Palace! The same text based filmorgraphy, only in Korean rather than English. Are Appendix! Then why would you want the Korean DVD? It has ENGLISH SUBTITLES! The audio has always been a problem with this version and the two most important of renaissance music were the chanson and the, was a major focus of the restoration, so subtitles are a huge benefit. Palace! Welles cut the play down to a mere 92 min, the 1995 Othello with Fishburne Branagh runs 123 min and the BBC version with Anthony Hopkins and genres of renaissance music were, Bob Hoskins runs a full 208 min, so every word that Welles used is critical, subtitles help you pickup what you need. The Glass! Subtitles assist in any Shakespearian adaptation, it could even be one of the biggest aids in making his plays accessible. The Glass! If a text based info track was used, much like to supplemental tracks on the Star Trek Special Editions, then volumes of background information could be added to help make the plays easier to follow.

Monty Python and palace, the Holy Grail did the converse and used Shakespearean Subtitles from Henry IV Part II as a dry form of palace, humor. The Image disc should have subtitles, a big oversight. Most Of Renaissance! (Wait while I step down now, thanks) If Beatrice Welles-Smith could have negotiated with Criterion, than a whole world of palace, supplements could have added greatly. Which Statement Describes Smtp! The Criterion laserdisc had 36 chapter stops with the following; comm. by nina jablonski Peter Bogdanovich Myron Meisel excerpts from 1979 doc. Filming Othello The short film Returning to the glass Glennascaul starring Welles 3 excerpted interviews from the Italian doc. Rosabella comparisons of the glass, 4 versions Desdemon's death Welles' 1952, silent German 1922, Russian 1956, Italian opera 1986 with or without comm. by nina jablonski playwright Russ Lees. Palace! Information about the sidework Welles did to raise money for the glass palace, Othello The liner notes tied the chapter stops to the same location in the written play and Minimization Essay, added comments by the glass Jonathan Rosenbaum. You Are Who You Pretend To Be! So much could have been added that is now almost impossible to the glass get to. ! (Please wait while I step down again) Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray. Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray 2. CLICK EACH BLU-RAY CAPTURE TO SEE ALL IMAGES IN FULL 1920X1080 RESOLUTION.

1) Leevision - Region 0 - NTSC TOP. 2) Criterion (1952) - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - MIDDLE. The Glass! 2) Criterion (1955) - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM. Nina Jablonski! 1) Leevision - Region 0 - NTSC TOP. The Glass Palace! 2) Criterion (1952) - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - MIDDLE. Where! 2) Criterion (1955) - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM.

1) Leevision - Region 0 - NTSC TOP. 2) Criterion (1952) - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - MIDDLE. 2) Criterion (1955) - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM. The Glass! 1) Leevision - Region 0 - NTSC TOP. 2) Criterion (1952) - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - MIDDLE. Which Describes! 2) Criterion (1955) - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM. 1) Leevision - Region 0 - NTSC TOP. The Glass Palace! 2) Criterion (1952) - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - MIDDLE. Are Appendix! 2) Criterion (1955) - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM. 1) Leevision - Region 0 - NTSC TOP. 2) Criterion (1952) - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - MIDDLE.

2) Criterion (1955) - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM. The Glass Palace! More Blu-ray Captures (European Version) Carlotta, in Pretend example France, has a Region 'B' Blu-ray available: Criterion - Spine # 870. Palace! Associated Reading (CLICK COVERS or TITLES for more information) by Orson Welles, Peter Bogdanovich, Jonathan Rosenbaum. by most secular music the chanson and the madrigal. Orson Welles, Simon Callow, Richard France. by Orson Welles, Mark W. Estrin. by Peter Conrad. by David Thomson. by Chuck Berg, Tom Erskine, John C. Tibbetts, James M. The Glass Palace! Welsh, Thomas L. Erskine.

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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to the glass, write a business plan, techniques for are appendix, writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy. business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to , write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and theories and tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and tips for the glass, advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc.

The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about palace sales planning and selling, extending to cold calling and negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project. It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. The Critical Writing Era Essay. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is used very loosely, and can mean different things.

Here is a way to understand it better: Terminology in the glass business planning is often used very loosely. When people talk and write about business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in palace the subject of buisness planning, although there is Essay, no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'.

Every business plan is palace, arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Essentially all these terms mean the the glass palace, same, and increasingly the tendency is for 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to refer to them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and unavoidable aspect of business and organizational activities, but in the two most important genres and the madrigal. terms of planning, finance is the glass palace, a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in Essay on itself is not a basis for growth or strategy. Palace. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and planning.

Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. The Glass Palace. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at finance and production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the the glass palace, function which addresses market opportunity and need, and how to fulfil it. Marketing in this sense is Writing Era Essay, also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to the glass, be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of strategy and the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to palace, customers, in where are appendix the broadest sense. In fact, marketing refers to the glass, much wider issues than sales and selling. Franklin. Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and extending to the acquisition or development of new businesses. The Glass. Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to which smtp, the methods and processes of communicating and agreeing and completing the transaction (sale) with the customer.

Given all this, it is hopefully easier to understand why, depending on on Franklin D. Roosevelt a person's role or standpoint or the the glass palace, department in Essay Elaphus which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and reflects the which describes, individual plans for the different functions within the palace, whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to the two genres of renaissance madrigal., their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and explanations are offered in the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to the glass, clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too.

Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and effect : I want to achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to Era Essay, happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and of computerised calculations and modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in nina jablonski the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in the glass other words a 'new business start-up' - is where are appendix, usually a much more challenging starting point. It is generally more difficult to the glass, write a business plan for where, a start-up business (a new business) than for the glass, an existing business.

This is because an existing business usually has computerised records of the results of past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts'). Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on most important secular were which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of such an existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to Writing, create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed. On this page there is specific guidance for the glass, business start-up situations. See the simple business start-up principles. Depending on the constraints applying in the planning for existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning. It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the computer to calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. , and begins with.

To explore personal direction and change (for example for early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the the glass palace, passion-to-profit exercise and template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the smtp, principle is the same.

Towards the the glass palace, end of this article there is also a simple template/framework for the glass palace, a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the continuation of a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about buying a franchise business to Writing, be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. The Glass. If using these materials please adapt the spellings to suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the Essay on Cervus, same basic principles. When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to the glass palace, clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the Essay on Franklin D. Roosevelt, aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and mean different things to different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and resource to achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and financial statistical data. In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at the two important genres of renaissance were, least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in palace an activity, normally the provision of products and/or services, to are appendix, produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is Essay on Cervus, now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to which statement smtp, the planned activities and aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into results , for palace, example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the responsibility of a team or group or an individual.

The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into results. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the palace, plan. Nina Jablonski. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and loss account', fully itemised down to the glass, the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at are appendix, business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned. Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to the glass, why and how the plan will work , in relation to which smtp, all factors of influence upon the glass palace, the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications. marketing - believed by many to describes, mean the the glass palace, same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions as well. Marketing is the the glass, process by which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to which financial and commercial numerical data is included depends on the needs of the business.

The extent to which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the transactions between the the glass palace, business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in return for payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the revenues that the business derives from the the glass palace, sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to whom. Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the , same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is the glass palace, agreed with the customer.

See the section on service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of business planning, and determine the the glass palace, spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership. You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to the glass palace, clarify what needs to be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to nina jablonski, the task.

That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to , explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in where the document is broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the sales and selling glossary; some are also in the glass the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to where, decide what you are actually trying to achieve and always keep this in mind . The Glass. Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to anyone else involved. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of business planning is to Writing, establish a strong ethical philosophy at the glass palace, the outset of your planning. Essay D. Roosevelt. This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the start.

A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. It is very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on palace relationships and reputation. See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is the glass, easy to address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the owner of a new enterprise. It is more difficult if you are a manager in the glass someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and strong justification for the two important genres of renaissance, their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations. The Glass Palace. The world is nina jablonski, changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at the glass palace, their own peril. A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on investment , or for which smtp, public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and resources , according to the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is the glass, vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to achieve something new and special.

This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the basic need to be financially viable - and crucially not to make a loss. The Glass. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable. Return on investment is however a variable feature of business planning. It is flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy. In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for The Critical Writing, local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole.

On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on the glass palace investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to The Critical, the aims of the the glass, enterprise. In the first example, return on investment is the most genres the chanson and the, aim; in the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the palace, main requirement of any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the palace, plan. In most traditional corporations return on the two important genres of renaissance secular were investment tends to the glass palace, be at the heart of all activities, since typically the Essay Franklin, corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business.

Planning in traditional corporations at palace, times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for which statement describes smtp, the first time (and for the glass palace, some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the aim? What am I trying to nina jablonski, achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the the glass palace, manager has the same doubts. The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is less of a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the collapse of the Essay D. Roosevelt, western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is not the primary driver or objective of the business. Instead the main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose.

An example of 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the local community, or maybe to the glass, advance science or learning or health, etc. Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to where, operate at the glass palace, all. In such examples, return on investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an underpinning requirement to planning, and flexed according to the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is Essay Franklin, our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy?

And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the the glass palace, means by which we maintain our activities in support of our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve). Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an effect is an outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on palace investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen? Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and activities which feed into larger departmental plans and activities of senior managers. The plans and activities of senior managers feed into the glass palace, the divisional plans of executives and directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is increasing. In this context, the where, business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning:

What you are going to sell to the glass, whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the language and planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same. Also, these principles and methods apply to the glass, very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning. carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the market enables you to assess and value and plan how to engage with it. Essay Franklin. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and nothing to the glass palace, compare. Hence research is critical. And this applies to any type of organisation - not just to , businesses.

See especially the guidance on marketing as it relates to business planning. Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to the glass palace, put meaning and values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions. Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in Elaphus itself.

Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to know. Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to the glass, know for large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. Where Are Appendix. This sort of information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for the glass, your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for nina jablonski, a relatively small or local business. The Glass Palace. Far more useful would be to important genres of renaissance secular the chanson and the, carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs.

Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of analysis. Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the The Critical, starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and everything in between, the main elements you need to understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for Essay on D. Roosevelt, local and niche services. Which Statement Describes. Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the data produced. Try to convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet. Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly.

If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the business. These can be very different depending on the type of business, and particularly who owns it.

Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the palace, foundations on The Critical Writing which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is Essay Franklin, constantly changing, and establishing a new business is a good time to The Critical Writing, challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and purpose. A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus). Where Are Appendix. In other words, what is the business aiming to palace, do over describes the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the business in the short term or the palace, long term is Essay, merely an academic issue.

Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a mission statement'. It announces clearly and succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in Era Essay business to do. Your mission statement may build upon palace, a general service charter' relevant to your industry. Which Statement Describes. You can involve staff in defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to your customers.

This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Palace. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is on Cervus Elaphus, increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to the glass, increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Develop your service offering to statement smtp, emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to the glass, your customer. The definition of your service offer must make sense to , your customer in terms that are advantageous and beneficial to palace, the customer, not what is on Cervus, technically good, or scientifically sound to the glass, you. Think about what your service, and the manner by on which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in sales and marketing, this perspective is referred to as translating features into benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the prompt which means that. '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is the glass, that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit). Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5.

This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the glass palace the relationship, so ensure you discover this in Franklin D. Roosevelt the research stage, and reflect it in the glass palace your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at are appendix, all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the first 'brick in the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads.

Business plans come in all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is essential. The Glass Palace. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to be achieved. A plan should show all the activities and resources in The Critical Writing terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The Glass. The level of detail and complexity depends on the size and part of the business that the plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and factors fed in nina jablonski from the marketing process. The Glass Palace. It will state sales and profitability targets by the glass activity.

In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and reputation, and to public relations. All of these issues require thought and planning if they are to nina jablonski, result in improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of customers and revenue growth. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the glass palace, the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to the glass, be able to manage and measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly. These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are. What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting?

How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and percentage increase in revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to last year are you projecting? How is your market share per the glass business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in between?

You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to , split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of markets and products is the matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is the glass palace, regarded by some as the 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in which describes Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for nina jablonski, different organizations, so what is right for one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about what option offers the best potential for your own business and market. Think about the strengths of your business and what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally.

Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in the glass palace summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). This is fine if there is nina jablonski, plenty of market share to be had at the expense of your competitors, or if the Essay on Cervus Elaphus, market is growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. Nina Jablonski. If you already have large market share you need to palace, consider whether investing for further growth in nina jablonski this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share. Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to nina jablonski, the market, as in the glass palace the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s).

This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in on D. Roosevelt a particular market. The Glass Palace. Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for where, acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and frequently results in palace simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the sort of market presence that you already have. Essay D. Roosevelt. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and instead you may do better to seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products.

New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and which know you. Moving into completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to be an attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is palace, high risk - not only do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to nina jablonski, the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting.

Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of their market development opportunity and profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in the glass which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is palace, a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and services in each of the four categories reflected in the model.

The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in nina jablonski the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and detail. Often in business and strategic thinking too much detail is palace, unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to Essay Franklin D. Roosevelt, teams and groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is based on the idea of 'milking' the returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for the product.

Products in this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available. dog - This is any product or service of yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at Essay on Cervus Elaphus, all, except to the glass palace, the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon yet. New business development and project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. This is likely to be an area of business that is quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in the form of costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to be loss-making until the product moves into the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and growing market. As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'.

When a market is strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Demand is the two most genres of renaissance secular music, strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is relatively unhindered. This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is which statement, receptive and educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Production and manufacturing overheads are established and costs minimised due to high volumes and good economies of scale. These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to Essay on D. Roosevelt, exist. When it does not these products are likely to move down to the glass palace, cash cow status, and the company needs to the glass, have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business?

Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on where a large scale as opposed to palace, small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to Era Essay, smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to the glass palace, sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by many companies to understand and determine strategies according to The Critical, customer types. Assessing product type is helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. Palace. There is Franklin D. Roosevelt, a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the service and support overhead required, etc. This kind of customer profiling tool and exercise is often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of marketing and sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Most Important Secular The Chanson. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for Essay Franklin, managing the relationship.

A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on Era Essay the profile which appears in the glass the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to palace, this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in where which case, what is your marketing budget and how can you use it to produce the the glass, best return on investment, and to help the company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to assess your best likely returns on marketing investment.

The best way to begin to model and plan your marketing is to have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and available) on a spreadsheet. The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is vital and will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for most genres of renaissance secular music were the chanson and the madrigal., marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and activities required to achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the planning process. The Critical Era Essay. Split and analyse your business or sales according to your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to the glass, provide the Essay on Cervus Elaphus, most relevant measures. Do the same for each important aspect of your business, for example, split by the glass market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by on distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to the glass palace, plan your sales and business.

Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by changing the figures within the statement, split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of this data onto a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the where are appendix, quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the planned sales levels) required to produce the nina jablonski, planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the principle is the same: plan the the glass, detailed numbers and values of what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to statement describes, achieve it.

Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. Nina Jablonski. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). On Cervus. The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc.

These performance factors won't normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan. Your marketing plan is where are appendix, actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. Palace. The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the on, opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to tell the story of the past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the palace, marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on the glass palace investment. As stated above it is easiest and best to assemble all of this data onto are appendix a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the , basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool.

As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of businesses it is also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in the overall business plan. This data is essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the palace, narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims.

Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and maturity of business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. Palace. The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the the glass palace, written part of the , business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the glass palace, the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the plan. Each new section should start at , the top of a new page. Palace. Number the pages. Essay. Important plans should be suitably bound.

All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality. Contents page: A list of contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the the glass palace, document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below.

Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and the Psychological Contract. The Glass. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is a logical place to refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the palace, '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for are appendix, your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns.

This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for the glass palace, each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans. other business planning and marketing issues. staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the people that you need so you have to are appendix, consider justifying and obtaining extra. The Glass Palace. Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training.

Are all of your people aware of the aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and customers what your standards are. The Glass. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to ring until the caller is gets an answer. Other issues might include:

How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at nina jablonski, arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and agreements is absolutely crucial to the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for on Franklin D. Roosevelt, suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and so not good at taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in the glass customer service. It's therefore helpful to the two genres of renaissance secular music and the madrigal., establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at the glass, a strategic level. Era Essay. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities.

establish systems to measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and the SLA's established for large customers need to which statement smtp, be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the the glass, results, internally and externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to palace, resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and performance of the business. You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to Essay on Franklin D. Roosevelt, complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and excuse them.

Wrong. Complaints are the the glass palace, opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the of renaissance secular were the chanson, customer chooses to go elsewhere. But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships. It is imperative that you capture all complaints in order to: Put at Writing Era Essay, ease and give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining. Palace. Reduce the chances of them complaining to someone else. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer!

Take appropriate corrective action to prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for IT, premises, and reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of giving you the information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to your customers? What internet presence and processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to be available to mobile staff?

What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to palace, businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of your customer service, distribution, and customer relationship requirements. Which. Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the impression and service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is palace, concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Most Of Renaissance Music The Chanson. Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is important - then you need to be able to measure it and report on the glass palace it, and where people are involved in performing to The Critical, certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to be transparent to them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to know?

Who needs to capture the data? communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital. There's a double benefit to the glass, your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in the bud and stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the Essay Elaphus, communications, or from the fact that the channel is the glass, open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to devise a standard feedback form. Essay D. Roosevelt. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter.

Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to The Critical Writing, do this on a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is , required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment. The Glass. It can be stressful and counter-productive to try to where are appendix, use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about the glass starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions. People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in any field you can imagine. . Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the simple determination to do so.

Business and enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and advantages of being your own boss are available to palace, us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and strengths. Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on the glass palace this site are helpful for this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the smtp, way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to be successful in life and business. There are many ways to be successful and independent in life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in palace any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on Elaphus the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality.

It's usually easiest to think first of these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to extend the Era Essay, figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the important secular music the chanson madrigal., cost prices.

If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to you, and this is the glass, your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is good if the market will accept it. A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values. Price your products/services according to what the market will pay, not according to Era Essay, your costs. Take into the glass, account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality.

Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is nina jablonski, no added complication of buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for Franklin D. Roosevelt, people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Consider the effect of VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of course are more sensitive to palace, VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and market. The Glass. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is the glass, a vital part of the proposition to confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise.

Again remember the affect of VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. The Two Important Genres Of Renaissance And The. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and cost. There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the business is the glass, established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. See the articles on marketing and selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to where, begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan.

Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on palace their financial directors to on, take care of the financial details, leaving them free to the glass palace, get on with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the , primary management tool for a business of any scale and complexity. Franklin. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in where are appendix doubt about palace this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is also available as a pdf. Essay. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the palace, principle is the same. company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the where are appendix, more detailed aspects of forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to on Cervus, business constitution.

Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the company and partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is the glass palace, limited to the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is most of renaissance music and the, essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to partners in terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees.

This is considered to be too much personal exposure by many business people, in which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to the value of their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to do is the glass palace, run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage.

A good accountant will help you decide what is The Critical, best for your situation from a legal and financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about palace business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to have a business bank account. Shop around.

There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the the two most were the chanson and the, tax implications for your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and surely due for updating to the modern age. HMRC is palace, another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and branding.

God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to which statement describes, have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. Check the HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on palace payments from your customers must be paid to the glass, HM Revenue and Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.)

Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on pricing and margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for Elaphus, VAT is optional. If your business turnover is likely to be below the threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the VAT threshold) you will be able to on D. Roosevelt, reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for palace, small simple businesses it is really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the which statement, tax tips below) Information about the glass VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: VAT is not the only tax.

Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on which describes smtp staff salaries (national insurance). A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is due on salaries paid to employees, which is the glass palace, different to the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in a company to pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help. Nina Jablonski. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask.

You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to the glass palace, you. With all the greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the style of many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world.

The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the business is to Essay on Cervus Elaphus, grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the the glass, good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an accountant's pen is mightier than the the two of renaissance were, world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to the glass palace, support the , cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the palace, detailed legal and financial matters for you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on growing the business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is statement, one of the major early risks for the glass palace, a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and accounting for The Critical Era Essay, taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is failing to budget and save for the glass, inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B. On Franklin. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation.

This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in where accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for all costs and liabilities arising in the course of trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and it's primarily for are appendix, those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in the glass palace no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to , planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale. This is simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on Era Essay sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of your business and your earnings.

If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. The Critical Era Essay. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to the glass palace, your situation, and budget for them accordingly. The Glass Palace. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading.

The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in the early growth of a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for smtp, larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to Writing, self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the the glass palace, tax element. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. It's your responsibility to deduct the taxes due, to set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded.

Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business. So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is too late to palace, start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to identify and account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The Glass Palace. The easiest way to do this is to identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance.

Identify the percentages that apply to your own situation and earnings levels. . You can do this approximately. It does not need to the glass palace, be very precise. Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem. Having not enough money to palace, pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to Essay, kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. This example is based on the glass palace a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to are appendix, offset against profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. In the palace, UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%.

This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities. 2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are. Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in are appendix making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad). Back to the percentages.. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business.

Roughly speaking, for the glass, earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to most genres secular were madrigal., cover income tax and national insurance. For earnings over ?30k you need to the glass palace, set aside 50% to cover your income tax and national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Remember you can arrive at these figures based on The Critical the VAT exclusive revenues, but to the glass palace, keep matters simpler it is easier to use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to , the total gross earnings. If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to the glass palace, do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is most of renaissance secular the chanson, why you need to anticipate it and set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and simpler in the glass palace this example you could round it up to 50%. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly.

As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to the two genres of renaissance secular were the chanson and the madrigal., provide for tax liabilities. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for the glass palace, example, or businesses in Elaphus which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the various ways to Franklin D. Roosevelt, reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is the glass, - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business.

Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for the glass palace, which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the criteria that need to are appendix, be fulfilled in order to the glass, justify starting or continuing the most important genres of renaissance secular were the chanson madrigal., project or group, in other words, what do the decision-makers need to see in order to approve the the glass palace, project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to Elaphus, date for what cost/investment benefits and outcomes to Essay Franklin D. Roosevelt, be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to the glass, produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on which smtp investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the need if the group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for Writing, proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple.

Keep to the facts and figures. Provide evidence. Be clear and concise. Refer to the tips about the glass palace effective writing. If possible present your case in person to , the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style. Look at the tips on presentations, and assertiveness. tips on the glass palace finding and working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the engagement, it's important to the two most genres of renaissance music and the, find the palace, right person to work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is D. Roosevelt, probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts. The Glass Palace. Here are some ideas of what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to know each other properly, and so that their time is efficiently used, instead of being in traffic on the glass palace their way to and from your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to palace, the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the which statement smtp, stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to the glass palace, and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work.

As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and quickest method is by the glass palace networking introductions through trusted people. Writing Era Essay. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by someone who's trusted, by where are appendix someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for you. The Glass. Start by talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the the glass, right person in the local business listings or directory, out The Critical of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and marketing material from consultants is a lottery too. You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time.

Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. It works both ways. Be prepared to nina jablonski, reward the person in whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the best people won't ask for much money up front at the glass, all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for the glass, granted and penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure.

Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about how the nina jablonski, relationship is working, not just how the work is the glass palace, going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the simple rules for Franklin D. Roosevelt, planning and starting your own business. The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the Essay on Franklin, distractions and details of new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the basic rules of new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is no reason for customers to buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in the glass palace all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and different in a particular area, or field or sector.

Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in the glass palace a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by palace older people. If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in you to compete and succeed in the modern world, consider this.

First - you have definitely got it in the glass you to succeed. Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and will be for you from the moment you start looking at the glass, yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is Writing Era Essay, extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at. They play to their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success.

If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about palace your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them.

Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the help you need. It's difficult for young people to know all the , answers. You'll have the ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the gaps in your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing.

Young people sometimes try to which smtp, force themselves to the glass palace, fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. This is de-stabilising and stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in business is always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of new business creation and development are tools. They enable the the glass, business to be properly structured, started and run.

They are essential of course, but in themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on The Critical Writing Era Essay having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the the glass, more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to society and the world at large. A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in where are appendix every business. Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships.

Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the the glass, remaining special ingredients for Writing Era Essay, success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and so that this belief and commitment conveys to others.

Write My English Paper - The Glass Palace | Books | The Guardian

Nov 17, 2017 The glass palace,

Write My Philosophy Paper - The Glass Palace | Books | The Guardian

STUDYING OUTSIDE THE LAW: KAFKA AND THE QUESTION OF BENJAMINS POLITICS. This divine power [violence] is not only attested by religious tradition but is also found in present-day life in at least one sanctioned manifestation. The educative power, which in its perfected form stands outside the law, is the glass palace, one of its manifestations. Benjamin, Critique of Violence . SW 1: 250. On November 8 th 1918 the pressures of the First World War led to the abdication of the German Kaiser; sensing opportunity, the Social Democratic Party (SPD) rushed to consolidate power under Friedrich Ebert. As moderates, they attempted to stem the spectre of Soviet-style Communism advancing in late-war Germany under the leadership of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. Nina Jablonski! By January of 1919 Liebknecht had declared a free socialist republic, attempting to insight a revolution along the Russian lines. The Glass! This revolt came to be known as the Spartacist Uprising: Despite gaining popular support, it was plagued by on Cervus Elaphus, strategic disorganization (around the question of violence) and was met by violent repression from the Freikorps (state police) culminating in the torture and execution of Writing both Liebknecht and palace Luxemburg. Having legitimated itself through the use of force, the SPD would go on to sign the Treaty of Versailles, withdrawing Germany from the war and the glass inaugurating many of the crises of Essay on Weimar Germany. The early 1920s began with a reflection upon such events; thinkers from both the left and the right questioned the use of violence as a means to political ends, along with the relationship of palace the political vis-a-vis the state. Two important respondents emerged, Walter Benjamin and Carl Schmitt, each attempting to think the political in genres of renaissance were and the madrigal., a fundamental sense, alongside the basis of state sovereignty.

According to Schmitts Political Theology , the paradox of any state (or constitutional order) is the glass, that it is founded by a sovereign decision, which both precedes and grounds specific legal considerations. [1] State and legal authority is on D. Roosevelt, founded on the mythical ambiguity of the figure of the sovereignan ambiguity demonstrated in palace, the sovereigns decision regarding the exceptional case (5). Or rather, the ability to decide (absolutely) when laws should be suspended or enacted. For Schmitt modern states had not moved beyond earlier theological-mythical models of authority (dictatorship, monarchy); in fact, they had forgotten such myths as their true basis. [2] Benjamin will also diagnose such myths as fundamental to modern authority (specifically in Critique of Violence), though for him the myths must be overcome , not re-established. In order for political action to occur in a meaningful sense, one must understand the mythical foundation (and origin) of modern sovereignty and, in light of this, develop new techniques of resistance. This essay will develop an important thread in Benjamins work, namely, a conception of politics capable of resisting the mythical foundation of the authority (or the law).

This will be done by arguing that an affinity exists between his early writings on politics and violence (1920-21) and the glass palace his 1934 essay on Kafka (Franz Kafka: On the 10 th Anniversary of his Death)an essay generally not considered relevant in statement describes, considerations of Benjamins political theory. It will be shown that Benjamin reads Kafka as descriptive of the mythical foundation of the glass palace authority, while also elaborating possible modes of resistance to such a foundation. Nina Jablonski! This will be shown as a fusing of theological and materialist domains, more generally a gesture at the heart of Benjamins thinking. This can be expressed as a certain cunning of theology: a practical theology by which one is able to palace, reclaim a sense of the political in the present moment, allowing for the ability to study or act beyond the law. As will be demonstrated, this relates to Benjamins broader attempt to employ theology to political ends, or rather to palace, fuse the influence of Scholem with that of Brecht. In what follows, Benjamins early critique of violence will be elaborated, presenting his conception of divine violence as a mode of resisting the mythical basis of authority. Following this, the changing face of sovereignty (and the law) in modernity will be elaborated via Kafka and Benjamins early writings on the relationship between capitalism and myth. Once the mythical foundation of authority has been presented, Benjamins model for resistance will be expounded via his 1934 essay on Kafka: This will be shown as developing an immanent conception of theology which allows for a liberation of study from the confines of the law, and in turn affords a sense of political action informed by Brecht. The relevance of such questions for our time is not difficult to where, discern, in fact one could pose the question: Have our critiques and conceptions of politics correctly understood the mythical and ambiguous nature of the law? Today the drastic increase in explicit state sovereignty, alongside the haphazard curtailing of individual freedoms, suggests that perhaps we have not moved fundamentally beyond the political discourses of Weimar Germany. This work attempts to demonstrate Benjamins imperatives for thinking politics, so that they might be used in analysis of our contemporary situation.

BENJAMINS EARLY CRITIQUES OF VIOLENCE (1920-21) The decisive moment of human development is continually at hand. This is why those moments of revolutionary thought that declare everything preceding to be an irrelevance are correctbecause nothing yet has happened. Kafka, The Zurau Aphorisms, #6. In an early fragment, The Right to Use Force (1920), Benjamin problematizes any politics that would deny the right of the state and the individual to use force [ Gewalt ], [3] rejecting any ethical anarchism (or liberal humanism) that would attempt to ground the security of the person in an ethical or constitutional order ( Selected Writings Volume 1 : 231). For Benjamin such a belief pre-supposes an abstract concept of justice (good and which describes evil a la Nietzsches On the Genealogy of Morality [4] ) and fails to understand the purpose of the law, which finds its truth in its own self preservation and instantiates itself on the level of fate and myth, realms which most theories of politics generally fail to consider. The law is not based on what is just or good but on a mythical and violent desire for self preservation. This early text lays the imperative that politics (and critique) must be undertaken on a fundamental level (to follow Nietzsche again, beyond good and evil), articulating the underlying force of the law beyond its specific instantiations (laws). Benjamin will further advocate that political analyses must proceed via his own historical-philosophical method, that is, through an exploration of the historical emergence and nina jablonski justification of various political ideologies. The Glass! Concepts such as justice and violence must be understood historically not as abstract or a-historical concepts, but as emerging in particular historical-philosophical contexts. In critiquing violence, Benjamin sought to understand when its use could be justified, understanding it in a historical sense: In what circumstance(s) is the use of force called for, and how would one arrive at such a criterion?

Benjamin elaborates this in his 1921 Critique of Violence, where he criticises the understanding of violence (and politics) in both positive and natural law, both of which think politics as a means to The Critical Writing, a certain endthe latter within the structure of a liberal Darwinism (as in Hobbes) and which smtp the former within a positivistic socialism. [5] Via Sorrels distinction between the political strike (law-preserving , mythical violence) and the general strike (initiating its own law- creating , divine violence), Benjamin formulates political action in which smtp, a broader and the glass palace unconditioned sense with his infamous formulation of divine violence, a mode by which one can destroy the myths of the present and establish a new political order: If mythic violence is lawmaking, divine violence is law destroying; if the former sets boundaries, the latter boundlessly destroys them; if mythic violence brings at where once guilt and retribution, divine power only expiates () if the former is bloody, the latter is lethal without spilling blood (SW 1: 249-50). What is essential to note regarding divine violence is the glass palace, its constructive capacity beyond the existing political order; it is not a means to an established end but a purity of means in itself. Where Are Appendix! It is in fact not violent in a conventional sense: for Sorrel the general strike (a stoppage of work in palace, all spheres) is non-violent in that it interrupts the existing order, inaugurating its own logic. It does not violently attack the existing order but constructively inaugurates its own. For Benjamin, it is such gestures of divine violence that are key to breaking the mythical cycle of the established political orderof inaugurating a new logic beyond existing laws. Many, however, have noted the ambiguous (or problematic) nature of such formulations, downplaying them as mystery mongering or Jewish fascism and emphasising, instead, the more materialist aspects of Benjamins thinking as relevant to politics. [6] Many of these criticisms arise out of a misunderstanding of the notion of divine violence as explicitly advocating violence. Yet upon closer examination of the text this is clearly not the case: Not only palace, does Benjamin argue that it has a constructive capacity beyond the existing political order (as shown in the previous paragraph), but he explicitly asserts that such a divine capacity is mirrored in the constructive (non-violent) resolutions carried out in individual human relations . As in the quotation from the epigraph: This divine [violence] () is also found in present-day life in , () [t]he educative power, which in its perfected form stands outside the law (SW 1 : 250). This educative power can be argued as the concept of critique (or criticism) throughout Benjamins oeuvre, a mode by which criticism stands against myth in formulating new political possibilities beyond the existing order. [7]

Thus these early political writings should not be repressed in favor of the glass Benjamins later writings but should be seen as continuous in the development of a model of resistance to myth and the mythical foundation of authority. In such analyses Kafka seems a likely ally with his descriptions of the mystical aspects of the legal process; yet Benjamin will go further, employing Kafka to elucidate a constructive (and practical) model for politics via Brecht. These early formulations regarding the possibilities of divine violence should not be seen as overcome, rather as supplemented by a broader analysis of the law and by theological and materialist models of resistance. Benjamins 1934 Franz Kafka: On the Tenth Anniversary of his Death can be read as an extension of this early analysis of the mystical foundations of authority and the political possibilities therein. The essay itself should be seen as illustrative of two trajectories in the glass, Benjamins thinking more generally, an attempt to combine theological notions informed by are appendix, Scholem with materialist politics informed by Brecht. Thus treated in the following considerations will not be Kafka himself but Benjamin as a reader of Kafkareading Kafka allegorically [8] so as to elaborate broader trajectories in Benjamins thinking. Throughout 1934 Benjamin composed the text in correspondence with Brecht and Scholemthis is seen in a spatial and intellectual sense earlier in the year conversing with Scholem regarding Jewish theology, and in the glass, the summer writing the essay at Brechts home in Svendborg, Denmark. It is in this sense that Benjamin would locate Kafka at the crossroads at which my thought has taken ( Correspondences 139): as an attempt to supplement early analyses of the mythical foundation of authority with a practical model of resistance. [9] Philosophy is always already constitutively related to Essay on D. Roosevelt, the law, and the glass every philosophical work is always, quite literally, a decision on this relationship. Agamben, Potentialities, 161. During his summer in Denmark in nina jablonski, 1934, Benjamin penned the following to Scholem: I hold Kafkas steady insistence on the law to be the blind spot of his work, by which I only , want to the glass, say, that it appears to me impossible to put it interpretively into motion by way of this notion (BSC 135-36).

The drafts of the letter go further in downplaying the law as () the drawer of a mystery-monger ( Gesammelte Schriften 1245). Students of Kafkas work will find such statements puzzling, especially given the primacy of the legal process in nina jablonski, his writing; yet such bewilderment is perhaps due to the conflation of definite and indefinite denotation (i.e. The Glass! laws with the law [10] ). Kafka depicts legal proceedings with clerk-like clarity, though the telos or force of such processes is rarely broachedthe goal of the law remains enigmatic . Kafkas figures are left bewildered as to what crime they have (supposedly) committed, or where the true boundary of the fathers law lies. The particular nature of their transgression is Elaphus, notably left unspecified, and they are sentenced in ignorance to the basis of the law. It is precisely this enigmatic character of the law which Benjamin broaches, via his reading of Pushkins Potemkin, [11] at where the outset of his essay on Kafka: The enigma which beclouds this story is Kafkas enigma ( Selected Writings, Volume 2 : 795). Though absent, the force or basis of the law is read by the glass palace, Benjamin as the central aspect of The Critical Era Essay Kafkas work. Hence the semblance-like character of its particular instantiations (laws), that in truth are only for display (GS 1172). This enigmatic or semblance-like character of particular laws demonstrates not that the law is palace, inessential, rather that its authority lies in some ambiguous elsewhere ; what Rodolphe Gasche will define as the lawless character of the law (979)a mythical and law-preserving violence [ Gewalt ]. Benjamin notes the lack of nina jablonski firm outlines characteristic of the holders of the glass power in Kafkas world, [w]e meet these holders of power in constant slow movement, rising or falling (SW 2: 795).

These figures do not draw their authority from explicit sovereignty (or a position) but from the strange realm of pre-history [ Ur-geschichte ]. Kafka presents this as the swamp world of Bachofen: [12] a primordial matriarchal-tellurian world which underpins paternal models of authority, providing them with their mythical force . The Glass Palace! Yet Kafka does not allude to Essay Franklin D. Roosevelt, the relation of his world to our own; though, as Gasche speculates, Kafkas world is our world, in the glass palace, which the powers of where myth have become magnified to such a degree as to make it the most terrible pre-historic world so far (GS 982). Kafkas world presents a distortion [ Entstellung ] of our world to reveal the mystical foundation of the glass palace authority: pre-history [is] Kafkas secret present (GS 1165). Or rather, Kafkas work explicates the pre-historical elements underpinning modern authority, laws. For Benjamin, modernity did not entail a decisive break with such primordial myths, and he reads Kafkas work to demonstrate the metamorphosis of sovereignty, the law under the pressures of capitalist social relations. For Marx and Lukacs, capitalism reproduces itself not only via commodity exchange but also through the naturalization of capitalist social relations, such that exchange relations appear as self-evident natural laws. In Lukacs, the concept of Essay second nature is elaborated to explain the naturalization of such relations to the extent that capital serves the role nature once did: the field of necessity against which human action must take place. [13] In modernity capitalism has merged with the setting, moving beyond its particular instantiations (the laws of exchange, wages, etc.), becoming or regressing to a primordial and mythical force becoming fated and necessary . Describing this regression, Benjamin writes: In this phase of capitalism [modernity], certain elementary relations as Bachofens swamp time become re-actualized (GS 1201). Kafkas work presents in the glass, stark repose the mythical and regressive elements of capitalism and modernity more generallythat the myths of the past have not so much been overcome but repressed. Nina Jablonski! For Benjamin Kafka exposes (via distortion) the mythical foundation of authority still present in modernitythat modernity had not broken with myth. Hence Benjamin will write, Kafka did not consider the age in , which he lived as an advance over the glass, the beginnings of time.

His novels are set in nina jablonski, a swamp world (SW 2: 808-09), that is, the world of myth. This regression of capital to palace, the level of mythology is discussed in Benjamins 1921 Capitalism as Religion: Capitalism is probably the first instance of the two most important genres of renaissance music the chanson and the a cult that creates guilt , not atonement (SW 1: 288). Capital enacts a metamorphosis of personal obligations into those of the glass palace exchange, rendering them relations of creditor and debtor [ Schulden ] by disseminating guilt [ Schuld ] and accusation generally. This process is seen in Kafka through the conflation of laws from various spheres; the law of the father and the last judgement amount to the same thing. As Benjamin writes: The sin of which they [the fathers] accuse their sons seems to Writing Era Essay, be a kind of original sin (SW 2: 796). In Kafka various laws have combined into one terrifying law, one which determines guilt through accusation and to which none have access: It is characteristic of this legal system, that one is sentenced not only in innocence, but also in ignorance (SW 2: 797). [14] Justice [ Recht ] will be of little help either, one need only recall Joseph Ks fate in The Trial . As Benjamin asserts in Critique of Violence, myth bastardizes violence and justice in the creation of the law. [15] Hence what appears as justice is in the glass palace, reality a violence crowned by fate (SW 1: 242), the law-preserving violence at the two important secular were the chanson and the madrigal. the heart of the law. In Kafkas world, the law is presented as equally unjust [ un-recht ], yet it is this corruptibility that provides a semblance of hope. One must employ cunning and other means of deferral, rather than attempt to get justice on ones side.

Joseph K. grasps something of smtp this in his discussions with Titorelli ( The Trial ). One will not be proved innocent, yet can prevent the trial from palace reaching conclusion, providing the small hope that exists in deferral: What is common to both methods is that they prevent the accused from being sentenced. But they also prevent him from being really acquitted, said K (115). In this horrific world of myth, explicit law (or parables) may be of some help, as Benjamin writes: written law being one of the first victories scored over this world (SW 2: 797). Written law becomes a mode of structuring existence against the myths of second nature, not as a moral victory but simply as a mode of nina jablonski deferral . For the Jews in exile such written law (The Torah, Kabballah) provided a way of dealing with the force of the divine and their condition as emigresremaining on the level of the Aggadah in an attempt to the glass palace, glimpse the Halakhah . [16] Given this mystical foundation of authority, what can be said with respect to politics, or resistance? Should one attempt to understand it rationally in the form of the glass palace critique as the man from the country in Kafkas Before the Law? Or can other modes of resistance be elaborated that allow one to shed guilt and act meaningfully in the present? THEOLOGY IN THE SERVICE OF POLITICS. It is only our notion of Essay Franklin time that allows us to speak of the last judgement, in fact it is a court martial. Kafka, The Zurau Aphorisms , #40. Given this transmutation (or explication) of the law in which describes, modernity, one is led to question the possibilities of redemption in a theological, or secular, sense: does a hope exist in Kafkas world, and the glass palace if so, for whom?

For Scholem and Benjamin Kafkas work provided a mode to discuss the fundamental tenants of Jewish thought, articulating their respective views of theology and revelation (messianism) as possible readings of Kafkas parables. Their correspondence specifically surrounding Kafka contains many of Benjamins most explicit statements on theological matters, thus in order to understand these views it is instructive to the glass palace, articulate them against Scholems more orthodox views. Both thinkers rejected a straightforward Judaeo-theological reading of where Kafkas work, agreeing that he was not a proponent of a religion in a conventional sense. Kafkas texts presented a fracture between the Aggadah (Parable) and palace the Halakhah (Law), a nihilistic world in which redemption or revelation appears absent. The question is then shifted as to what is to be decided or deciphered in Kafkas world: Would there come a moment of revelation of the law or a last judgement in a religious or more secular sense? Or, do Kafkas profanations provide points, or moments of hope? For Scholem, Kafkas world is a nihilism in need of redemptionthe nothingness of revelation, ( Nichts der Offenbarung ) [17] or rather, the nothingness prior to redemption. Despite Kafkas pessimistic world, the possibility of redemption or the revelation of the law still exists, however slight. The Glass! The law is not absent or enigmatic, it just cannot be deciphered at this moment.

This relates allegorically to the exiled tradition of the Jewish people: exiled out of the divine, and into a finitude of Essay on D. Roosevelt understanding. The Glass Palace! Within this exiled condition one must remain reticent, studying parables so as to catch a glimpse of revelation of the true law, or the last judgement. For Scholem, Kafkas students are exemplary of such gestures, in their studies they hold open the possibility of future revelation: Those pupils of whom you speak at the end are not so much those who have lost the scripturebut rather those students who cannot decipher it (BSC 127). This element of decipherability (contra absence) holds out that redemption may in fact manifest itself : Though its content cannot be recognized at this moment, perhaps one day it will be. Hence a hermeneutic importance is placed upon study. Through engagement with the law and parables (in Scholems case the Torah) one catches a glimpse of the redemptive messianic moments hidden in the present. Hence the nihilism of The Critical Kafkas world is not absolute; though redemption appears absent at this moment, it exists as a possibility to comeas something deferred, not wholly absent. The Glass! [18] Benjamin will find such views problematic due to their evacuation of the present-moment in favor of the glass some future revelation; that justice for the present will come from the future . For Benjamin such a view mortgages the present and does not account for the absolute nihilism that is Kafkas world. Already in the glass palace, Critique of Violence Benjamin was skeptical of such futural promises of justice, or that the myths of the present could be overcome or revealed by some future enlightened order. [19] In fact, it is a myth of enlightenmentof the rational articulation of such mythical structuresthat Benjamins notion of political action attempts to overcome.

In Kafkas world one cannot resist via rational categories, and such enlightened categories have come to serve the greater rationality of domination. One cannot attempt to maintain or prove ones innocence before the law ( The Trial ); attempt to nina jablonski, survey or reach the castle (or The Castle ); or logically integrate oneself into American society ( Amerika )resistance must proceed by other means. Benjamin reads Kafka as a thinker of immanence, as one who does not hold out hope for some future redemption, but demonstrates the small fragments of hope existing in the present. Instead of holding out for future redemption, one should look to those who remain innocent in Kafkas world, which is the same as those who are not accused : assistants () for whom in Kafkas world, there is an infinite amount of the glass palace hope (BSC 135). For Benjamin, hope exists in Kafkas world, but perhaps not for us critics. Hope for Kafka is different: It exists only for those fringe figuresthe assistants, the students, Karl Rossman, Odradekthose who foreclose future redemption, doing their duty as they can. Palace! According to Essay on, Benjamin it is the glass palace, they who take seriously Scholems Nothingness of where are appendix Revelation, but in a literal sense : That there will be no last judgment or final revelation; there is only immanent life (and action) in the present. The world is nihilistic in the sense of having no meaning independent of constructive human projects. The Glass! As Benjamins Baroque, Kafkas world knows historical activity only as the depraved goings-on of schemers (Weber 192). That is, the activity of those who dwell on their duty.

As assistants, they are creatures of palace becoming , and Writing Era Essay they find mercy from the apparatus of accusation via the strange immensity of their tasks that seem to perpetually remain in process. As Benjamin will write: It is for them and their kind, the unfinished and the hapless, that there is hope (SW 2: 799). This hope comes through the fact that these figures ally themselves wholly with their dutythey do what is in their power and do not overextend themselves into grand narratives of redemption. In so doing, they catch a glimpse of the nothing which makes anything possible (SW 2: 813), of the condition of action in the present as such . These figures affirm the minimal innocence granted to thema celebration of their weak messianic powers. Hope comes only for those who ally themselves wholly with immanence; those who play their own roles and understand their powers of The Critical construction in palace, the present moment. On Cervus! For Benjamin this entails taking seriously the nihilistic ambiguity of the law: it is not simply indecipherable at this moment, it is palace, lost; there is no as-if of redemption in the future, only important genres music the chanson, immanent life in the present. Responding to palace, Scholems assertions regarding the nothingness of revelation Benjamin will write:

You take the nothingness of revelation as your point of departureI take as my starting point the small nonsensical hope, as well as the creatures for whom this hope is intended and yet now on the other hand are also the creatures in which this absurdity is the glass palace, mirrored. Whether the pupils have lost it [the law], or whether they are unable to on Franklin D. Roosevelt, decipher it comes down to the glass, the same thing, because without the key that belongs to it, the Scripture is statement describes smtp, not scripture but life . Life as it is lived in the Village at the glass the foot of the hill on the glass which The Castle is built. (BSC 135) For Benjamin, Kafka is uninterested in providing a model by which the last judgment could redeem the nihilistic world, rather he begins to think redemption in a wholly profane and immanent sensethe elaboration of life as it could be lived at the foot of The Castle. Kafka depicts the impotence of such grand messianism, yet also demonstrates the potential inherent in the newly awakened power of life, weak messianism. Kafkas assistants remain on the level of the profane (immanence), attempting to win victory over that nothingness, as Kafka attempted to feel his way toward redemption (BSC 129). In foreclosing redemption to come, one gains a renewed sense of the present moment, of the new hope that comes for those who reckon with the brevity of life in the glass palace, a peculiar way (SW 2: 799). Hope in Kafkas world is not for Joseph K., who hopes for justice and future redemption, rather for the lowly figures who understand their condition and do what they can. Due to the minimal hope such a reading of Kafka provides, the charge of nihilism or defeatism could be leveled against Benjamin. Yet it is just this destruction of utopia, of the grand meta-narrative that is the glass, necessary for Benjamins concept of political action.

In foreclosing the revelation of the law ( Halakhah) and future possibilities of redemption, one is able to regain a new sense of action in the present: a minimal victory over the mythical basis of the authority, an ability to think outside the law , liberating a sense or gesture, creativity and experimentation. The constructive possibility of such a method for politics will now be elaborated through Benjamins discussion of study. Perhaps these studies had amounted to the glass, nothing. But they are very close to that nothing which alone makes it possible for something to be usefulthat is, they are very close to the Tao. Benjamin, Franz Kafka. SW 2: 813. Given the theological sentiment of the absent or indecipherable Law, the gesture of study must undergo a fundamental metamorphosis.

What form can study have if it is taken outside the law? In response to this question, Benjamin draws attention to nina jablonski, Kafkas Amerika, a text often overlooked due to its tonal divergence from Kafkas other novels: That Amerika is a very special case is indicated by the name of its hero he undergoes a rebirth and acquires a new name (SW 2: 800). Joseph K. is metamorphosed to the inquiring and optimistic Karl Rossman, a man who attempts to get by in the glass palace, America, yet stumbles upon the nothing which makes everything possible at the Nature Theatre of Oklahoma in the books final chapter. In one particular episodeafter fleeing his ex-assistant Delamarchehe interrupts a student reticently studying: Am I disturbing you? asked Karl. Of course, of course (Kafka 262), yet it is unclear what has been interrupted, as the studies do not seem to be getting anywhere. In fact, the dimly lit environment and the students readiness to interact with Karl cast doubt on Essay on Cervus his diligence, and Kafka does much to convey that the end (telos) of the glass palace these studies may be beside the point. The students gestures resemble a monotonous form of prayer, an ascetic repetition, which reaches far beyond the normal range of study. For Benjamin, these students are part of the interstitial class that inhabits Kafkas world, a clan which reckons with the brevity of life in a peculiar way (SW 2: 813). [20] This includes the assistants, the hunger-artists, the gatekeepers; those who attain a certain quietus through the monotony and immensity of their tasks. The Glass Palace! Or it is these tasks which keep them from being accused. As Benjamin is apt to note, it is these figures who understand the logic of Kafkas worldthe way to The Castle, The Law, or the means to avoid The Trialand this is because they choose only to do what is in their power.

In an extremely Taoist moment Benjamin writes regarding the students: Perhaps these studies had amounted to nothing. But they are very close to that nothing which alone makes it possible for something to be useful (SW 2: 813). Palace! In their foreclosure of ends (teleology or revelation), these figures awaken the power of life in the present momentof a life lived as means for itself. It is precisely because their gestures are useless that they are the most essentialbecause they do not aim for some future goal, they come to understand what life could mean as lived for itself in the present . In their monotony they catch a glimpse of the nothingness of revelationthe insight that hammering is real hammering and at the same time nothing (SW 2: 813)that is, the space of The Critical Writing Era Essay construction that is the present moment. Through repetitions such as study, or hammering, they come to understand nothingness not as empty, but as something which could be filled with meaning through human action , not divine revelation. Palace! In the reversal of the students against progress and teleology, the messianism of Scholem is fractured into the weak messianism of Benjaminto the possibilities in the past and present awakened by foreclosing the future. These gestures move not only against Essay progress in the sense of future revelation but revolt against the authority of the law in the sense of the Halakhah, remaining on palace the level of the parable ( Aggadah ) which blasts open the present via storytelling. Benjamin notes that storytelling has always been a mode of fending off the forces of myth, and recalling his 1927 prolegomena (The Storyteller), such stories must always be (re)told from the perspective of the present.

The parable presents a different relationship to temporality from that of the law: While the law anticipates the future of revelation, the parable re-actualizes the past through its re-telling in the present. One can see many of the glass palace Benjamins writings on history latent in such a conception, yet what is essential to note is the recovery of the present as a site of construction that the gesture of describes smtp study affords. For Weber, Kafkas reversal recovers the pure Mittleilbarkeit (Ability-) [21] of language, a language of means: one outside the law or ends as such. This is the language Benjamin attempts to the glass, harness so as to adequately speak politically of the present moment. This would entail the transmutation of study outside the Law, and perhaps Kafkas parables are attempts to enact this; to articulate a life that could be lived at the foot of the glass palace The Castle in the absence of doctrine or dogma. After all, Kafkas parables take a swipe at the myth of the authority of the text, and through a certain cunning of storytelling can aid in maintaining the present as a site of construction. In this sense, they fulfill his early conception of divine violence, a constructive gesture beyond the existing order of things. Such stories must always be retold from the perspective of the present, employing the past in constellation so as to open the present as sight of Franklin D. Roosevelt fulfillment, and the glass stand against the myths of the law.

Speaking to this ability of the parable, Benjamin writes: Kafkas genius lay in the fact that he tried something altogether new: he gave up truth [The Law] so that he could hold to Writing, its transmissibility, the [parabolic] haggadic element. Describes Smtp! Kafkas writings are by their nature parables. But that in their misery and their beauty, that they had become more than parables. They do not modestly lie at the feet of doctrine [the law], as the Aggadah lies at the feet of the Halakhah. Though apparently reduced to submission, they unexpectedly raise a mighty paw against it. (BSC 225) In giving up truth, Kafka gained the possibility of trying something newof experimentation . As Brecht does, he sacrifices the plot via the parable form so that individual gestures can become meaningful for a coming politics.

In this context such repetitive gestures gain a further revelatory quality: They become informative to the habits that abound in modernity, to the optical unconscious that conditions human action. Through the interruption and repetition of gesture, one glimpses the theatre that is played at in Kafkas world and in modernity: The Nature Theatre of Oklahoma. [22] This theatrical sentiment is palace, exemplary of Brechts influence upon nina jablonski Benjamins Kafka essay in the latter half of 1934, and it will be shown below that much of the piece consists of a response to Brechts imperatives regarding Kafka. BRECHT AND THE SPACE OF THE POLITICAL. An author who teaches writers nothing teaches no one. What matters, therefore, is the exemplary character of production, which is able, first, to induce other producers to produce, and, second, to put an improved apparatus at their disposal. And this apparatus is better, the more consumers it is able to are appendix, turn into producersthat is, readers or spectators into collaborators. Benjamin, The Author as Producer. SW 2: 777.

Benjamins Notes from Svendborg recounts conversations and experiences with Brecht surrounding the composition of the Kafka piece. According to Brecht, Kafka was a great artist, yet a failure in a more fundamental sense: he was overly mystical, containing little of value for resistance or politics. As Brecht asserts to Benjamin: You will find a number of very useful things. The Images are good. The rest is just mystery mongering. It is nonsense.

You must ignore it. You cannot make progress with depth. Depth is simply a dimension; it is just depthin which nothing can be seen (SW 2: 786). The Glass! [23] For Brecht, Kafka bestows little agency for politics, the image of which is a man who has fallen at the wheels, who offers scarcely any resistance; he is wise (SW 2: 787; 787). [24] Benjamin is clearly affected by Brechts scathing remarks, which are directed against an esoteric thread Brecht sees running through both Benjamin and Kafkathat they succumb to the same myths they attempt to critique. Palace! For Brecht such mysticism beclouds the materialist human agency necessary for meaningful political action. Given these criticisms, it is Essay Franklin D. Roosevelt, possible to read much of Benjamins 1934 essay, specifically the section The Nature Theatre, as a response to Brechts imperativesas demonstrative of the practical value of Kafkas work for analysis and resistance to myth, and further, that theology and materialism could be combined in a meaningful sense. As already argued, the pure means of Benjamins theological politics restores a sense of the present moment itself; revealing the nothing which makes any action, political or otherwise, meaningful. Put otherwise, Kafka aids in the glass palace, recovering a certain dignity of the present moment, weak messianism, which is essential for any practical action. Hence Benjamins discussions of Gesture and Theatre throughout the piece entail an attempt to bridge these two realmstheological, politicaland the two figures, Scholem and Essay on Cervus Elaphus Brecht, associated with these concerns. Or rather, Benjamin employs Brechtian categories to further demonstrate the possibilities of the glass his immanent theologya possibility of acting outside the law that is outside of myth. Situating the discussion, Benjamin recalls the final scene from Kafkas Amerika : [In Kafka] () man is on the stage from the very beginning. The proof is the fact that everyone is the glass, hired by the Nature Theatr of Oklahoma.

What the standards for admission are cannot be determined. () [A]ll that is expected of the applicants is the ability to play themselves. (SW 2: 804) Upon his entrance to the Nature Theatre, Karl becomes transparent, pure, without character (SW 2: 801), an individual who is aware of the nothingness of all things, or rather the Theatre that is perpetually being played. The Two Important Secular Were The Chanson And The! For Benjamin this summons Brechts Chinese Theatre, which is a theatre of Gesture (SW 2: 801); here actions are endowed with meeting via their episodic context, they are nothingness in themselves. Hence Kafkas parables should be read as plays performed in the Nature Theatre, they do not have a definitive, symbolic, a-historical meaning; rather, they are allegorical or episodic in nature. They relate not to a specific idea or doctrine; rather they relate self-referentially to the practice of gesture or action as such. The Glass Palace! In fact, these gestures generate a narrative around themselves, and are perhaps the condition of nina jablonski all narrative: Each gesture is an eventone might even say a dramain itself. The stage on which this drama takes place is the World Theatre, which opens towards heaven (SW 2: 802). Palace! The immensity of individual gestures in Kafka opens past the individual story or parable which contains it, demonstrating the power of gesture, or individual action itself. Palace! As Benjamin writes, the gestures of Kafkas figures are too powerful for our accustomed surroundings and break out into wider areas (SW 2: 801). Reminiscent of the Brechtian image of Astonishment [25] , the overtly dramatic nature of are appendix these gestures shocks one into an analysis of the conditions of ones own Gestus , of the social relations constraining action, while alluding to on Cervus Elaphus, the modes by which these might be overcome or shaped. For Brecht, with the sacrifice of the plot (truth, the law ( Halakhah ) new importance is thrown upon the gestures of individual actors, and Epic Theatre becomes a site where one could experiment with new forms of life; [26] that is, a life that could be lived outside the law, a space of the political beyond myth.

As Benjamin writes, [Kafka] divests human gesture of its traditional supports, and then has a subject for reflection [experimentation] without end (SW 2: 802). Palace! [27] For Benjamin, studying (theology) and acting (gesture) amount to the same thing: repetitions which lead to a realization of the nothing which conditions possible action, gestures of divine violence which move beyond the current mythical political order. For Weber, this element of repetition ( or re-staging ) allows a certain perspective, one gains an insight into the conditions of gesture, gaining the possibility of Franklin experimentation, and further re-stagings. [28] In reinventing a subject with a minimal distance from the glass palace itself, one is able to regain a sense of sovereignty or the political in a historical sense: the possibility of a definitive action other than the course of things. As Kafkas allegory always contains the possibility of an describes about-face (Weber 209) at the last moment, we too discover the singularity of the now-time, the existence of the present as the true state of exception for sovereign individual action. [29] This is the sense of Benjamins pronouncement in The Author as Producer: that the political importance of Epic Theatre lies in its ability to expose the present moment (SW 2: 778). For Brecht and Benjamin, capitalist modernity exposes the body to various forms of reproduction, divesting it of its traditional models of support (as Marxs alienation).

Yet this destruction of The Critical Writing human aura opens the new possibility of experimentation, of the ability to reconstruct oneself (and tradition) anew. It is such a site of pure possibility, of the nothing which makes everything possible that Kafkas gestures attempt to recover. The students not only study the law in their gestures, but through their repetitions they come to recover the fundamental difference of themselves; that is the condition of possibility for action in the present. Throughout his work, Kafka will deliberately inflate the most minute gestures: clapping appears as steam-hammers in Up in where are appendix, the Gallery; the removal of a bed sheet entails the removal of a cosmic burden in The Judgement; and study recovers the possibilities of the present. Study for Benjamin then is the glass, not the study of a potential decipherabilityof the truth of the lawbut rather the recovery of the space of are appendix gesture construction as such. As his early divine violence it contains within it the possibility to break the cycles of myth, allowing one to recover a space of the political in the present. Thus the figure of resistance in Benjamins Kafka (and his thought in general) is the assistant or student, one who forecloses future redemption and discovers the immense capacity of their gestures in the present moment.

Benjamin concludes his essay with Kafkas version of Sancho Panza, the assistant par excellence who embodies such possibilities in Kafkas world. In his delay and diligence, he becomes the hero of Kafkas world by simply playing his own role. As Benjamin writes: The situation of the subject in such experiments is Kafkas situation; this is what leads him to study, where he may encounter fragments of his own existencefragments that are still within the context of the role (SW 2: 814). For Benjamin Sancho Panzas existence is exemplary because it actually consists in re-reading ones own existence (BSC 135). In following Don Quixote rather than leadingin going along for the ridehe gains a minimal distance from himself, a perspective on the glass palace his own immanent distorted position. For Benjamin and Kafka this is perhaps all that can be hoped for in terms of resistance in modernity: repetitions which recover the nothingness of all things and the condition of possibility for constructive political action. The Glass! Yet, perhaps, this minimal gesture is all that is necessary: a weak messianism that affirms individual action. Barbarism? Yes, indeed.

We say this in order to Writing, introduce a new, positive concept of barbarism. For what does poverty of experience do for the barbarian? It forces him to the glass palace, start from on Franklin scratch; to the glass palace, make a new start; to make a little go a long way. Benjamin, Experience and Poverty. SW 2: 732. In Critique of Violence Benjamin noted the difficulty of thinking violence and where politics beyond traditional means-ends relationships.

Both natural and positive law end up preserving the existing mystical order through their use of violence, hence are unable to think politics in the constructive sense afforded by divine violence. Though Benjamin positions divine violence as destructive of myth, he seems skeptical to speak assuredly of its concrete political possibilities beyond his 1921 text. As has been shown, though the term is absent in the rest of his oeuvre, its imperatives regarding the constructive possibilities of politics against myth are continually developedspecifically in his 1934 essay on Kafka. Essay On Cervus Elaphus! Though he argues the general strike as exemplary of the notion, after 1921 he moves away from the glass palace such grand messianic gestures, focusing instead on The Critical the weak messianic capacities afforded to the glass palace, all. It has also been demonstrated that Benjamins early writings on politics and violence attempt to develop the notion of divine violence as a constructive model for politics outside the existing order. Benjamin continues this method in his 1934 essay on Kafka, whose works allow for analysis of the changing face of the law in modernity, while also allowing for the formulation of potential models of resistance through theological and Brechtian categories.

To the inevitable question of what the concrete political program afforded by such work is, Benjamin is uninterested in providing grand narratives of revolution, though he does provide a purity of means by which to resist the myths in palace, our time, a mode by which to recover the constructive capacity inherent in the present momentto think politics beyond the law. Palace! Too often one turns to are appendix, theory for a program for the global revolution, ceding ones autonomy to the revolutionary situation or other dialectical narratives. In so doing one forgets the power one has to palace, act in the present moment, ones weak messianic capacities. Benjamins work will provide no such grand narrative, though it can aid in the recovery of a capacity of divine violence at any moment, of the constructive capacity to resist myth. 1. For Schmitt no legal or political order has authority in itself, rather it draws this power (or force) from some primordial elsewhere.

A constitution is not simply valid in-itself, but because it is backed by the two most genres music were madrigal., the power of the state to the glass, enforce its principles via its monopoly on violence, or rather its power to suspend the legal norm and most genres secular music madrigal. declare the exceptional case. In Political Theology Schmitt will write, [a]ll significant concepts of the modern theory of the state are secularized theological categories (36), and he goes on to argue that the authority of the state is important genres the chanson, based on the secularization of theological notions of the absolute authority of the divine (in a Catholic sense). 2. Until 1936 Schmitt was interested in the possibilities afforded by National Socialism for a revival of the fundamental basis of sovereignty, specifically its emphasis on the Fuhrer, which Schmitt felt to recapture the primordial force of sovereignty, enacting many of the principles he described in his 1921 work Dictatorship. 3. The term Gewalt is where, difficult to render in English, but should be seen as connoting both force and the glass violence. The Gewalt of the law is the sense given to it by the force of its (potential) enactment or suspension, or rather the reverence one has to the law because of its capacity to be enacted or suspended in Schmitts state of exception. 4. In his On the Genealogy of Morals (specifically the first treatise Good and Evil) Nietzsche presents a historical genealogy of the emergence of such concepts. He asserts that good and evil (and morals more generally) are not abstract or a-historical concepts, rather they emerge in certain historical epochs to justify certain behaviors deemed good or evil. Likewise, in these early writings, Benjamin is asserting that no such a-historical sense of justice exists, only that which is Era Essay, justified by the current legal order.

Benjamin will in fact go further in asserting justice to be a Bastard (SW 1: 252) of the law preserving violence of the current legal order. 5. Positive law sees violence as the product of history (SW 1: 237) and is concerned with a justification of means, while natural law holds that just means can be attained through justified ends (SW 1: 237), that justified ends (such as the preservation of the state) justify the means of the glass violence. For Benjamin both are problematic in that they think violence within a binary means/ends structure. In the essay, Benjamin describes natural law in a Hobbesian sense, as justified because of natural antagonisms in human beings and the need to preserve the state. Benjamin is palace, much more interested in positive law, which attempts to justify the use of violence historicallyand the essay itself attempts to determine the criterion by which such a judgment could be made. 6. Most notably Derridas essay Force of the Law: On the Mystical Foundation of palace Authority, which calls Benjamins distinctions radically problematic ( Acts of Religion 981), reflected the anti- Aufklarung, sentiments of fascism and the glass palace the terrible ethno-political ambiguity of the text ( Acts of Religion 1024).

He then goes on to assert Benjamins texts as emblematic of the practice (and need) of deconstruction. Gasche however notes that Derrida perhaps misinterprets the importance of (binary) distinctions in the text, drawing attention to the necessary impossibility of Benjamins divine violence as a specific political program. Nina Jablonski! See Gasche, The Honor of Thinking, 21-38. As is argued in the glass palace, this work, it is perhaps the constructive possibility of Essay on Franklin thinking the political beyond the current mythical political order. 7. Throughout much of the glass Benjamins work, critique is a historical gesture against a-historical mythical categories. The task of criticism entails reading myths historically, demonstrating that things could be (thought) otherwise. This practice has much in common with Nietzsche or Foucaults genealogical method. 8. Here allegory should be understood in the sense of Benjamins Origin of the German Tragic Drama : as a ruin which allows meaning to be thought historically, allegories are able to be re-endowed with meaning when place in constellation with different epochs. This is opposed to the trans-historical truth of symbol. 9. Whether or not Benjamin succeeds in bridging this gap cannot be decided here, though in a letter to Scholem (17.8.1934) Benjamin utilizes the image of the Bow to Essay Elaphus, describe the composition of the essay: writing it should be thought as an attempt to arch the bow so the arrow zings into flight[pulling] two ends at once, the political and the mystical (BSC 143). From this image one can see the tension between theology and palace materialism which gives such a formulation its power.

10. Benjamin employs this distinction via Werner Kraft who argues for a distinction between the law and laws in Kafkas work. Benjamin asserts the laws to have merely a semblance like character, focusing instead on the primordial force of the law. See GS 1250. 11. Pushkins story tells of where Shuvulkin the assistant, one who attempts to take the place of the disabled emperor (in signing his letters), yet is only able to write his own name, hence is nina jablonski, unable to assume the position of authority. For Benjamin this depicts the mythical and ambiguous character of the law and the figures of authority in Kafkas work.

12. Johan Jakob Bachofen, a 19 th century Swiss philologist and legal theorist noted for his 1861 text Mother Right, which argued that modern patriarchal authority gained its force from the mythological (and ambiguous) power of the mother in more primitive times. For Benjamin pre-history connotes a world of Essay on Franklin D. Roosevelt myth un-aware of the glass its historical index (as the Baroque), hence it feels its gestures and decisions to be eternal or divine. 13. As Lukacs writes, expressing second nature as a means to be at home in alienation: This second nature is not dumbit is a complex of sensesmeaningsit is a charnel-house of long-dead interiorities (64).

14. Kafkas The Judgment can be read as demonstrative of this conflation of most important genres of renaissance the chanson and the madrigal. legal levels (the law of the father and last judgment). The sons condemnation by the father is also his damnation, and causes his death in the stories final scene. 15. Describing this in Critique of Violence: Once again all eternal forms are available to pure divine violence, which myth bastardizes with law (SW 1: 252). The Glass! That is, myth bastardizes this pure constructive power in the creation of the law. 16. In the Jewish tradition the law ( Halakhah ) as the doctrine of the divine is clarified by the parable ( Aggadah ), which does not exhaust or articulate its meaning fully. The Halakhah can be taken as the textual truth of the parable, though it is palace, never grasped or articulated fully. This relationship will be explored more in depth in the following section.

17. Writing to Benjamin, Scholem describes this as follows: You ask what I understand by Elaphus, the nothingness of revelation? I understand by it a state in which revelation appears to be without meaning , in which it still asserts itself, in which it has validity but no significance [ Force without significance ]. A state in which the wealth of meaning is lost and what is in the glass palace, the process of appearing (for revelation is such a process) still does not disappear, even though it is reduced to the zero point of its own content, so to speak (BSC 127). ! Kafkas world is one in palace, which theological revelation remains un-noticed (force without significance), though for Scholem this holds out for a time when it could be of significance. 18. What is essential to palace, note is similarity of such theologies with orthodox critical theory, a belief that some (Marxist) theory of enlightenment will redeem the present from the future.

For Benjamin such a method robs the present of power as a site of possibility in favor of some future to come. 19. As in Adorno and Horkheimers Dialectic of Enlightenment , the enlightenment fails to recognize its own mythological basis in thinking that it has overcome mythin fact such narratives are themselves myths . Further, Benjamin forecloses such a positivistic hope in the future, hence inaugurating a reversal which brings us back to smtp, our current guilty condition, the first step towards redemption: The prophet views the future from the perspective of punishmentin reality his who interest is directed upon the newthe punishmentin whose light, however, guilt becomes already the first step towards redemption (GS 1192). 20. This student is the glass palace, perhaps Kafka himself, as it is mentioned he is a clerk by day and a student by night; Kafka too was a clerk by day, writing stories (or studying) in The Critical Writing, the evening. 21. Weber stresses this as the pure potential of language as such, that is the ability of language to become itterable and re-inscribable.

He further asserts that pure-language in the sense of Benjamins On Language as Such is the glass palace, just this progression or infinite translatability of language. See Benjamins abilities, 53-95. Which Describes Smtp! In foreclosing future revelation one gains the -ability of reconstruction in the present moment. 22. In the text Benjamin subtly switches terms from the The Nature Theatre of Oklahoma ( Amerika ) to the Nature Theatre (of Modernity). Evoking that Kafkas work could be read to the glass, describe the theatre that is played at in modernity more generally.

23.As opposed to of renaissance secular the chanson, this Brecht possess What is he doing? (SW 2: 786) as a concrete political question to pose with respect to Kafkas work, searching his images for what is the glass, useful in the service of materialist politics. For Example, Brecht felt The Trial to provide a relevant description of the political situation in German and the USSR, with its secret police and trials. 24. Which! Brecht derides Benjamins persistent use of Kafka as a sort of Jewish Fascism, a mystification of real political action. Latent is this Brechts feeling that many of Benjamins own categories mystified political action as well.

25. Exemplary of the glass palace this is the interchangeability between human and animal throughout Kafkas work. For Benjamin, such metamorphoses divests human gesture of The Critical its traditional supports, and then has a subject for reflection without end (SW 2: 802). 26. See Brecht: On Experimental Theatre, specifically his definition of Theatres dual role as entertainment and instruction. The importance of experimentation is emphasized in Benjamins What is palace, Epic Theatre?. 27. Agamben (in Potentialities ) takes this foreclosure of truth to open the possibility of play (a la Deconstruction). Yet as Weber and others have noted, this does not do justice to the radicalism of on Cervus Elaphus experimentation as beyond simple play within a given context. 28. See Webers discussion of the experimental possibilities of re-staging, notably Citabilityof Gesture in Benjamins abilities. 95-115.

29. In his 1940 Theses on the Concept of History Benjamin continues his engagement with Schmitt, arguing that the state of exception can be seen as perpetually existing, not as contingent upon a sovereign decision (as in Political Theology ). This should be taken to mean that for Benjamin a true sense of the political is perpetually at palace hand, or that the possibility of a constructive politics can be developed at Writing any point in time. Agamben, Giorgio. Potentialities. trans. Daniel Heller-Roazen. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999. Print.

Adorno, Theodor and Horkheimer, Max. Dialectic of Enlightenment. Trans. Edmund Jephcott. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002. Palace! Print. Benjamin, Walter. Nina Jablonski! Critique of Violence. Walter Benjamin: Selected Writings, Volume 1: 1913-1926 (SW 1) . Palace! trans . Edmund Jephcott. eds. Statement! Marcus Bullock and Michael W. Jennings.

Cambridge: The Belknap Press, 1996. Print. .On the Right to Use Force. Walter Benjamin: Selected Writings, Volume 1: 1913-1926 (SW 1) . The Glass Palace! trans . Edmund Jephcott. eds. Essay Elaphus! Marcus Bullock and palace Michael W. Jennings. Describes Smtp! Cambridge: The Belknap Press, 1996. The Glass Palace! Print. .Franz Kafka: On the Tenth Anniversary of his Death. Walter Benjamin: Selected Writings, Volume 2: 1927- 1934 (SW 2) . The Glass Palace! trans. Rodney Livingstone. eds. Michael W. Jennings, Howard Eiland, and statement describes smtp Gary Smith.

Cambridge: The Belknap Press, 1999. Print. .Notes from Svenborg. Walter Benjamin: Selected Writings, Volume 2: 1927- 1934 (SW 2) . The Glass Palace! trans. Rodney Livingstone. eds. Michael W. Jennings, Howard Eiland, and Gary Smith. Which Statement Describes Smtp! Cambridge: The Belknap Press, 1999. Print.

.The Author as Producer. Walter Benjamin: Selected Writings, Volume 2: 1927- 1934 (SW 2) . trans. Rodney Livingstone. eds. Michael W. The Glass Palace! Jennings, Howard Eiland, and Gary Smith. Cambridge: The Belknap Press, 1999. Print. .Franz Kafka (Notes). Gesammelte Schriften (GS), Vol. II, 3 quoted in and translated by: Gasche, Rodolphe. Kafkas Law: In the Field of the glass palace Forces between Judaism and Hellenism. MLN , vol. 117, no. 5, 2002, pp. 9711002. Franklin D. Roosevelt!

Print. . The Origin of German Tragic Drama. trans. John Osborne London: Verso, 1998. Brecht, Bertold. Brecht on the glass palace Theatre. Trans. John Willet. New York: Hill and nina jablonski Wang, 1957. Print. Derrida, Jacques. Force of the Law: On the Mystical Foundation of Authority. Acts of Religion. Ed.

Gil Anidjar. New York: Routledge, 2002. Print. Friedlander, Eli. Palace! Walter Benjamin: A Philosophical Portrait. Writing Era Essay! Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012. Print. Gasche, Rodolphe. Kafkas Law: In the Field of Forces between Judaism and Hellenism. MLN , vol. 117, no. Palace! 5, 2002, pp.

9711002. Print. . The Honor of Thinking: Critique, Theory, Philosophy . Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006. Print. Kafka, Franz. Amerika . trans. The Critical Writing! Edwin Muir. New York: Schocken Books, 1974. Unpublished in Kafkas lifetime. . The Zurau Aphorisms . Palace! trans. Michael Hofmann.

New York: Schocken Books, 2006. The Critical Writing! Print. . The Trial . Breon Mitchell. The Glass! Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print. . ! The Complete Stories . Ed. Nahum Glatzer. New York: Shocken Books, 1983. Print.

Lukacs, Georg. The Theory of the Novel . trans. Anna Bostock. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1971. Print. Nietzsche, Friedrich. On the Genealogy of Morality. Trans. Maudemarie Clark and Alan J. Swensen.

Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1998. Print. Schmitt, Carl. Political Theology. trans. George Schwab. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. Print. Scholem, Gerschom and Benjamin, Walter. The Correspondence of Walter Benjamin and Gershom Scholem, 1932-40 (BSC) . Are Appendix! trans. Gary Smith and Andre Lefevere. ed.

Gerschom Scholem. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992. Print. Taubes, Jacob. The Political Theology of Paul . trans. Danna Hollander. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004. Print. Weber, Sam. Benjamins abilities.

Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008. The Glass Palace! Print.

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5 Ways to Start Your Resume With a Bang. Everyone tells you that it#8217;s important to start your resume with a powerful introduction that makes a strong first impression #8230; #8220;you only have 20 seconds#8221; goes the the glass, standard advice. And it#8217;s true. Employers are busy and they get hundreds of resumes for most positions which means standing out is the glass, vital. But how do you actually do that?

The good news is Essay on Franklin, that it#8217;s not as hard as you might think. I#8217;ve written before about the importance of starting your resume with a strong resume headline. The Glass. But here are 5 additional ways to are appendix, start your resume with the kind of bang that makes it impossible for employers to ignore you. If you#8217;re like most people, when it comes time to write a resume, you spend time browsing the web looking for ideas. (In fact that#8217;s how you may have come to on Cervus, this website). But it#8217;s a really bad idea and palace here#8217;s why. Nina Jablonski. You are not like any of those other people.

On our samples page, you#8217;ll find over 50 sample resumes, each one carefully crafted to communicate the strengths, personality traits, experiences and unique value proposition of one individual an individual who is Essay, not you . So if you#8217;re spending time looking around the the glass palace, web for resume examples, stop it. Seriously. Stop it! You are amazing. You have talents, skills and life experiences that no one else on earth has at least not in that unique combination. Palace. So instead of looking for things other people have said about themselves, start your resume by telling people exactly what makes you uniquely valuable. Notice I didn#8217;t say #8216;tell people what makes you unique.#8217; The fact that you own the world#8217;s largest collection of Dr Who figurines makes you unique, but I wouldn#8217;t recommend adding it to your resume. No, unique isn#8217;t enough the phrase I used was #8220;uniquely valuable.#8221; Ask yourself: what combination of skills, experiences and personality traits makes me valuable to the glass, my target employers?#8221; When you have the answer, you have the core message that will compel employers to call you in for interviews. For example, if I was to apply for a position creating an online training program for job seekers, I would want to where are appendix, highlight several things that, in combination, make me a pretty unique candidate: I have 15 years of recruitment experience at all levels of an organization I have an in-depth understanding of the resume screening and applicant tracking systems used by palace, so many companies today.

I have 10 years of experience in curriculum development and training design I have 10 years of experience running Blue Sky Resumes and during that time my company has helped thousands of job seekers to find new jobs. The Glass. This outline of my experience is what marketers might call #8216;the product features.#8217; These are the are appendix, facts about my experience. Palace. To make a real impact, I have to illustrate to the audience why these features will benefit them. I offer a rare combination of hands-on recruitment, training, resume writing and the glass palace career coaching experience, which means that I have an in-depth knowledge of the hiring process from both sides while also knowing how to create adult learning programs that really work. . Do this for yourself, and your resume can#8217;t fail to make an immediate impact because it will directly address the nina jablonski, core needs of your target employers. The Glass Palace. 3. Break the Writing Era Essay, Rules if Necessary. When you write your resume, you#8217;re immediately constrained by all kinds of rules that you#8217;ve heard from other people. For example, my favorite is the #8220;your resume should only on, be one page long#8221; rule. Who says? Did all the the glass palace, hiring managers, recruiters and HR managers go to a training course where they were all told this was the rule and not to , consider anyone who didn#8217;t follow it?

Of course not! It#8217;s just a thing someone said one day and it got picked up and communicated to others and the glass palace now it causes millions of people around the world to write resumes that are less effective than they could be. The truth is that you can#8217;t write a powerful resume that expresses your individuality if you are also following conventions and rules. The two just don#8217;t go together. Essay. Notice in my example above that I wrote my value proposition summary in the first person. The Glass. Here it is again: I offer a rare combination of hands-on recruitment, training, resume writing and where career coaching experience, which means that I have an in-depth knowledge of the hiring process from both sides while also knowing how to create adult learning programs that really work. Standard resume conventions say this is wrong that you should never use #8220;I#8221; in your resume. I say that#8217;s rubbish. Sometimes, using #8220;I#8221; is the perfect way to speak directly to the hiring manager with a powerful sales message.

This doesn#8217;t mean your resume should be two pages (maybe it should be three? Or one?). The Glass Palace. Nor does it mean that you must use #8220;I#8221; in your resume. Nina Jablonski. Far from it. The Glass Palace. All it means is that you should always make decisions about your resume based on what#8217;s the nina jablonski, best sales message for you and not based on an arbitrary rule designed to make everyone conform. Here#8217;s one example of a resume that uses #8220;I#8221; effectively to the glass palace, introduce the on D. Roosevelt, candidate to palace, potential employers. The Critical. Employers are risk averse. They want to be very sure that they don#8217;t make a mistake when hiring.

Therefore, one of the most powerful things you can do is to provide evidence, right upfront in palace, your resume introduction, that you will be a good choice. I like to are appendix, do this by the glass, using testimonials either from LinkedIn or from performance reviews or reference letters. If you can use the referrer#8217;s name, your pitch will be all the stronger. (See here and here for examples). If you#8217;ve ever attended a creative writing class, you#8217;ll know the old adage #8220;show don#8217;t tell.#8221; In creative writing, this refers to the fact that it#8217;s more powerful to show a character#8217;s feelings through action rather than describing those feelings. (So an author shouldn#8217;t say #8220;he felt sad#8221; but should rather say #8220;tears welled in his eyes.#8221;) When I use this phrase in relation to your resume, I am referring to roughly the same thing. Palace. Instead of telling people that you#8217;re fabulous, I want you to show them. Imagine being a hiring manager and looking at two resumes one tells and one shows. The #8220;tells#8221; resume begins with the following statement: I am a powerful leader who consistently delivers results even in palace, challenging situations. The Two Genres Of Renaissance Were The Chanson. The #8220;shows#8221; resume starts this way: I have held 3 jobs in the glass palace, the last 10 years and have always increased sales by at least 50% this is true even in my most recent role where I grew sales 62% despite a general industry downturn.

Which of these two candidates would you be most interested in meeting? (And would you really care that he used the #8220;I#8221; word? Or if his resume was 3 pages long?). Of course, not everyone can quantify their impact in this way as we don#8217;t all work in where, sales. But if you think about it hard enough, you can come up with facts about your performance that show rather than tell. The Glass Palace. For example, perhaps you have outperformed your peers, or won awards, or earned promotions in Writing Era Essay, every one of your jobs. Perhaps you#8217;re the teacher who always goes the extra mile, or the sales associate who gets 100% on mystery shopper visits. . The point is, showing will always make a bigger impact than telling and doing it sooner rather than later will help your resume start with a bang. To make an impact, you need to showcase your unique value right at the start of your resume. The Critical Era Essay. Do this and you will find that your resume response rate skyrockets.

So before you send another resume out, ask yourself if it really starts with a bang. The Glass Palace. If it does, you#8217;re already overwhelmed with interview requests. If it doesn#8217;t, use one of these tactics or find your own to make the desired impact. Good luck! And if youre interested in professional resume help, just shoot me an email with a copy of your resume and Ill get back to the glass palace, you with feedback and a price quote. Where Are Appendix. The best bit? As a reader of this blog (and therefore clearly a person with impeccable taste!) you are entitled to claim a 15% discount on our resume writing service. Just mention the blog when you email me. You might also be interested in: Love this article? Share it!

How to Write a Killer Resume. The Critical Writing. About the Author. Louise co-founded Blue Sky in palace, 2002 after a career as an HR executive. Where Are Appendix. Her industry experience includes music, video games, fashion and advertising. She lived and worked in the US for many years, but moved back to her native UK in 2012, where she now lives in the Yorkshire countryside. In addition to her full-time role with Blue Sky, she's a professional artist, so you can imagine why she couldn't answer the 'what do you do with your free time' question! Contact Louise by email. Sign up now to learn our FREE Resume Secrets!

Tired of being ignored? Our FREE resume writing e-course will show you how to get your resume noticed with just a few quick and easy changes. Transform your resume,boost your confidence, and palace land your dream job with 12 time-tested strategies. These simple, practical tips are delivered by email and the first one will arrive as soon as you sign up. 8 comments on “5 Ways to Start Your Resume With a Bang” #8220;Which of these two candidates would you be most interested in meeting?#8221; is grammatically incorrect. Since there are only two candidates, the Essay Franklin, sentence should ready, #8220;Which of these two candidates would you be more interested in , meeting?#8221; Thanks Matthew for the correction Duly noted. However, hopefully the point remains a good one #128578; Good points.

Thanks for highlighting examples very well. It#8217;s a lot about quantifying, quantifying, quantifying! But not all of us such as writers have been in quantifying careers, what do you do then? Esp. if you are not applying for a writing position? Maybe more of a project coordinator etc. etc. If you#8217;re not in a job that can be quantified, you need to ask yourself #8216;what impact have I made? How would X company or magazine or newspaper or blog be different had they not hired me?#8217; A writer isn#8217;t expected to do anything directly quantifiable, but there are expectations for the job. What are they? Once you have that piece of information, you can describe times you made a similar impact in another setting. For example, a project coordinator is expected to deliver things on time, often to tight deadlines.

Have you done that before? If so, when? What happened? What was the result? He or she needs to coordinate the efforts of lots of people, often people who don#8217;t report directly. The Critical. Have you done that? How did it turn out? Always the secret is to ask yourself #8216;what is important for success in this job?#8217; Then describe your success at doing that. Good luck!

What should I do if I am just getting back to the workforce? I have been a full time mom to three children and I am definitely feeling scared and intimidated. The Glass Palace. I#8217;ve recently written a resume post that I think you may like. What do you think? Keen to hear your feedback. Excuse me. I#8217;m a 15 year old boy, who doesn#8217;t have any previous working experience. Where Are Appendix. what can I do to get my fist job. Three Popular Articles you will kick yourself for not reading. Like what you see? Sign up to Essay on Franklin, get our very best stuff sent by email. We hate spam so we#039;ll never do it and we#039;ll never share your email address with anyone. is a small team of professional writers and job search experts based in where, the US and the UK.

We offer one-of-a-kind resumes, smart career advice and fantastic customer service. We love what we do. All Content 2014 Blue Sky Resumes. Like what you see? Sign up to get our very best stuff sent by the glass, email.

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Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Question. Stephanie Allen read Classics and English at St Hughs College, Oxford, and is currently researching a PhD in Early Modern Academic Drama at the University of Fribourg. Weve all been there. Youve handed in an essay and you think its pretty great: it shows off all your best ideas, and contains points youre sure no one else will have thought of. Youre not totally convinced that what youve written is relevant to where the title you were given but its inventive, original and good. In fact, it might be better than anything that would have responded to the question. But your essay isnt met with the lavish praise you expected. When its tossed back onto your desk, there are huge chunks scored through with red pen, crawling with annotations like little red fire ants: IRRELEVANT; A bit of the glass, a tangent!; . Writing! ; and, right next to your best, most impressive killer point: Right so?.

The grade your teacher has scrawled at the end is palace, nowhere near what your essay deserves. In fact, its pretty average. Which Describes Smtp! And the comment at the glass, the bottom reads something like, Some good ideas, but you didnt answer the question!. If asked a question about Keats, you should write about Keats. If this has ever happened to you (and it has happened to me, a lot), youll know how deeply frustrating it is and how unfair it can seem.

This might just be me, but the on Cervus, exhausting process of researching, having ideas, planning, writing and re-reading makes me steadily more attached to the ideas I have, and the things Ive managed to put on the page. Each time I scroll back through what Ive written, or planned, so far, I become steadily more convinced of nina jablonski, its brilliance. What started off as a scribbled note in the margin, something extra to think about or to the glass palace pop in if it could be made to fit the argument, sometimes comes to be backbone of a whole essay so, when a tutor tells me my inspired paragraph about where, Ted Hughess interpretation of mythology isnt relevant to my essay on Keats, I fail to see why. Or even if I can see why, the thought of the glass, taking it out is wrenching. The Two Most Genres Secular The Chanson And The Madrigal.! Who cares if its a bit off-topic? It should make my essay stand out, if anything! And an examiner would probably be happy not to read yet another answer that makes exactly the same points. If you recognise yourself in the above, there are two crucial things to realise. The Glass! The first is that something has to change: because doing well in high school exam or coursework essays is almost totally dependent on being able to pin down and organise lots of ideas so that an examiner can see that they convincingly answer a question. And its a real shame to work hard on something, have good ideas, and not get the marks you deserve.

Writing a top essay is a very particular and actually quite simple challenge. Are Appendix! Its not actually that important how original you are, how compelling your writing is, how many ideas you get down, or how beautifully you can express yourself (though of course, all these things do have their rightful place). The Glass Palace! What youre doing, essentially, is using a limited amount of time and knowledge to really answer a question. It sounds obvious, but a good essay should have the title or question as its focus the whole way through . It should answer it ten times over the glass palace in every single paragraph, with every fact or figure. Writing! Treat your reader (whether its your class teacher or an external examiner) like a child who cant do any interpretive work of their own; imagine yourself leading them through your essay by the hand, pointing out that youve answered the the glass palace, question here , and here , and here. Now, this is Elaphus, all very well, I imagine you objecting, and much easier said than done. But never fear! Structuring an essay that knocks a question on the head is something you can learn to do in a couple of easy steps. In the next few hundred words, Im going to share with you what Ive learned through endless, mindless crossings-out, rewordings, rewritings and rethinkings. Ive lost count of the number of times Ive been told to write the question at The Critical Era Essay, the top of palace, every new page- but for some reason, that trick simply doesnt work for me.

If it doesnt work for you either, use this three-part process to on Cervus Elaphus allow the palace, question to nina jablonski structure your essay: 1) Work out exactly what youre being asked. It sounds really obvious, but lots of students have trouble answering questions because they dont take time to figure out palace, exactly what theyre expected to do instead, they skim-read and then write the essay they want to write. Sussing out a question is a two-part process, and the first part is easy. Palace! It means looking at the directions the question provides as to Era Essay what sort of essay youre going to the glass write. I call these command phrases and will go into more detail about what they mean below. The second part involves identifying key words and phrases. Use forceful, persuasive language to show how the points youve made do answer the question. Palace! My main focus so far has been on tangential or irrelevant material but many students lose marks even though they make great points, because they dont quite impress how relevant those points are. Again, Ill talk about how you can do this below.

3) Be brutally honest with yourself about which describes smtp, whether a point is relevant before you write it. It doesnt matter how impressive, original or interesting it is. The Glass! It doesnt matter if youre panicking, and you cant think of any points that do answer the question. If a point isnt relevant, dont bother with it. Its a waste of are appendix, time, and might actually work against you- if you put tangential material in which smtp an essay, your reader will struggle to follow the thread of your argument, and lose focus on your really good points. Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath by Theodore Chasseriau. Lets imagine youre writing an palace English essay about the The Critical Writing Era Essay, role and importance of the three witches in Macbeth . Youre thinking about the different ways in music which Shakespeare imagines and presents the witches, how they influence the action of the tragedy, and perhaps the the glass palace, extent to which were supposed to believe in them (stay with me you dont have to know a single thing about most genres of renaissance were and the madrigal., Shakespeare or Macbeth to understand this bit!). Now, youll probably have a few good ideas on this topic and whatever essay you write, youll most likely use much of the same material. However, the detail of the the glass, phrasing of the question will significantly affect the way you write your essay. You would draw on similar material to smtp address the following questions: Discuss Shakespeares representation of the three witches in palace Macbeth . How does Shakespeare figure the supernatural in Macbeth ? To what extent are the three witches responsible for Macbeths tragic downfall?

Evaluate the importance of the nina jablonski, three witches in bringing about Macbeths ruin. Are we supposed to believe in palace the three witches in which Macbeth ? Within Macbeth s representation of the witches, there is profound ambiguity about the the glass palace, actual significance and power of their malevolent intervention (Stephen Greenblatt). Where! Discuss. Ive organised the examples into three groups, exemplifying the the glass palace, different types of questions you might have to answer in an exam. The first group are pretty open-ended: discuss- and how-questions leave you room to set the scope of the essay. You can decide what the focus should be. Beware, though this doesnt mean you dont need a sturdy structure, or a clear argument, both of which should always be present in most genres music were the chanson madrigal. an essay. The second group are asking you to evaluate, constructing an palace argument that decides whether, and how far something is nina jablonski, true. Good examples of hypotheses (which your essay would set out to prove) for these questions are:

The witches are the the glass palace, most important cause of tragic action in Macbeth. The witches are partially, but not entirely responsible for Macbeths downfall, alongside Macbeths unbridled ambition, and that of his wife. Which Statement Describes Smtp! We are not supposed to believe the palace, witches: they are a product of Macbeths psyche, and his downfall is his own doing. The witches role in Macbeths downfall is deliberately unclear. The Two Most Genres Music And The! Their claim to reality is shaky finally, their ambiguity is the glass, part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the theatre. (N.B. Its fine to conclude that a question cant be answered in black and white, certain terms as long as you have a firm structure, and keep referring back to it throughout the essay). The final question asks you to respond to a quotation. The Glass Palace! Students tend to are appendix find these sorts of questions the the glass, most difficult to answer, but once youve got the nina jablonski, hang of them I think the title does most of the work for you often implicitly providing you with a structure for your essay. The first step is breaking down the quotation into its constituent parts- the different things it says. I use brackets: ( Within Macbeth s representation of the witches, ) ( there is profound ambiguity ) about the palace, ( actual significance ) ( and power ) of ( their malevolent intervention ) Examiners have a nasty habit of which describes smtp, picking the most bewildering and terrifying-sounding quotations: but once you break them down, theyre often asking for something very simple. This quotation, for example, is asking exactly the same thing as the other questions.

The trick here is making sure you respond to all the different parts. The Glass! You want to make sure you discuss the following: Do you agree that the status of the witches malevolent intervention is ambiguous? What is its significance? How powerful is it? James I, the King of nina jablonski, England and Scotland at the time Macbeth was written, famously wrote Daemonologie, which encourages the practice of witch-hunting. Having worked out exactly what the , question is asking, write out a plan (which should be very detailed in a coursework essay, but doesnt have to be more than a few lines long in the glass palace an exam context) of the statement smtp, material youll use in each paragraph. Make sure your plan contains a sentence at the end of each point about how that point will answer the question.

A point from my plan for one of the topics above might look something like this: To what extent are we supposed to believe in the three witches in Macbeth ? Hypothesis: The witches role in Macbeths downfall is deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is uncertain finally, theyre part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the palace, theatre. At the on, time Shakespeare wrote Macbeth , there were many examples of people being burned or drowned as witches There were also people who claimed to be able to exorcise evil demons from people who were possessed. Catholic Christianity leaves much room for the supernatural to exist This suggests that Shakespeares contemporary audience might, more readily than a modern one, have believed that witches were a real phenomenon and did exist. My final sentence (highlighted in red) shows how the material discussed in palace the paragraph answers the question.

Writing this out at are appendix, the planning stage, in the glass addition to clarifying your ideas, is a great test of Era Essay, whether a point is relevant: if you struggle to the glass write the sentence, and make the connection to the question and larger argument, you might have gone off-topic. Step Three: Paragraph beginnings and endings. This 16th century English illustration shows a witch feeding her familiars. The final step to making sure you pick up all the possible marks for answering the question in an essay is where, ensuring that you make it explicit how your material does so. This bit relies upon getting the beginnings and endings of paragraphs just right. To reiterate what I said above, treat your reader like a child: tell them what youre going to say; tell them how it answers the question; say it, and then tell them how youve answered the question. This need not feel clumsy, awkward or repetitive. The first sentence of each new paragraph or point should, without giving too much of your conclusion away, establish what youre going to discuss, and how it answers the question. The Glass Palace! The opening sentence from the paragraph I planned above might go something like this: Early modern political and religious contexts suggest that Shakespeares contemporary audience might more readily have believed in witches than his modern readers. The sentence establishes that Im going to discuss Jacobean religion and witch-burnings, and also what Im going to use those contexts to show.

Id then slot in all my facts and examples in the glass palace the middle of the paragraph. The final sentence (or few sentences) should be strong and decisive, making a clear connection to the question youve been asked: Contemporary suspicion that witches did exist, testified to by witch-hunts and exorcisms, is which smtp, crucial to our understanding of the witches in Macbeth. To the early modern consciousness, witches were a distinctly real and dangerous possibility and the witches in the play would have seemed all-the-more potent and terrifying as a result. The best way to get really good at making sure you always answer the question is to write essay plans rather than whole pieces. Set aside a few hours, choose a couple of essay questions from past papers, and for the glass each: Write a hypothesis Write a rough plan of what each paragraph will contain Write out the first and last sentence of each paragraph. You can get your teacher, or a friend, to The Critical Writing look through your plans and give you feedback.

If you follow this advice, fingers crossed, next time you hand in an essay, itll be free from the glass, red-inked comments about irrelevance, and instead showered with praise for the precision with which you handled the where are appendix, topic, and how intently you focused on answering the the glass palace, question. It can seem depressing when your perfect question is just a minor tangent from the question you were actually asked, but trust me high praise and good marks are all found in answering the question in front of the glass palace, you, not the one you would have liked to see. Teachers do choose the questions they set you with some care, after all; chances are the question you were set is the more illuminating and rewarding one as well. 40 Responses to Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Question August 21, 2014 at statement describes smtp, 8:22 am, Kristen Webster said: I have been reading your articles on the glass, better essay writing and I am wondering whether you can provide an which example of palace, a well written essay please?

August 21, 2014 at 11:59 am, ORA Admin said: We havent produced any sample essays ourselves. However, there is a huge amount available online the Essay, Student Rooms sample essays might be a good place to the glass start. We hope this helps. January 20, 2015 at 1:54 am, kot said: Thank you this was very helpful!

March 18, 2015 at 7:56 am, Kos cahe said: How do you answer a to what extend essay question? March 18, 2015 at 12:34 pm, ORA Admin said: A to what extent essay question is Writing, effectively a yes or no essay question thats phrased in a more helpful way. For example: To what extent did his desire for a son influence Henry VIIIs decision to break from the Catholic Church? Did his desire for a son influence Henry VIIIs decision to break from the the glass, Catholic Church?

You can see that both questions will get a very similar answer, only to what extent gives you a hint of what sort of are appendix, answer is expected that it played some role, but that there are other causes that need to be considered. In a to what extent essay, you should consider a variety of reasons, but in each paragraph return to the reason given in the glass palace the question. In my Henry VIII example, you might write one paragraph on The Critical Writing Era Essay, his desire to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, but connect this back to his desire for the glass palace a son, as he believed Anne Boleyn stood a better chance of giving him a son than Catherine of Aragon. In the conclusion, you could then assess whether the Essay, reason given in the question is in fact the most important, or if there was a more significant reason that you have identified in the essay. We hope this helps,

November 22, 2015 at 6:14 pm, Sarah said: How do I write an essay with keywords or key points already given in the glass palace the question? For eg. If the Essay Elaphus, question says to write an essay on some topic and below are some key points or key words. November 23, 2015 at 10:25 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. It is difficult to advise you on palace, the specific essay in question, but we do have a large collection of essay-writing and study skills articles on the ORA website that may be of use to most genres were madrigal. you. Hopefully you can find something that can help you in palace the following articles: March 29, 2016 at 9:47 am, Fay said:

How do you answer a why essay question? May 29, 2016 at 8:16 pm, Aaliyah said: Hi, how do you answer a what does so and so contribute to physics? Is this simply a descriptive essay? June 27, 2016 at the glass, 3:04 am, Dutta the One said: Thank you for are appendix this amazing article. I feel so much more confident now! Just coincidentally, I happen to have an essay on palace, Macbeth this Friday! Wish me luck! June 27, 2016 at 6:38 am, ritchie said:

Great article, thanks! When answering a DO YOU AGREE question, is it better to give a straight Yes or No answer, instead of May be, Yes and no August 22, 2016 at 5:23 pm, holly said: how would you answer evaluate the main reasons Im confused on the glass, how to structure it. August 27, 2016 at 1:35 am, Deyshan said: I was wondering your opinion on how to answer a How essay question. For example: How does To Kill a Mockingbird and 12 Angry Men illustrate the dangers of personal prejudice? September 30, 2016 at palace, 6:20 pm, said: Asking questions are truly pleasant thing if you are not understanding. anything completely, but this article offers pleasant. November 13, 2016 at the two most important were the chanson madrigal., 11:02 am, janaki ballav said: this article was very helpful ..i want to develope my writing skillwill be obliged if you could give tips and ways on practical appreciation of poem. November 13, 2016 at nina jablonski, 11:06 am, janaki ballav said:

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Develop MPI, business and finance homework help. Develop MPI, business and finance homework help. College essay writing service. Read Chapter 12, 13, and palace 14 of textbook. Please read attached instructions. One of the shortcomings of the MPI presented at the website of MSU-CIBER is that it is not product specific. A company might for instance want to identify the potential of markets across the world in regards to their product. Your textbook gives an example of such a case and statement describes smtp how the MPI can be constructed. In the following example, a more general example is given with explicit steps on how to construct such an the glass palace, index and its advantages/disadvantages in assessing markets for the glass, firm entry. Your assignment is to replicate the MPI 2009 worksheet for any other year in the period 2004-2008. For this particular research task, your report should be a Word or PDF document that has the final MPI table (e.g., Step 4 table in the excel file below).

Make sure that you sort the final MPI table by palace, Overall Ranking. You may find it easier to report the top 10 countries in your first page along with a short paragraph describing your findings and copy/paste the full table in the following pages of your document. The first step in constructing such an index is to select the variables that measure the various markets potential and the sample of countries that you want to include. In regards to the sample of countries, the more countries we include in the analysis the more representative the sample is and the more options to choose from. The Glass. Therefore, a sample with more countries is preferred even if we want to focus on Franklin emerging markets since we can always isolate the emerging markets after the analysis is performed. In regards to variables that measure the various markets potential, it sometimes is product-specific (e.g., a pharmaceutical company might want to include some different measures in the calculation of MPI than a retail company) but most of the measures will be the same, especially the institutional measures (economic and political freedom, country risk rating). In this example, we have selected the following variables for the year 2009: Dimension Weight Measures Used. Market Size 6/25. Urban population (1000s) -20091. Electricity production (million kwh) 20091.

Market Growth Rate 4/25. Growth rate of primary energy use (%) between years 2005-20091. Real GDP growth rate (Annual %) 20091. Market Intensity 3/25. GDP per palace, capita using PPP (current US Dollars) 20091. Urban population (% of total) 20091.

Commercial Infrastructure / Access to Consumer 3/25. Main Telephone lines 20091. Cellular mobile subscribers (per 100 people) 20091. Paved road density (km per million people) 20091. Secure Internet servers (per million people) 20091. Market Receptivity 3/25. Trade as a percentage of GDP (%) 20091. Per capita imports from US (US Dollars per capita) 20092. Free Market Structure 3/25.

Economic Freedom Index 20093. Political Freedom Index 20094. Country Risk 3/25. Country risk rating March 20115. 1 Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators. 2 Source: U.S. Census Bureau Foreign Trade Division, Country Trade Data 2009.

3 Source: Heritage Foundation, The Index of Essay on Franklin Economic Freedom 2009. 4 Source: Freedom House, Survey of Freedom in the World 2009. 5 Source: Euromoney, Country Risk Survey March 2011 (earlier data were not freely available) After the palace collection of the data, each measure needs to be standardized in order to be comparable with the rest of the palace measures. A common formula is called the Z score and is calculated in the following way:

Where X denotes a particular measure (e.g., urban population) and its values represent the value for each country in the sample. After each measure has been standardized, we find the average of all standardized measures within each dimension for each country. That is, for dimension Market Size, its first value will be the average of the standardized urban population and standardized electricity production for the glass palace, country A. Therefore, after this step we have a column of data for each of the seven dimensions of the MPI index. The resulting scores need to be converted to a scale of 1-100 and for the glass, this we use the following formula: Where Yijs is the scaled final value of country j for the dimension i (i=1. 7 ); Yij is the Essay average score of country j on dimension i; mini and the glass maxi are the The Critical Era Essay minimum and maximum values for dimension i, respectively. Finally, we find the weighted average of all dimensions using the weights presented in the previous table (based on input from managers). Now if all the above sounds really confusing, the following Excel file demonstrates the steps in the construction of the Market Potential Index. In the worksheet Raw Data you will find the data that are used in the construction of the MPI for the years 2004 to 2009. In the palace worksheet MPI 2009 the steps required for the construction of the The Critical Writing MPI are demonstrated (see formulas in the first row cells of the glass each table).

What are some potential advantages and disadvantages of the index? Its construction is straightforward and it requires only freely available data. It provides an initial screening for attractiveness of the foreign market and can be easily modified to account for product-specific factors using different variables from the World Development Indicators or other sources. Looking at the 2009 MPI, Luxembourg is in the third position owing to ratings in all dimensions of the index apart from palace, Market Size. However, market size is an important determinant in assessing entry. Palace. Therefore, while the overall index helps us to split good vs. bad choices, we also need to look at the individual components of the the glass palace index.

It cannot predict potential future economic or financial distress of the foreign market, especially if it is calculated for which statement describes, a particular year. For instance, Ireland is in the 21st place but it recently received a bailout from IMF. Therefore, for more complete picture several years of observation are needed but more importantly measures that more accurately capture deterioration of the economy and financial situation of each country are needed. We will cover these in more detail in later chapters. What if we dont have any input from managers to calculate Weights? If we dont have any information about appropriate weights to use in the calculation of MPI, then we can follow the textbooks paradigm and find the average MPI.

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Read Chapter 12, 13, and 14 of textbook. Please read attached instructions. One of the shortcomings of the MPI presented at the website of MSU-CIBER is that it is not product specific. A company might for instance want to identify the potential of markets across the world in regards to their product. Palace. Your textbook gives an , example of such a case and how the MPI can be constructed.

In the following example, a more general example is given with explicit steps on how to construct such an index and its advantages/disadvantages in assessing markets for The Critical Writing, firm entry. Your assignment is to replicate the Writing Era Essay MPI 2009 worksheet for the glass palace, any other year in the period 2004-2008. Essay On Cervus Elaphus. For this particular research task, your report should be a Word or PDF document that has the final MPI table (e.g., Step 4 table in the excel file below). Make sure that you sort the final MPI table by the glass palace, Overall Ranking. You may find it easier to report the top 10 countries in your first page along with a short paragraph describing your findings and copy/paste the full table in the following pages of your document. The first step in constructing such an which statement describes, index is to select the variables that measure the various markets potential and the glass palace the sample of countries that you want to include.

In regards to the sample of the glass palace countries, the more countries we include in the analysis the more representative the sample is and the more options to choose from. The Glass. Therefore, a sample with more countries is preferred even if we want to focus on emerging markets since we can always isolate the emerging markets after the analysis is performed. In regards to variables that measure the various markets potential, it sometimes is product-specific (e.g., a pharmaceutical company might want to include some different measures in the calculation of MPI than a retail company) but most of the measures will be the same, especially the institutional measures (economic and political freedom, country risk rating). In this example, we have selected the following variables for the year 2009: Dimension Weight Measures Used. Market Size 6/25. Urban population (1000s) -20091.

Electricity production (million kwh) 20091. Market Growth Rate 4/25. Growth rate of primary energy use (%) between years 2005-20091. Real GDP growth rate (Annual %) 20091. Market Intensity 3/25. GDP per capita using PPP (current US Dollars) 20091. Urban population (% of total) 20091. Commercial Infrastructure / Access to Consumer 3/25.

Main Telephone lines 20091. Cellular mobile subscribers (per 100 people) 20091. Paved road density (km per million people) 20091. Secure Internet servers (per million people) 20091. Market Receptivity 3/25.

Trade as a percentage of GDP (%) 20091. Per capita imports from US (US Dollars per capita) 20092. Free Market Structure 3/25. Economic Freedom Index 20093. Political Freedom Index 20094. Country Risk 3/25. Country risk rating March 20115. 1 Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators. 2 Source: U.S. Census Bureau Foreign Trade Division, Country Trade Data 2009.

3 Source: Heritage Foundation, The Index of Economic Freedom 2009. 4 Source: Freedom House, Survey of Freedom in the World 2009. 5 Source: Euromoney, Country Risk Survey March 2011 (earlier data were not freely available) After the collection of the data, each measure needs to be standardized in order to be comparable with the rest of the the glass palace measures. A common formula is called the Z score and is calculated in the following way:

Where X denotes a particular measure (e.g., urban population) and its values represent the nina jablonski value for each country in the sample. After each measure has been standardized, we find the average of all standardized measures within each dimension for each country. That is, for dimension Market Size, its first value will be the average of the standardized urban population and standardized electricity production for country A. Therefore, after this step we have a column of data for each of the seven dimensions of the palace MPI index. The resulting scores need to be converted to a scale of 1-100 and for this we use the which statement following formula: Where Yijs is the scaled final value of country j for the dimension i (i=1. 7 ); Yij is the average score of country j on dimension i; mini and maxi are the palace minimum and maximum values for dimension i, respectively. The Critical Writing Era Essay. Finally, we find the weighted average of all dimensions using the weights presented in the previous table (based on input from managers). Now if all the above sounds really confusing, the following Excel file demonstrates the steps in the construction of the Market Potential Index. In the worksheet Raw Data you will find the data that are used in the construction of the the glass MPI for The Critical Writing Era Essay, the years 2004 to 2009.

In the worksheet MPI 2009 the steps required for the construction of the MPI are demonstrated (see formulas in the first row cells of each table). What are some potential advantages and disadvantages of the index? Its construction is straightforward and it requires only the glass palace freely available data. It provides an important genres of renaissance were the chanson madrigal., initial screening for attractiveness of the foreign market and can be easily modified to account for product-specific factors using different variables from the World Development Indicators or other sources. Looking at the 2009 MPI, Luxembourg is in the third position owing to ratings in all dimensions of the index apart from Market Size. Palace. However, market size is an important determinant in assessing entry. Therefore, while the overall index helps us to split good vs. bad choices, we also need to look at the individual components of the index. It cannot predict potential future economic or financial distress of the foreign market, especially if it is calculated for a particular year. For instance, Ireland is in the 21st place but it recently received a bailout from IMF. Therefore, for more complete picture several years of observation are needed but more importantly measures that more accurately capture deterioration of the economy and financial situation of each country are needed.

We will cover these in more detail in later chapters. What if we dont have any input from managers to calculate Weights? If we dont have any information about The Critical Writing, appropriate weights to use in the calculation of MPI, then we can follow the the glass palace textbooks paradigm and find the average MPI. In other words, in step 4 of the above example, instead of weighted average we calculate the ordinary average. Do You want us to complete a custom paper for you based on the above instructions? Give us your preferred deadline by clicking on the two most genres secular music the chanson and the madrigal. the ORDER NOW button below. Welcome to TermPaperChampions The Home of Homework Help!

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